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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 81368 matches for " Hsiang-Yu Yuan "
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Motif composition, conservation and condition-specificity of single and alternative transcription start sites in the Drosophila genome
Elizabeth A Rach, Hsiang-Yu Yuan, William H Majoros, Pavel Tomancak, Uwe Ohler
Genome Biology , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/gb-2009-10-7-r73
Abstract: To identify TSSs in Drosophila melanogaster, we applied a hierarchical clustering strategy on available 5' expressed sequence tags (ESTs) and identified a high quality set of 5,665 TSSs for approximately 4,000 genes. We distinguished two initiation patterns: 'peaked' TSSs, and 'broad' TSS cluster groups. Peaked promoters were found to contain location-specific sequence elements; conversely, broad promoters were associated with non-location-specific elements. In alignments across other Drosophila genomes, conservation levels of sequence elements exceeded 90% within the melanogaster subgroup, but dropped considerably for distal species. Elements in broad promoters had lower levels of conservation than those in peaked promoters. When characterizing the distributions of ESTs, 64% of TSSs showed distinct associations to one out of eight different spatiotemporal conditions. Available whole-genome tiling array time series data revealed different temporal patterns of embryonic activity across the majority of genes with distinct alternative promoters. Many genes with maternally inherited transcripts were found to have alternative promoters utilized later in development. Core promoters of maternally inherited transcripts showed differences in motif composition compared to zygotically active promoters.Our study provides a comprehensive map of Drosophila TSSs and the conditions under which they are utilized. Distinct differences in motif associations with initiation pattern and spatiotemporal utilization illustrate the complex regulatory code of transcription initiation.Transcription is a crucial part of gene expression that involves complex interactions of cis-regulatory sequence elements and trans-factors. It is mediated in large part through the binding of transcription factors (TFs) to DNA sequence motifs. The majority of eukaryotic genes (protein-coding genes and many regulatory RNAs) are transcribed by RNA polymerase II (RNA pol II), an enzyme that contains various subuni
Home and Community Environmental Features, Activity Performance, and Community Participation among Older Adults with Functional Limitations
Hsiang-Yu Yang,Jon A. Sanford
Journal of Aging Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/625758
Abstract: This paper describes relationships among home and community environmental features, activity performance in the home, and community participation potential to support aging in place. A subset of data on older adults with functional limitations ( ?? = 1 2 2 ), sixty three (63) with mobility and 59 with other limitations, were utilized in this study from a larger project's subject pool. Results showed significant and positive correlations between environmental barriers, activity dependence and difficulty at home, and less community participation in the mobility limitation group. While kitchen and bathroom features were most limiting to home performance, bathtub or shower was the only home feature, and destination social environment was the only community feature, that explained community participation. Compared to environmental features, home performance explained much more community participation. Study results provide detailed information about environmental features as well as types of home activities that can be prioritized as interventions for aging in place. 1. Introduction Changes in the person-environment relationship as well as the negative outcomes of shrinkage in “life space” (i.e., the extent of mobility of older adults as measured by the range of places in which a person engages in activities within a designated time frame) associated with aging, particularly among seniors with mobility limitations, have been long conceptualized and widely documented [1–3]. In fact, restricted life space has been recently linked to increased risk of Alzheimer’s disease [4]. Older adults have been reported to spend 80 percent of their time in their primary residence [5] and have demonstrated an “environmental centralization” of behaviors (i.e., the tendency of using a few preferred places at home where necessary or desired items are located) to maintain control and competence over the living environment [2, 6]. With almost 9 out of 10 (86%) older Americans reporting that they want to spend the rest of their lives in the homes and communities [7] in which the majority of their daily activities take place [8], a robust life space is essential for older adults to continue to engage and participate in as many home and community activities as independently and safely as possible. While prior work has consistently linked supportive home and community settings to continued performance of home activities and participation in community roles, respectively, evidence suggests that community participation, which is dependent on maintaining a wide range of life spaces
SLC2A10 genetic polymorphism predicts development of peripheral arterial disease in patients with type 2 diabetes. SLC2A10 and PAD in type 2 diabetes
