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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 30454 matches for " Hsing-Yi Cho "
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A highly efficient β-glucosidase from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5
Hsin-Liang Chen, Yo-Chia Chen, Mei-Yeh J Lu, Jui-Jen Chang, Hiaow-Ting C Wang, Tzi-Yuan Wang, Sz-Kai Ruan, Tao-Yuan Wang, Kuo-Yen Hung, Hsing-Yi Cho, Huei-Mien Ke, Wan-Ting Lin, Ming-Che Shih, Wen-Hsiung Li
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-5-24
Abstract: In this study, a cDNA encoding β-glucosidase was isolated from the buffalo rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 and is named NpaBGS. It has a length of 2,331 bp with an open reading frame coding for a protein of 776 amino acid residues, corresponding to a theoretical molecular mass of 85.1 kDa and isoelectric point of 4.4. Two GH3 catalytic domains were found at the N and C terminals of NpaBGS by sequence analysis. The cDNA was expressed in Pichia pastoris and after protein purification, the enzyme displayed a specific activity of 34.5 U/mg against cellobiose as the substrate. Enzymatic assays showed that NpaBGS was active on short cello-oligosaccharides from various substrates. A weak activity in carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC) digestion indicated that the enzyme might also have the function of an endoglucanase. The optimal activity was detected at 40°C and pH 5?~?6, showing that the enzyme prefers a weak acid condition. Moreover, its activity could be enhanced at 50°C by adding Mg2+ or Mn2+ ions. Interestingly, in simultaneous saccharification and fermentation (SSF) experiments using Saccharomyces cerevisiae BY4741 or Kluyveromyces marxianus KY3 as the fermentation yeast, NpaBGS showed advantages in cell growth, glucose production, and ethanol production over the commercial enzyme Novo 188. Moreover, we showed that the KY3 strain engineered with the NpaNGS gene can utilize 2 % dry napiergrass as the sole carbon source to produce 3.32 mg/ml ethanol when Celluclast 1.5 L was added to the SSF system.Our characterizations of the novel β-glucosidase NpaBGS revealed that it has a preference of weak acidity for optimal yeast fermentation and an optimal temperature of ~40°C. Since NpaBGS performs better than Novo 188 under the living conditions of fermentation yeasts, it has the potential to be a suitable enzyme for SSF.
Changes in health risk behaviors of elementary school students in northern Taiwan from 2001 to 2003: results from the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution study
Wen-Chi Wu, Hsing-Yi Chang, Lee-Lan Yen, Tony Lee
BMC Public Health , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-7-323
Abstract: The Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-Term Evolution (CABLE) study collected data from 1,820 students from 2001 to 2003 (students were 9 or 10 years old in 2001). Exploratory factor analysis was used to determine the aggregation of health risk behaviors. A linear growth curve model was used to determine whether health risk behaviors changed over time.Of the 13 behaviors, staying up late and eating snacks late at night were the most prevalent (82.3% of subjects in 2001, 81.8% in 2002, 88.5% in 2003) and second most prevalent (68.7%, 67.4%, 71.6%) behaviors, respectively, from 2001 to 2003. The three least prevalent health risk behaviors were chewing betel nut (1.0%, 0.4%, 0.2%), smoking (1.4%, 1.0%, 0.8%), and drinking alcohol (8.5%, 6.0%, 5.2%). The frequencies of swearing and staying up late showed the greatest significant increases with time. On the other hand, suppressing urination and drinking alcohol decreased over time. Using exploratory factor analysis, we aggregated the health risk behaviors into three categories: unhealthy habits, aggressive behaviors, and substance use. Although students did not display high levels of aggressive behavior or experimentation with substances, the development of these behaviors in a small proportion of students should not be ignored. The results of the linear growth curve model indicated that unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased over time. However, substance use slightly decreased over time.We found that some health risk behaviors increased with time while others did not. Unhealthy habits and aggressive behaviors increased, whereas substance use slightly decreased during this period. Educational professionals should pay attention to the different patterns of change in these behaviors in elementary school students.Health risk behaviors such as smoking, alcohol abuse, unhealthy dietary patterns, sedentary lifestyle, unsafe behaviors, and aggressive behaviors have been found to have an important influence on m
