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Development of a drtqPCR Assay for Differentiation of PCV-2a and 2b in Shanghai Area  [PDF]
Jian Liu, Feifei Ge, Houbing Ju, Dequan Yang, Xin Li, Jian Wang, Peihong Liu, Jinping Zhou
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.412035
Abstract: A dual real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction assay (drtqPCR) was established to detect and differentiate between Porcine circovirus-2a (PCV-2a) and Porcine circovirus-2b (PCV-2b). Genotype-specific primer sets and probes were designed by using sequence data published for different PCV-2 strains. Specificity and sensitivity of the drtqPCR were examined by using PCV-2 isolates with known genotype. Among 367 tissue samples, 44.69% (164/367) were PCV-2 positive. From 164 PCV-2 positive samples, 10.98% (18/164), 92.56% (137/164), and 3.31% (9/164) were positive for PCV-2a, PCV-2b, and both genotypes, respectively. These results suggest that the dif-ferential drtqPCR can be used to detect PCV-2 and to differentiate the 2 genotypes from field sam-ples. The PCV-2 infection is quite common in swine of Shanghai area. Furthermore, the PCV-2b infective ratio is far higher than PCV-2a, and PCV-2a/2b mixed infections are also observed but at a lower prevalence in Shanghai area.
Study on Bifurcation and Chaos in Boost Converter Based on Energy Balance Model  [PDF]
Quanmin NIU, Zhizhong JU
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2009, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2009.11006
Abstract: Based on boost converter operating in discontinuous mode, this paper proposes an energy balance model (EBM) for analyzing bifurcation and chaos phenomena of capacitor energy and output voltage when the converter parameter is varying. It is found that the capacitor energy and output voltage dynamic behaviors exhibit the typical period-doubling route to chaos by increasing the feedback gain constant K of proportional controller. The accurate position of the first bifurcation point and the iterative diagram of the capacitor energy with every K can be derived from EBM. Finally, the underlying causes for bifurcations and chaos of a general class of nonlinear systems such as power converters are analyzed from the energy balance viewpoint. Com-paring with the discrete iterative model, EBM is simple and high accuracy. This model can be easily devel-oped on the nonlinear study of the other converters.
Is Thermal Power Plant Regulation in China Constructive?  [PDF]
Hongbing Li, Ronghua Ju
Modern Economy (ME) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/me.2012.35063
Abstract: This paper analyzes main legal requirements for thermal power plants in China, which is intended to save energy and reduce discharge by restricting coal consumption for power generation. However, based on our four cases of the selec- tion of thermal power plant construction proposals, which provide the ideal contrast of two different regulation circum- stances, we find that state-owned firms, which strictly follow the regulations, cannot realize the efficient use of energy and capital. In contrast, private firms, which are more able to follow the principle of profit maximization and dare to breach the regulation policy, can realize the efficient use of energy and capital. Then using the fixed-ratio production function, this paper suggests regulation not only results in energy and capital waste, but also employment opportunity loss. Expanding this conclusion, this paper proposes that the more regulation, the more employment opportunity loss. Therefore, if the government can deregulate the regulated sectors, more labor can be combined with the capital of new entrants, and the income distribution will be more equitable.
Equity of access to long-term care among the Korean elderly  [PDF]
Ju Moon Park
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.510221
Abstract:

The aim of the current study is to examine the extent to which equity in the utilization of longterm care services has been achieved in the Republic of Korea (hereafter Korea), based on the Aday—Andersen Access Framework that takes into consideration a series of variables hypothesized as predictive of utilization. The current study used cross-sectional survey data collected and conducted by the Korea Labor Institute (KLI) between August 1 to December 22, 2006. The sample for this study was 5544 persons who are older than 60 years. The study was extracted from a larger nationally representative cross-sectional survey of 10,255 individuals. The stratified cluster sampling technique was used to draw the survey respondents. A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect the data from the sample. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was performed examining the relationship between the dependent variable and the independent variables and the relative importance of factors. The results indicate that a universal health insurance system has not yielded a fully equitable distribution of services. The limitation of benefit coverage as well as disparities in consumer cost-sharing and associated patterns of utilization across plans high out-of-pocket payment can be a barrier to health care utilization, which results in inequity and differential long-term care utilization between sub-groups of older adults. Health policy reforms in Korea must continue to concentrate on expanding insurance coverage, reducing the inequities reflected in disparities in consumer cost-sharing and associated patterns of utilization across plans, and establishing a financially separate insurance system for poor older adults. The behavioral responses of physicians to the method of reimbursement, and the subsequent impact on overall rates of utilization and expenditures need to be more fully understood. In addition, further research is needed to identify the nonfinancial barriers that persist for certain demographic subgroups, i.e., those 70 and older, men, lacking social network members, those who have four or more family members, and those who have no schooling.