Yi-Der Jiang, Yi-Cheng Chang, Yen-Feng Chiu, Tien-Jyun Chang, Hung-Yuan Li, Wen-Hsing Lin, Hsiang-Yu Yuan, Yuan-Tsong Chen, Lee-Ming Chuang
BMC Medical Genetics , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2350-11-126
Abstract: We genotyped 10 single nucleotide polymorphisms and one microsatellite spanning 34 kb across the SLC2A10 gene in a prospective cohort of 372 diabetic patients. Their association with the development of peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in type 2 diabetic patients was analyzed.At baseline, several common SNPs of SLC2A10 gene were associated with PAD in type 2 diabetic patients. A common haplotype was associated with higher risk of PAD in type 2 diabetic patients (haplotype frequency: 6.3%, P = 0.03; odds ratio [OR]: 14.5; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3- 160.7) at baseline. Over an average follow-up period of 5.7 years, carriers with the risk-conferring haplotype were more likely to develop PAD (P = 0.007; hazard ratio: 6.78; 95% CI: 1.66- 27.6) than were non-carriers. These associations remained significant after adjustment for other risk factors of PAD.Our data demonstrate that genetic polymorphism of the SLC2A10 gene is an independent risk factor for PAD in type 2 diabetes.Peripheral arterial disease (PAD), defined as lower extremity arterial atherosclerosis, is one of most common diseases of the arteries and is a major complication of type 2 diabetes [1]. Conventional cardiovascular risk factors such as aging, smoking, hyperglycemia, hypertension and dyslipidemia have been shown to be associated with PAD [1]. However, the increased risk for atherosclerotic diseases in diabetic patients can be only partially explained by the conventional risk factors [2]. In fact, a high heritability for ankle-brachial blood pressure index (ABI), an index of PAD, has been obtained in Twin studies in Caucasians [3], indicating that additional genetic factors might be involved in the pathogenesis of PAD. In this respect, the search for genetic causes of PAD remains limited [4].Recently, a genetic form of arterial tortuosity syndrome (ATS; OMIM 208050) was reported to be caused by loss-of-function mutations in the SLC2A10 gene encoding the facilitative glucose transporter GLUT10. A
Spin-motion entanglement and state diagnosis with squeezed oscillator wavepackets
Hsiang-Yu Lo,Daniel Kienzler,Ludwig de Clercq,Matteo Marinelli,Vlad Negnevitsky,Ben C. Keitch,Jonathan P. Home
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1038/nature14458
Abstract: Mesoscopic superpositions of distinguishable coherent states provide an analog to the Schr\"odinger's cat thought experiment. For mechanical oscillators these have primarily been realised using coherent wavepackets, for which the distinguishability arises due to the spatial separation of the superposed states. Here, we demonstrate superpositions composed of squeezed wavepackets, which we generate by applying an internal-state dependent force to a single trapped ion initialized in a squeezed vacuum state with 9 dB reduction in the quadrature variance. This allows us to characterise the initial squeezed wavepacket by monitoring the onset of spin-motion entanglement, and to verify the evolution of the number states of the oscillator as a function of the duration of the force. In both cases, we observe clear differences between displacements aligned with the squeezed and anti-squeezed axes. We observe coherent revivals when inverting the state-dependent force after separating the wavepackets by more than 19 times the ground-state root mean squared extent, which corresponds to 56 times the root mean squared extent of the squeezed wavepacket along the displacement direction. Aside from their fundamental nature, these states may be useful for quantum metrology or quantum information processing with continuous variables.
Efficacy and safety of transnasal butorphanol for pain relief after anal surgery
Chen-Ming Mai, Liang-Tsai Wan, Yu-Ching Chou, Hsiang-Yu Yang, Chang-Chieh Wu, Shu-Wen Jao, Cheng-Wen Hsiao
World Journal of Gastroenterology , 2009,
Abstract: AIM: To compare the analgesic properties and efficacy of transnasal butorphanol with intramuscular meperidine after anal surgery.METHODS: Sixty patients who underwent fistulectomy were enrolled in the study from January 2006 to December 2007. They were randomly divided into transnasal butorphanol (n = 30) or intramuscular meperidine (n = 30) treatment groups. Assessment of postoperative pain was made using a visual analogue scale (VAS). The VAS score was recorded 6 h after the completion of surgery, before receiving the first dose of analgesic, 60 min after analgesia and the next morning. Any adverse clinical effects such as somnolence, dizziness, nausea or vomiting were recorded. Satisfaction with narcotic efficacy, desire to use the particular analgesic in the future and any complaints were recorded by patients using questionnaires before being discharged.RESULTS: Forty-two men and eighteen women were included in the study. There were no significant differences in VAS scores between the groups within 24 h. Length of hospital stay and the incidence of adverse effects between the groups were similar. In addition, most patients were satisfied with butorphanol nasal spray and wished to receive this analgesic in the future, if needed.CONCLUSION: Butorphanol nasal spray is effective for the relief of pain after fistulectomy. However, it offered patients more convenient usage and would be suitable for outpatients.