The excess mortality risk of diabetes associated with functional decline in older adults: Results from a 7-year follow-up of a nationwide cohort in Taiwan
Chia-Lin Li, Hsing-Yi Chang, Yea-Ing L Shyu
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-953
Abstract: We analyzed data from a nationally representative sample of people aged 65 years and over, participating in the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan. A total of 1873 participants were followed through 2002-2008, of whom 286 (15.3%) had a history of diabetes confirmed by a medical professional. Participants were divided into three functional status groups: (1) high functioning-no limitations involving activities of daily living (ADLs), instrumental activities of daily living (IADLs), or physical functioning; (2) low functioning-limitations in one or more ADLs; (3) middle functioning-all participants in between groups 1 and 2.The crude mortality rate was 52.7 per 1,000 person-years in those with diabetes and 34.1 per 1,000 person-years in those without diabetes. After adjustment for other factors, diabetes alone was not associated with an increased mortality risk in those with high functioning. However, diabetes alone had a hazard ratio (HR) for mortality of 1.90 (95%CI = [1.02-3.53]) in those with middle functioning and 3.67 (95%CI = [1.55-8.69]) in those with low functioning. The presence of diabetes and one or more other chronic conditions was associated with a HR for mortality of 2.46 (95%CI = [1.61-3.77]) in those with middle functioning and 4.03 (95%CI = [2.31-7.03]) in those with low functioning.Our results indicate that diabetes is not associated with increased mortality in those with high functioning. There was a gradient effect of functional decline on mortality in individuals with diabetes. Additionally, among participants with other chronic conditions, functional decline was associated with a greater burden of mortality in older adults with diabetes. These findings highlight the critical importance of the prevention of cardiovascular disease morbidity and the maintenance of functional abilities in order to reduce mortality risk in older adults with diabetes.Most studies of health outcomes in older adult populations have consistently demonstrated
Record linkage research and informed consent: who consents?
Nicole Huang, Shu-Fang Shih, Hsing-Yi Chang, Yiing-Jenq Chou
BMC Health Services Research , 2007, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6963-7-18
Abstract: A national representative sample (n = 14,611 adults) of the general adult population aged 20 years or older who participated in the Taiwan National Health Interview Survey (NHIS) and who provided complete survey information were used in this study. At the end of the survey, the respondents were asked if they would give permission to access their National Health Insurance records. Information given by the interviewees in the survey was used to analyze who was more likely to consent to linkage and who wasn't.Of the 14,611 NHIS participants, 12,911 (88%) gave consent, and 1,700 (12%) denied consent. The elderly, the illiterate, those with a lower income, and the suburban area residents were significantly more likely to deny consent. The aborigines were significantly less likely to refuse. No discrepancy in gender and self-reported health was found between individuals who consented and those who refused.This study is the first population-based study in assessing the consent pattern in a general Asian population. Consistent with people in Western societies, in Taiwan, a typical Asian society, a high percentage of adults gave consent for their health insurance records and questionnaire results to be linked. Consenters differed significantly from non-consenters in important aspects such as age, ethnicity, and educational background. Consequently, having a high consent rate (88%) may not fully eliminate the possibility of selection bias. Researchers should take this source of bias into consideration in their study design and investigate any potential impact of this source of bias on their results.Linking computerized health insurance records with routinely collected survey data is becoming increasingly popular in health services research. Record linkage serves as a powerful tool to augment and validate the data acquired for research. Inevitably, the growing number of record linkage studies have created a serious public concern regarding the privacy of personal information,
