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Creating New Beverage Concepts from First Principles: Bottom-Up Conjoining of Need-states and Features
Howard Moskowitz
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This paper presents a rapid-development paradigm for new products at the early stage of development. The approach uses conjoint measurement to identify what features of products are both highly acceptable and fit end-uses. The number of respondents participating in a study about the product for a particular end use becomes a de facto measure of latent interest in the product for that particular occasion. The utility values for the ‘fit`-to-end-use` allow the developer to select the best features. The data from ‘interest` in the product in general (without an end-use stated) allows the developer to check whether the product concept is sufficiently acceptable. Concept-Response segmentation reveals new subgroups to whom the product should be targeted. The self-defined profile through a classification questionnaire reveals what general considerations the respondent has about the product, and is used to help marketing. The paradigm for developing the product from first principles is illustrated with a study on carbonated beverages for a new occasion (breakfast).
Uncovering Consumer Mindsets Regarding Raw Beverages  [PDF]
Ryan Zemel, Attila Gere, Petraq Papajorgji, Glenn Zemel, Howard Moskowitz
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.93020
Abstract: Nutritional fads in the health and fitness world are constantly changing. Each new craze has its believers and critics. For the consumer, “what to believe” becomes a topic filled with uncertainty. This paper presents a systematic approach to understanding what consumers believe about the health messaging of “raw beverages”. The paper presents both substantive results from US consumers, as well as demonstrates a general approach by which researchers can more deeply understand the consumer mind with respect to the specifics of health and wellness issues.
Interest and Response- Times - Measures of Consumer Responses to Concepts
Howard Moskowitz,Dorit Cohen,Bert Krieger
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: This study presents a case history showing two aspects of consumer reactions to concepts. The approach used conjoint analysis to measure the impact of each concept element on two variables; interest, and response-time. The response-times were allocated to two hypothesized processes; a primary stage (not traceable to elements), and to a secondary stage (traceable to elements). Across seven countries there are clear country-to-country differences in the proportion of the response-time allocated to the primary and secondary stages.
The It! Knowledge Warehouse : Large-Scale Concept-Response Databases Using Conjoint Analysis, Segmentation and Databasing for Development and Marketing
Howard R. Moskowitz,Jacqueline Beckley,Teri Curran Mascuch
Journal of Food Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Much of the knowledge today about consumers as customers comes from one of three types of research: Qualitative: probing in depth the motivations of consumers for a particular product or service (knowledge building and insight development) and where appropriate eliciting reactions to specific products or concepts (validation of the corporate efforts by rapid consumer reactions). Primary Quantitative: Including surveys. Systematized Databases: Arising from tracking studies either sponsored by one company for its own use or sold on a syndicated basis by a research/data supplier. We present a fourth category of research and knowledge about consumers and customers. We call this the It! system. It! uses the power of primary research, with a powerful, state-of-the-art research tool (conjoint measurement), executed in-depth for specific categories, applied to an integrated set of 30 different related products or services. This approach generates one integrated, mega-database. Through this integrated database of 30 related studies in a specific area, the marketer, researcher, product developer and agency can: Identify the features and messages that drive interest, Compare these features and messages across different but related product categories, Divide people by their profile of attitudes and Segment consumers on the basis of the pattern of features and communications that interest them.
Illness and Medication Appraisals In People with HIVDeciding to Begin Antiretroviral Treatment  [PDF]
Judith Wrubel, Judith T. Moskowitz, Eunice Stephens, Mallory O. Johnson
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2011.22019
Abstract: Deciding to initiate antiretroviral treatment (ART) for HIV involves a number of factors, including how one thinks about disease (illness appraisals) and how one thinks about treatment (medication appraisals). We conducted semi-structured interviews with 20 adults who were deciding whether to begin ART, in which participants were asked to relate their experience of testing positive, their experience with medications other than ART, and their thoughts about ART. Digital recordings were transcribed for team-based narrative analysis. In response to HIV+ diagnosis, participants described the following appraisals: 1) HIV is a threat to mortality; 2) nonacceptance of the HIV diagnosis; 3) HIV is associated with stigma and rejection; and, 4) the HIV diagnosis meant betrayal by a cared for other. Medication appraisals included: 1) negative feelings about medications in general, 2) taking HIV medication would create a personal crisis; 3) the benefits of taking HIV medication would not outweigh the costs; 4) doubts whether they could adhere, and 5) taking medications would be stigmatizing. Illness and medication appraisals may represent barriers to initiating and adhering to treatment and should be taken into account in helping clients to cope with their diagnosis and manage their healthcare.
Strawberry Flavor: Diverse Chemical Compositions, a Seasonal Influence, and Effects on Sensory Perception
Michael L. Schwieterman, Thomas A. Colquhoun, Elizabeth A. Jaworski, Linda M. Bartoshuk, Jessica L. Gilbert, Denise M. Tieman, Asli Z. Odabasi, Howard R. Moskowitz, Kevin M. Folta, Harry J. Klee, Charles A. Sims, Vance M. Whitaker, David G. Clark
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088446
Abstract: Fresh strawberries (Fragaria x ananassa) are valued for their characteristic red color, juicy texture, distinct aroma, and sweet fruity flavor. In this study, genetic and environmentally induced variation is exploited to capture biochemically diverse strawberry fruit for metabolite profiling and consumer rating. Analyses identify fruit attributes influencing hedonics and sensory perception of strawberry fruit using a psychophysics approach. Sweetness intensity, flavor intensity, and texture liking are dependent on sugar concentrations, specific volatile compounds, and fruit firmness, respectively. Overall liking is most greatly influenced by sweetness and strawberry flavor intensity, which are undermined by environmental pressures that reduce sucrose and total volatile content. The volatile profiles among commercial strawberry varieties are complex and distinct, but a list of perceptually impactful compounds from the larger mixture is better defined. Particular esters, terpenes, and furans have the most significant fits to strawberry flavor intensity. In total, thirty-one volatile compounds are found to be significantly correlated to strawberry flavor intensity, only one of them negatively. Further analysis identifies individual volatile compounds that have an enhancing effect on perceived sweetness intensity of fruit independent of sugar content. These findings allow for consumer influence in the breeding of more desirable fruits and vegetables. Also, this approach garners insights into fruit metabolomics, flavor chemistry, and a paradigm for enhancing liking of natural or processed products.
Use of metformin during pregnancy for women with polycystic ovary syndrome  [PDF]
Howard Fan
Open Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology (OJOG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojog.2013.31021

