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Epidemiology of smoking among Malaysian adult males: prevalence and associated factors
Hock Kuang Lim, Sumarni Mohd Ghazali, Cheong Chee Kee, Kuay Kuang Lim, Ying Ying Chan, Huey Chien Teh, Ahmad Faudzi Mohd Yusoff, Gurpreet Kaur, Zarihah Mohd Zain, Mohamad Haniki Nik Mohamad, Sallehuddin Salleh
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-8
Abstract: A cross-sectional study among 15,639 Malaysian adult males aged 18 years and above was conducted using proportional to size stratified sampling method. The socio-demographic variables examined were level of education, occupation, marital status, residential area, age group and monthly household income.The prevalence of smoking among adult males in Malaysia was 46.5% (95% CI: 45.5–47.4%), which was 3% lower than a decade ago. Mean age of smoking initiation was 18.3 years, and mean number of cigarettes smoked daily was 11.3. Prevalence of smoking was highest among the Malays (55.9%) and those aged 21–30 years (59.3%). Smoking was significantly associated with level of education (no education OR 2.09 95% CI (1.67–2.60), primary school OR 1.95, 95% CI (1.65–2.30), secondary school OR 1.88, 95% CI (1.63–2.11), with tertiary education as the reference group). Marital status (divorce OR 1.67, 95% CI (1.22–2.28), with married as the reference group), ethnicity (Malay, OR 2.29, 95% CI ( 1.98–2.66; Chinese OR 1.23 95% CI (1.05–1.91), Other Bumis OR 1.75, 95% CI (1.46–2.10, others OR 1.48 95% CI (1.15–1.91), with Indian as the reference group), age group (18–20 years OR 2.36, 95% CI (1.90–2.94); 20–29 years OR 3.31 , 95% CI 2.82–3.89; 31–40 years OR 2.85 , 95% CI ( 2.47–3.28); 41–50 years OR 1.93, 95% CI (1.69–2.20) ; 51–60 years OR 1.32, 95% CI (1.15–1.51), with 60 year-old and above as the reference group) and residential area (rural OR 1.12 , 95% CI ( 1.03–1.22)) urban as reference.The prevalence of smoking among Malaysian males remained high in spite of several population interventions over the past decade. Tobacco will likely remain a primary cause of premature mortality and morbidity in Malaysia. Continuous and more comprehensive anti-smoking policy measures are needed in order to further prevent the increasing prevalence of smoking among Malaysian men, particularly those who are younger, of Malay ethnicity, less educated, reside in rural residential area and with lower
Influence of Methacrylic-Acrylic Copolymer Composition on Plasticiser-free Optode Films for pH Sensors
Lee Yook Heng,Teh Huey Fang,Loh Han Chern,Musa Ahmad
Sensors , 2003, DOI: 10.3390/s30400083
Abstract: In this work we have examined the use of plasticiser-free polymeric films incorporating a proton selective chromoionophore for optical pH sensor. Four types of methacrylic-acrylic copolymers containing different compositions of n-butyl acrylate (nBA) and methyl methacrylate (MMA) were synthesised for use as optical sensor films. The copolymers were mixed with appropriate amounts of chromoionophore (ETH5294) and a lipophilic salt before spin coated on glass slides to form films for the evaluation of pH response using spectrophotometry. Co-polymer films with high nBA content gave good response and the response time depended on the film thickness. A preliminary evaluation of the optical films of high nBA content with pHs from 2 - 14 showed distinguishable responses from pH 5 - 9. However, the adhesion of the pH sensitive film was good for copolymers with higher content of MMA but not for films with high nBA.
Caloxanthone C: a pyranoxanthone from the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri
Gwendoline Cheng Lian Ee,Siau Hui Mah,Huey Chong Kwong,Soek Sin Teh
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2011, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536811036294
Abstract: The title compound [systematic name: 5,10-dihydroxy-2,2-dimethyl-12-(2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl)pyrano[3,2-b]xanthen-6(2H)-one], C23H22O5, isolated from the stem bark of Calophyllum soulattri, consists of four six-membered rings and a 2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl side chain. The tricyclic xanthone ring system is almost planar [maximum deviation = 0.093 (2) ], whereas the pyranoid ring is in a distorted boat conformation. The 2-methylbut-3-en-2-yl side chain is in a synperiplanar conformation. There are two intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O interactions, forming a zigzag chain propagating in [010].