Synthesis, Molecular Structure and Characterization of Allylic Derivatives of 6-Amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-f][1,2,4]-triazin-8(7H)-one
Long-Chih Hwang,Shin-Yi Jane,Hsing-Yi Lai,Chun-Hsien Tu,Gene-Hsiang Lee
Molecules , 2006, DOI: 10.3390/11060444
Abstract: 1-Allyl- (2) and 7-allyl-6-amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-f][1,2,4]triazin-8(7H)-one (3) were obtained via the 18-crown-6-ether catalyzed room temperature reactionof 6-amino-3-methyl-1,2,4-triazolo[3,4-f][1,2,4]triazin-8(7H)-one (1) with potassiumcarbonate and allyl bromide in dry acetone. The structures of these two derivatives wereverified by 2D-NMR measurements, including gHSQC and gHMBC measurements. Theminor compound 2 may possess aromatic character. A single crystal X-ray diffractionexperiment indicated that the major compound 3 crystallizes from dimethyl sulfoxide in themonoclinic space group P21/n and its molecular structure includes an attached dimethylsulfoxide molecule, resulting in the molecular formula C10H16N6O2S. Molecular structuresof 3 are linked by extensive intermolecular N-H···N hydrogen bonding [graph set C 1 (7)]. 1Each molecule is attached to the dimethyl sulfoxide oxygen via N-H···O intermolecularhydrogen bonding. The structure is further stabilized by π-π stacking interactions.
A population study on the association between leisure time physical activity and self-rated health among diabetics in Taiwan
Chia-Lin Li, Yi-Chang Lai, Chin-Hsiao Tseng, Jen-Der Lin, Hsing-Yi Chang
BMC Public Health , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-10-277
Abstract: Data came from the 2001 Taiwan National Health Interview Survey (NHIS). Inclusion criteria were a physician confirmed diagnosis of diabetes mellitus and age 18 years and above (n = 797). Self-rated health was assessed by the question "In general, would you say that your health is excellent, very good, good, fair, or poor?" Individuals with a self perceived health status of good, very good, or excellent were considered to have positive health status.In the full model, the odds ratio (OR) for positive health was 2.51(95% CI = 1.53-4.13), 1.62(95% CI = 0.93-2.84), and 1.35(95% CI = 0.77-2.37), for those with a total weekly energy expenditure of ≥ 1000 kcal, between 500 and 999 kcal, and between 1 and 499 kcal, respectively, compared to inactive individuals. Those with duration over 10 years (OR = 0.53, 95%CI = 0.30-0.94), heart disease (OR = 0.50, 95%CI = 0.30-0.85), and dyslipidemia (OR = 0.65, 95% CI = 0.43-0.98) were less likely to have positive health than their counterparts. After stratified participants by duration, those with a duration of diabetes < 6 years, the adjusted OR for positive health was 1.95(95% CI = 1.02-3.72), 1.22(95% CI = 0.59-2.52), and 1.19(95% CI = 0.58-2.41) for those with a total weekly energy expenditure of ≥ 1000 kcal, between 500 and 999 kcal, and between 1 and 499 kcal, respectively, compared to inactive individuals. In participants with a duration of diabetes ≥ 6 years, total energy expenditure showed a gradient effect on self-perceived positive health. The adjusted OR for positive health was 3.45(95% CI = 1.53-7.79), 2.77(95% CI = 1.11-6.92), and 1.90(95% CI = 0.73-4.94) for those with a total weekly energy expenditure of ≥ 1000 kcal, between 500 and 999 kcal, and between 1 and 499 kcal, respectively, compared to inactive individuals.Our results highlight that regular leisure activity with an energy expenditure ≧ 500 kcal per week is associated with better self-rated health for those with longstanding diabetes.In a summary of data coll
Functional characterization of cellulases identified from the cow rumen fungus Neocallimastix patriciarum W5 by transcriptomic and secretomic analyses