Objective: The purpose of this article is to review the literature assessing foetal and maternal pregnancy outcomes in women with PCOS who used metformin during pregnancy. Study Design: A literature search was conducted using MEDLINE, with analysis of 25 studies that recorded neonatal and maternal outcomes in women who used metformin during pregnancy. The outcomes assessed in this review include congenital deformities, miscarriages, preterm labour, gestational diabetes (GDM) and pregnancy induced hypertension (PIH). Results: We found that the use of metformin throughout pregnancy correlated with decreased rates of preterm labour, GDM and PIH. Conflicting evidence exists over whether metformin use during pregnancy reduced miscarriage rates. The use of metformin during pregnancy did not increase teratogenicity risks. Conclusion: The use of metformin throughout pregnancy is associated with decreased rates of preterm labour, GDM, and PIH. However, more randomised controls involving larger numbers of participants are required for more definitive results.

The cytokine hypothesis: A neurodevelopmental explanation for the emergence of schizophrenia later in life  [PDF]
Julia Howard
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2013.48A2011

There is increasing evidence for the cytokine hypothesis, which states that exposure to elevated cytokines in utero due to maternal immune activation is a major risk factor for the development of schizophrenia later in life. This is supported by numerous epidemicologic studies that connect multiple infections with schizophrenia emergence. Furthermore, cytokines are critically involved in early neurodevelopment and deviations from the norm can result in abnormal neuroanatomy and brain chemistry. Animal models of schizophrenia also support the critical role of developmental neuroinflammation in predisposing the brain to anatomical and behavioral abnormalities. Although there is strong evidence for the critical role of cytokines, they most likely work with other contributing risk factors such as genetic predisposition. New evidence indicates that cytokine exposure in utero may prime the brain and that a second stressor during adolescence, referred to as a second hit, may activate existing developmental vulnerabilities resulting in the emergence of clinical schizophrenia. Further knowledge of these pathogenic processes and risk factors could be very instrumental in reducing risk and slowing emergence of schizophrenia.

Geometric Aspects of Extremal Kerr Black Hole Entropy  [PDF]
Ecaterina Howard
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2013.43050

Extreme Black Holes is an important theoretical laboratory for exploring the nature of entropy. We suggest that this unusual nature of the extremal limit could explain the entropy of extremal Kerr black holes. The time-independence of the extremal black hole, the zero surface gravity, the zero entropy and the absence of a bifurcate Killing horizon are all related properties that define and reduce to one single unique feature of the extremal Kerr spacetime. We suggest the presence of a true geometric discontinuity as the underlying cause of a vanishing entropy.

Possible Chemosensitizing and Potent Anticancer Effects of D-Fraction in Combination with Vitamin C on Three Prevalent Urologic Cancer Cells  [PDF]
Drew Freilich, Eric Moskowitz, Nicholas Feuer, Muhammad Choudhury, John Phillips, Sensuke Konno
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2014.514142
Abstract: Chemotherapy is currently one of the most common therapeutic options for cancer patients despite the poor efficacy with considerable side effects. We then examined if D-fraction (DF), a bioactive mushroom extract, could potentiate (poor) anticancer effects of those drugs in vitro. Three urologic cancers, prostate, bladder, and kidney cancers, were tested with various chemotherapeutic drugs and their combinations with DF. Compared to individual drugs alone, combinations of drugs and DF have improved anticancer activity, resulting in the significant (P < 0.05) cell viability reduction in all three cancer cells. As vitamin C (VC) has been postulated to potentiate the bioactivity of DF, this possibility was also examined. The specific combination of DF (300 μg/ml) and VC (200 μM) indeed led to the drastic (≥90%) viability reductions in all three cancer cells. To have a better understanding of such a profound viability reduction, the effect of DF/VC combination on cell cycle was examined next. Cell cycle analysis indicated that this combination induced a G1cell cycle arrest, which was also confirmed by the down-regulation of specific cell cycle regulators (CDK2, CDK4, and cyclin D1) detected on western blots. Moreover, it was crucial to address if the DF/VC-induced viability reduction could be also linked to apoptosis. Western blot analysis revealed that anti-apoptotic bcl-2 was down-regulated while pro-apoptotic Bax was up-regulated with DF/VC combination in all cancer cells, indicating induction of apoptosis. Therefore, the DF/VC combination could ultimately induce apoptosis, accounting for the severe cell viability reduction. In conclusion, DF appears to be a promising agent with chemosensitizing effect, enhancing the efficacy of chemotherapeutic drugs, and its combination with VC exhibits a potent anticancer effect, which is far superior to any combinations of drugs and DF tested in three prevalent urologic cancer cells.
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