Gwendoline Cheng Lian Ee,Soek Sin Teh,Huey Chong Kwong,Mohamed Ibrahim Mohamed Tahir
Acta Crystallographica Section E , 2012, DOI: 10.1107/s1600536812010756
Abstract: The title compound congestiflorone, C28H32O4, which was isolated from the stem bark of Mesua congestiflora, consists of a benzophenone skeleton with two attached pyran rings to which a cyclohexane ring and a C6 side chain are bonded. The benzene ring is significantly distorted from planarity (r.m.s. deviation = 0.0007 ) due to the constraints imposed by junctions with the two pyran rings. The cyclohexane ring is in a chair conformation, one pyran ring is in a boat conformation, while the other is a distorted chair. The phenyl and benzene rings make a dihedral angle of 55.85 (9)°. An intramolecular O—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. In the crystal, molecules are linked via C—H...O interactions.
Description and Prediction of the Development of Metabolic Syndrome: A Longitudinal Analysis Using a Markov Model Approach
Lee-Ching Hwang, Chyi-Huey Bai, San-Lin You, Chien-An Sun, Chien-Jen Chen
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0067436
Abstract: Background Delineating the natural history of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is prerequisite to prevention. This study aimed to build Markov models to simulate each component’s progress and to test the effect of different initial states on the development of MetS. Methods MetS was defined with revised AHA/NHLBI criteria. Each reversible multistate Markov chain consisted of 8 states (no component, five isolated component states, 2-component state, and MetS state). Yearly transition probabilities were calculated from a five-year population-based follow up studywhich enrolled 2,247 individuals with mean aged 32.4 years at study entry. Results In men, high BP or a 2-component state was most likely to initiate the progress of MetS. In women, abdominal obesity or low HDL were the most likely initiators. Metabolic components were likely to occur together. The development of MetS was an increasing monotonic function of time. MetS was estimated to develop within 15 years in 12.7% of young men with no component, and 2 components developed in 16.3%. MetS was estimated to develop in 10.6% of women with at the age of 47, and 2 components developed in 14.3%. MetS was estimated to develop in 24.6% of men and 27.6% of women with abdominal obesity, a rate higher than in individuals initiating with no component. Conclusions This modeling study allows estimation of the natural history of MetS. Men tended to develop this syndrome sooner than women did, i.e., before their fifth decade of life. Individuals with 1 or 2 components showed increased development of MetS.
The Effects of Co-Treatment of 9-cis-Retinoic Acid and 15-Deoxy-Δ (12,14)-prostaglandin J2 on Microglial Activation
Pei-Chien Hsu,Huey-Jen Tsay,Thomas J. Montine,Feng-Shiun Shie
Molecules , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/molecules16054045
Abstract: Microglial activation plays an important role in the regulation of neuronal function and contributes to the development of neurodegeneration in Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Activation of nuclear peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) by an endogenous agonist, 15-deoxy-Δ(12,14)-prostaglandin J2 (15d-PGJ2), has been shown to be beneficial in many diseases with aberrant immune responses. Here, we report that co-treatment with 15d-PGJ2 and its synergistic partner, 9-cis-retinoic acid (RA), may modulate, but not abolish, microglial immune response activated by β-amyloid (Aβ) and interferon gamma (IFNγ). The co-treatment of RA and 15d-PGJ2 inhibited Aβ/IFNγ-activated immune response in primary microglia, as evidenced by suppressed expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2); and the effect was not affected by treatment with a PPARγ antagonist, GW9662. Data suggest that PPARγ activation may not contribute to the anti-inflammatory properties of the co-treatment. The co-treatment promoted microglial Aβ clearance in cultures; and the effect can be prevented by blocking PPARγ activation using GW9662. The effects of the co-treatment on Aβ clearance may be PPARγ-dependent. Intriguingly, secretion of microglial pro-nerve growth factor (pro-NGF) was inhibited by Aβ/IFNg treatment in a dose-dependent manner, suggesting that secretion of microglial pro-NGF may not contribute to the Ab/IFNg-activated microglial immune response. Taken together, the co-treatment may be beneficial for AD therapy; however, our data suggest that multiple mechanisms may underlie the beneficial effects of the co-treatment and are not limited to PPARγ activation only.