Tzi-Yuan Wang, Hsin-Liang Chen, Mei-Yeh J Lu, Yo-Chia Chen, Huang-Mo Sung, Chi-Tang Mao, Hsing-Yi Cho, Huei-Mien Ke, Teh-Yang Hwa, Sz-Kai Ruan, Kuo-Yen Hung, Chih-Kuan Chen, Jeng-Yi Li, Yueh-Chin Wu, Yu-Hsiang Chen, Shao-Pei Chou, Ya-Wen Tsai, Te-Chin Chu, Chun-Chieh A Shih, Wen-Hsiung Li, Ming-Che Shih
Biotechnology for Biofuels , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1754-6834-4-24
Abstract: We have developed an efficient platform that uses a combination of transcriptomic and proteomic approaches to N. patriciarum to accelerate gene identification, enzyme classification and application in rice straw degradation. By conducting complementary studies of transcriptome (Roche 454 GS and Illumina GA IIx) and secretome (ESI-Trap LC-MS/MS), we identified 219 putative GH contigs and classified them into 25 GH families. The secretome analysis identified four major enzymes involved in rice straw degradation: β-glucosidase, endo-1,4-β-xylanase, xylanase B and Cel48A exoglucanase. From the sequences of assembled contigs, we cloned 19 putative cellulase genes, including the GH1, GH3, GH5, GH6, GH9, GH18, GH43 and GH48 gene families, which were highly expressed in N. patriciarum cultures grown on different feedstocks.These GH genes were expressed in Pichia pastoris and/or Saccharomyces cerevisiae for functional characterization. At least five novel cellulases displayed cellulytic activity for glucose production. One β-glucosidase (W5-16143) and one exocellulase (W5-CAT26) showed strong activities and could potentially be developed into commercial enzymes.Cellulosic ethanol produced by microbial fermentation from feedstocks has been proposed to replace fossil fuels in transportation. A key step in cellulosic ethanol production is to break down cellulose into glucose and hemicellulose into xylose, which can subsequently be converted into ethanol by fermentative microbes. Therefore, finding efficient cellulases is important to bioethanol production, as well as for hydrolyzing feedstocks into sugars in general. Neocallimastix species is one of the major anaerobic fungi in the rumen of water buffalo capable of efficiently digesting cellulosic biomass [1-4]. Such anaerobic fungi are potential sources for highly active cellulolytic enzymes that are useful for cellulose hydrolysis [5-7]. Plant cell wall degrading enzymes from rumen fungi such as Neocallimastix patriciarum may
Exposure to Secondhand Smoke and Risk of Tuberculosis: Prospective Cohort Study
Hsien-Ho Lin, Yi-Ting Chiang, Jen-Hsiang Chuang, Shiang-Lin Yang, Hsing-Yi Chang, Majid Ezzati, Megan Murray
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0077333
Abstract: Background Prospective evidence on the association between secondhand-smoke exposure and tuberculosis is limited. Methods We included 23,827 never smokers from two rounds (2001 and 2005) of Taiwan National Health Interview Survey. Information on exposure to secondhand smoke at home as well as other sociodemographic and behavioral factors was collected through in-person interview. The participants were prospectively followed for incidence of tuberculosis through cross-matching the survey database to the national tuberculosis registry of Taiwan. Results A total of 85 cases of active tuberculosis were identified after a median follow-up of 7.0 years. The prevalence of exposure to secondhand smoke at home was 41.8% in the study population. In the multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis, secondhand smoke was not associated with active tuberculosis (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.03; 95% CI, 0.64 to 1.64). In the subgroup analysis, the association between secondhand smoke and tuberculosis decreased with increasing age; the adjusted HR for those <18, > = 18 and <40, > = 40 and <60, and > = 60 years old was 8.48 (0.77 to 93.56), 2.29 (0.75 to 7.01), 1.33 (0.58 to 3.01), and 0.66 (0.35 to 1.23) respectively. Results from extensive sensitivity analyses suggested that potential misclassification of secondhand-smoke exposure would not substantially affect the observed associations. Conclusions The results from this prospective cohort study did not support an overall association between secondhand smoke and tuberculosis. However, the finding that adolescents might be particularly susceptible to secondhand smoke's effect warrants further investigation.