Few-Photon All-Optical π Phase modulation Based on a Double-Λ System
Yen-Chun Chen,Hao-Chung Chen,Hsiang-Yu Lo,Bing-Ru Tsai,Ite A. Yu,Ying-Cheng Chen,Yong-Fan Chen
Physics , 2013,
Abstract: We propose an efficient all-optical phase modulation based on a double-{\Lambda} system and demonstrate a {\pi} phase shift of a few-photon pulse induced by another few-photon pulse in cold rubidium atoms with this scheme. By changing the phases of the applied laser fields, one can control the property of the double-{\Lambda} medium. This phase-dependent mechanism makes the double-{\Lambda} system different form the conventional cross-Kerr-based system which only depends on the applied laser intensities. The proposed scheme provides a new route to generate strong nonlinear interactions between photons, and may have potential for applications in quantum information technologies.
Parallel transport quantum logic gates with trapped ions
Ludwig de Clercq,Hsiang-Yu Lo,Matteo Marinelli,David Nadlinger,Robin Oswald,Vlad Negnevitsky,Daniel Kienzler,Ben Keitch,Jonathan P. Home
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: Quantum information processing will require combinations of gate operations and communication, with each applied in parallel to large numbers of quantum systems. These tasks are often performed sequentially, with gates implemented by pulsed fields and information transported either by moving the physical qubits or using photonic links. For trapped ions, an alternative approach is to implement quantum logic gates by transporting the ions through static laser beams, combining qubit operations with transport. This has significant advantages for scalability since the voltage waveforms required for transport can potentially be generated using micro-electronics integrated into the trap structure itself, while both optical and microwave control elements are significantly more bulky. Using a multi-zone ion trap, we demonstrate transport gates on a qubit encoded in the hyperfine structure of a beryllium ion. We show the ability to perform sequences of operations, and to perform parallel gates on two ions transported through separate trap locations using a single recycled laser beam. For the latter, we demonstrate independent quantum gates by controlling the speed of each of the ions. This work provides a scalable path to ion trap quantum computing without a dramatic increase in optical control complexity.
PRRT2 Mutations in Paroxysmal Kinesigenic Dyskinesia with Infantile Convulsions in a Taiwanese Cohort
Yi-Chung Lee, Ming-Jen Lee, Hsiang-Yu Yu, Chien Chen, Chang-Hung Hsu, Kon-Ping Lin, Kwong-Kum Liao, Ming-Hong Chang, Yi-Chu Liao, Bing-Wen Soong
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038543
Abstract: Background Mutations in the PRRT2 gene have recently been identified in patients with familial paroxysmal kinesigenic dyskinesia with infantile convulsions (PKD/IC) and patients with sporadic PKD/IC from several ethnic groups. To extend these recent genetic reports, we investigated the frequency and identities of PRRT2 mutations in a cohort of Taiwanese patients with PKD/IC. Methodology and Principal Findings We screened all 3 coding exons of PRRT2 for mutations in 28 Taiwanese patients with PKD/IC. Among them, 13 had familial PKD/IC and 15 were apparently sporadic cases. In total, 7 disparate mutations were identified in 13 patients, including 8 familial cases and 5 apparently sporadic cases. The mutations were not present in 500 healthy controls. Four mutations were novel. One patient had a missense mutation and all other patients carried PRRT2 mutations putatively resulting in a protein truncation. Haplotype analysis revealed that 5 of the 7 patients with the PRRT2 p.R217Pfs*8 mutation shared the same haplotype linked to the mutation. Conclusions and Significance PRRT2 mutations account for 61.5% (8 out of 13) of familial PKD/IC and 33.3% (5 out of 15) of apparently sporadic PKD/IC in the Taiwanese cohort. Most patients with the PRRT2 p.R217Pfs*8 mutation in Taiwan likely descend from a single common ancestor. This study expands the spectrum of PKD/IC-associated PRRT2 mutations, highlights the pathogenic role of PRRT2 mutations in PKD/IC, and suggests genetic heterogeneity within idiopathic PKD.