Using an integrated COC index and multilevel measurements to verify the care outcome of patients with multiple chronic conditions
Chan Chien-Lung,You Huey-Jen,Huang Hsin-Tsung,Ting Hsien-Wei
BMC Health Services Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-12-405
Abstract: Background The increasing prevalence of multiple chronic conditions has accentuated the importance of coordinating and integrating health care services. Patients with better continuity of care (COC) have a lower utilization rate of emergency department (ED) services, lower hospitalization and better care outcomes. Previous COC studies have focused on the care outcome of patients with a single chronic condition or that of physician-patient relationships; few studies have investigated the care outcome of patients with multiple chronic conditions. Using multi-chronic patients as subjects, this study proposes an integrated continuity of care (ICOC) index to verify the association between COC and care outcomes for two scopes of chronic conditions, at physician and medical facility levels. Methods This study used a dataset of 280,840 subjects, obtained from the Longitudinal Health Insurance Database (LHID 2005), compiled by the National Health Research Institutes, of the National Health Insurance Bureau of Taiwan. Principal Component Analysis (PCA) was used to integrate the indices of density, dispersion and sequence into ICOC to measure COC outcomes - the utilization rate of ED services and hospitalization. A Generalized Estimating Equations model was used to verify the care outcomes. Results We discovered that the higher the COC at medical facility level, the lower the utilization rate of ED services and hospitalization for patients; by contrast, the higher the COC at physician level, the higher the utilization rate of ED services (odds ratio > 1; Exp(β) = 2.116) and hospitalization (odds ratio > 1; Exp(β) = 1.688). When only those patients with major chronic conditions with the highest number of medical visits were considered, it was found that the higher the COC at both medical facility and physician levels, the lower the utilization rate of ED services and hospitalization. Conclusions The study shows that ICOC is more stable than single indices and it can be widely used to measure the care outcomes of different chronic conditions to accumulate empirical evidence. Concentrated care of multi-chronic patients by a single physician often results in unsatisfactory care outcomes. This highlights the need for referral mechanisms and integration of specialties inside or outside medical facilities, in order to optimize patient-centered care.
Eccrine Angiomatous Hamartoma: A Retrospective Study of 15 Cases
Yi-Ting Lin,Chien-Ming Chen,Chih-Hsun Yang,Yea-Huey Chuang
Chang Gung Medical Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Background: Eccrine angiomatous hamartoma (EAH) comprises a rare nevoid proliferation of normal eccrine glands and small blood vessels and occasionally otherelements in the middle and deep dermis with variable clinical manifestations.Case series have rarely been published except for case reports and literaturereviews. The aims of this article were to investigate the clinical and pathologic features of patients with EAH in Taiwan and to compare our resultswith the results of previous studies.Methods: A retrospective review of medical records and histopathological findings wasperformed on patients diagnosed with EAH in a medical center in Taiwanbetween 1994 and 2010.Results: Fifteen patients with pathologically diagnosed EAH were collected. Themean age at the time of diagnosis was 38.6 years (range, birth to 67 years).The male to female ratio was 3 to 2. In most cases, EAH arose as a singlelesion on a lower extremity. The symptoms and signs most commonly associated with EAH were pain (60%), hypertrichosis (13.3%), itching (13.3%)and hyperhidrosis (6.7%). Additional pathological findings included hemangioma (13.3%), verrucous hemangioma (6.7%), arteriovenous malformation(6.7%), and angiokeratoma (6.7%). None of the patients experienced spontaneous regression of the lesions before excision. Excisions were done in onepatient under general anesthesia, and ten patients with local anesthesia. Fourpatients were kept under observation. Tumor recurrences were noted in twoout of the eleven patients whose lesions were excised.Conclusion: Compared with cases in the literature, we found additional histopathologicalfindings and an increased tumor recurrence risk in our cohort. EAH remainsa benign and uncommon hamartomatous condition. Further multi-center, retrospective studies with larger case numbers are needed to better characterizethe disease presentation in Asian populations.
Triptolide Transcriptionally Represses HER2 in Ovarian Cancer Cells by Targeting NF-κB
Chien-Chih Ou,Yuan-Wu Chen,Shih-Chung Hsu,Huey-Kang Sytwu
Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/350239
Which Firm Characteristics Affect Foreign Analyst Coverage? Evidence from the Taiwan Stock Market  [PDF]
Lie-Huey Wang
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2018.81006
Abstract: This study investigates the association between firm characteristics and foreign analyst coverage. Using a sample of 366 firms listed on the Taiwan Stock Exchange that were followed by foreign analysts from January 2006 to June 2012, I employ the finite Tobit regression mixture model to analyze which firm characteristics influence foreign analyst coverage. The results find that mixture model may express differential influences on analyst coverage based on the heterogeneity of firm characteristics in different subgroups. Price-to-book ratio, firm size, and institutional ownership are the important characteristic variables that influence foreign analyst coverage. Among them, price-to-book ratio and foreign analyst coverage may present an inverted U-shaped or a U-shaped correlation in different subgroups. Also, there is an endogenous relationship between foreign analyst coverage and foreign institutional ownership, and thus, the characteristics of target firms followed by foreign analysts resulting from changes in foreign institutional ownership cannot be ignored. Finally, I also find that large-sized firms with high institutional ownership and medium stock turnover rate have the highest probability of being followed by foreign analysts.
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