Joint predictability of health related quality of life and leisure time physical activity on mortality risk in people with diabetes
Chia-Lin Li, Hsing-Yi Chang, Chih-Cheng Hsu, Jui-fen Rachel Lu, Hsin-Ling Fang
BMC Public Health , 2013, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-13-67
Abstract: We analyzed data from a national sample of adults (18 years or older) with self-reported physician-diagnosed diabetes, who participated in the 2001 National Health Interview Survey in Taiwan (N?=?797). A total of 701 participants had complete Short Form 36 (SF-36) and LTPA data and were followed from 2002 to 2008. Participants were divided into 3 groups based on their LTPA: (1) a regularly active group who reported 150 or more min/week of moderate-intensity activity; (2) an intermediately active group who reported engaging in LTPA but did not meet the criterion for the “regular” category; and (3) an inactive group who reported no LTPA. The physical component summary (PCS) and mental component summary (MCS) scores were dichotomised at the median (high vs. low) (PCS?=?45.11; MCS?=?47.91). Cox proportional-hazards models were used to investigate associations between baseline characteristics and mortality.After 4,570 person-years of follow-up, 121 deaths were recorded and the crude mortality rate was 26.5 per 1,000 person-years. Both PCS scores and LTPA were significant predictors of mortality, whereas no significant relationship was observed between MCS and mortality. After adjustment for other factors, participants with low PCS who reported no LTPA had a hazard ratio (HR) for mortality of 4.49 (95% CI?=?[2.15-9.36]). However, participants with low PCS who were active (including intermediate and regular LTPA) had a HR for mortality of 1.36 (95% CI?=?[0.64-2.92]).Our results show a significantly increased mortality risk of diabetes associated with reduced HRQOL in individuals who report no LTPA. Engaging in LTPA may be associated with improved survival in participants with diabetes with poor self-rated physical health status.Subjective assessment of health related quality of life (HRQOL) is an important health outcome not only because it captures a person’s perception of their overall health status, but also because it can inform resource allocation decisions. Recent re
The incidence of experimental smoking in school children: an 8-year follow-up of the child and adolescent behaviors in long-term evolution (CABLE) study
Hsing-Yi Chang, Wen-Chi Wu, Chi-Chen Wu, Jennifer Y Cheng, Baai-Shyun Hurng, Lee-Lan Yen
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-844
Abstract: We used cohort data collected as part of the Child and Adolescent Behaviors in Long-term Evolution (CABLE) study, which selected nine elementary schools each from an urban area (Taipei City) and a rural area (Hsingchu county) in northern Taiwan. From 2002 to 2008, children were asked annually whether they had smoked in the previous year. An accelerated lifetime model with Weibull distribution was used to examine the factors associated with experimental smoking.In 2001, 2686 4th-graders participated in the study. For each year from 2002 to 2008, their incidences of trial smoking were 3.1%, 4.0%, 2.8%, 6.0%, 5.3%, 5.0% and 6.0%, respectively. There was an increase from 7th to 8th grade (6.0%). Children who were males, lived in rural areas, came from single-parent families, had parents who smoked, and had peers who smoked were more likely to try smoking earlier. The influence of parents and peers on experimental smoking demonstrated gradient effects.This study used a cohort to examine incidence and multiple influences, including individual factors, familial factors, and community factors, on experimental smoking in adolescents. The findings fit the social ecological model, highlighting the influences of family and friends. School and community attachment were associated with experimental smoking in teenagers.Smoking is one of the most popular forms of drug use and is a major risk factor for lung cancer and cardiovascular disease [1]. In a systematic review of 17 studies, smoking was found to be associated with peripheral arterial disease not only among current smokers but also among former smokers [2]. Due to its public accessibility, smoking has become one of the world's most prominent public health issues and is a leading cause of premature death worldwide [3,4]. A high prevalence of smoking has been observed in Chinese societies [5]. Several studies have established that most regular adult smokers become addicted to nicotine in their adolescent years [6-8]. Public h
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