Associations among systemic blood pressure, microalbuminuria and albuminuria in dogs affected with pituitary- and adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism
Yu-Hsin Lien, Tsai-Yuan Hsiang, Hui-Pi Huang
Acta Veterinaria Scandinavica , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0147-52-61
Abstract: This study investigated the relationships among adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH)-stimulation test results, systemic blood pressure, and microalbuminuria in clinically-healthy dogs (n = 100), in dogs affected with naturally occurring pituitary-dependent (PDH; n = 40), or adrenal-dependent hyperadrenocorticism (ADH; n = 30).Mean systemic blood pressure was similar between clinically healthy dogs and dogs with HAC (p = 0.803). However the incidence of hypertension was highest in dogs with ADH (p = 0.017), followed by dogs with PDH, with the lowest levels in clinically healthy dogs (p = 0.019). Presence of microalbuminuria and albuminuria in clinically healthy dogs and dogs affected with HAC was significantly different (p < 0.001); incidences of albuminuria followed the same pattern of hypertension; highest incidence in dogs with ADH, and lowest level in clinically healthy dogs; but microalbuminuria showed a different pattern: clinically healthy dogs had highest incidences and dogs with ADH had lowest incidence. The presence of albuminuria was not associated with blood pressure values, regardless of whether dogs were clinically healthy or affected with ADH or PDH (p = 0.306).Higher incidence of hypertension and albuminuria, not microalbuminuria was seen in dogs affected with HAC compared to clinically healthy dogs; incidence of hypertension and albuminuria was significantly higher in dogs affected with ADH compared to PDH. However, presence of albuminuria was not correlated with systemic blood pressure.Hyperadrenocorticism (HAC, Cushing’s syndrome) is a common endocrine disorder in dogs and is characterized by chronically elevated circulating concentrations of the steroid hormones produced by the adrenal cortex (e.g. cortisol) [1]. The multi-systemic effects of long-term hypercortisolism in dogs results in a variety of medical complications such as hypertension and proteinuria [1-4]. Hypertension develops by several mechanisms, including excessive renin concentrations
Economic Impacts of Using Switchgrass as a Feedstock for Ethanol Production: A Case Study Located in East Tennessee
Burton C. English,Tun-Hsiang Edward Yu,James A. Larson,R. Jamey Menard,Yuan Gao
Economics Research International , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/138485
Abstract: One of the major motivations to establish a biobased energy sector in the United States is to promote economic development in the rural areas of the nation. This study estimated the economic impact of investing and operating a switchgrass-based ethanol plant in East Tennessee. Applying a spatially oriented mixed-integer mathematical programming model, we first determined the location of biorefinery, feedstock draw area, and the resources used in various feedstock supply systems by minimizing the total plant gate cost of feedstock. Based on the model output, an input-output model was utilized to determine the total economic impact, including direct, indirect, and induced effects of feedstock investment and annual production in the study region. Moreover, the economic impact of ethanol plant investment and annual conversion operation was analyzed. Results suggest that the total annual expenditures in an unprotected large round bale system generated a total $92.5 million in economic output within the 13 counties of East Tennessee. In addition, an estimated $234 million in overall economic output was generated through the operation of the biorefinery. This research showed that the least-cost configuration of the feedstock supply chain influenced the levels and types of economic impact of biorefinery. 1. Introduction The Energy Independence and Security Act of 2007 mandates 136 billion liters of biofuels to be produced annually by the year 2022 with 61 billion liters coming from cellulosic sources [1]. A major source of feedstock required to meet the mandate is lignocellulosic biomass (LCB). As indicated in two recent studies, the United States is capable of producing over a billion tons of LCB annually [2, 3]. Produced from dedicated energy crops, crop and forest residues, and municipal solid waste streams, LCB can play a significant role in the production of biobased fuels, power, and products in the United States. The Roadmap for Bioenergy and Biobased Products in the United States [4] indicates that the development of a biobased industrial sector using LCB feedstock in the United States can reduce dependence on imported petroleum, add to the diversity of energy sources, enhance energy security, improve the balance of trade, reduce carbon emissions, increase carbon sequestration, and stimulate economic growth in rural areas. This research evaluates the potential economic impacts of locating a switchgrass-to-ethanol biorefinery in rural East Tennessee, USA. Switchgrass is a strong candidate as a dedicated energy crop for biofuel production because it is a
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