Disability and health service utilization among old Koreans  [PDF]
Ju Moon Park
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.65058
Abstract:

This study compared persons with disabilities with those without disabilities in terms of health services utilization and examined the factors associated with the use of inpatient hospital services. Data on a sample of 4040 older adults (65+ years of age) from the Korean Longitudinal Study of Ageing were used. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was performed examining sample characteristics of participants with and without disabilities and factors significantly associated with health services utilization. This study showed that the elderly with disabilities used significantly more inpatient hospital services than the elderly without disabilities. As expected, poor health was clearly the most influential factor explaining the use of inpatient hospital services. The second most influential factor in determining use of medical services is disability. Persons with disabilities had a twofold or more increase in the odds of using inpatient hospital services. Likewise, the person with chronic condition had also an additional twofold increase in risk for medical services due to the chronic condition. Chronic conditions were clearly the third influential factor explaining the use of inpatient hospital services. Finally, females were a small margin more likely to use inpatient hospital services than males.

Case Report: Retirees’ Acceptance and Perceived Contribution of Smartphone in Chronic Disease Management  [PDF]
Mei-Ju Chen
Journal of Biosciences and Medicines (JBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbm.2014.26001
Abstract:

Objectives: As smartphones become more popular, so do their applications. However, expectations of the elderly regarding the contribution of smartphone in controlling chronic diseases remain unclear. This research aims to understand senior retirees’ smartphone acceptance, perceived contribution of smartphone application in facilitating chronic disease control and their association. Findings from the study provide insights for the development of mobile applications in chronic disease management. Methods: convenience sampling was conducted to recruit 110 senior retirees who worked as volunteers in a regional hospital in Taipei. Data was collected through a structured questionnaire. Descriptive, chi-square and logistic regression statistics were applied to analyze data. Results: A total of 108 completed questionnaires were collected with a return rate of 98.2%. Mean age was 65.34 ± 9.59 years old. Of all respondents, 40.7% reported acceptance of internet-enabled smartphones and 54.6% expected that smartphones would facilitate chronic disease management in the future. However, a statistically significant 37.3% of those expecting smartphone to play a role in disease management did not accept smartphones yet. After controlling for age and education, logistic regression analysis showed that older adults with higher smartphone acceptance were more likely to expect use of smartphone in case management (OR = 7.439, p < 0.001). Conclusions: The research presented a scope for smartphone application to control chronic disease in the future. Despite a relatively lower level of smartphone acceptance, the elderly still expected a positive role for mobile appliances to play in chronic disease management.

Chronic Diseases, Health Status and Health Service Utilization among Koreans  [PDF]
Ju Moon Park
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.616263
Abstract: This study described the self-reported chronic diseases and health status and examined the factors that are associated with effective health service utilization. Descriptive and logistic regression analysis was performed to determine the factors significantly associated with self-rated health, in-patient and out-patient utilization. Self-rated health status was ranked lower among rural residents, lower-income families, married persons, and those with chronic diseases. Chronic diseases such as hypertension, arthritis, melancholy, and diabetes were common and they are associated with poor health of Koreans. The presence of chronic diseases was significant in predicting the likelihood of poor health while socio-economic factors, rather than health-related need factors, had more predictive power of the use of health services. This study provides a unique contribution to the knowledge base of the Korean population. The study findings show that Koreans in poor health status were married, living in rural areas, having chronic diseases and lower income, with a high likelihood of health care utilization among employed individuals, which could significantly help in the public health policy required to address this issue.
An Investigation of Social Factors in Children’s Foreign Language Learning—A Case Study of Taiwanese Elementary School Students  [PDF]
Yen-Ju Hou
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2015.52010
Abstract: Social factors are believed to play a crucial role in language learning and have a major impact on second/foreign language proficiency (Ellis, 2003). The study was conducted to investigate Taiwanese children’s English learning motivation/attitude and the impacts of social factors of age, gender and social class on their English learning. Participants were 520 students from 6 elementary schools near Tainan City, divided into two groups as Urban Group (N = 271) and Rural Group (N = 249) based on their schools’ location. All were arranged to fill out a questionnaire dealing with their background and English learning motivation/attitude (Gardner, 1985). All available data were processed by SPSS 17.0 for descriptive, correlation, ANOVA, and predictive analyses. It was expected that the findings could provide more understanding about how social factors affect children’s second/foreign language learning, and to unlock the potential of the rural students when it comes to the tenth year of the official implementation of English teaching in Taiwanese elementary schools.
Analysis of the Asymmetric Gene Expression between the Left and Right Hemispheres of Drosophila Brain  [PDF]
Won-Ju Chung
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2015.510042
Abstract: Studying the molecular mechanism of brain asymmetry can provide important clues to understand neurological diseases and psychiatric disorders related to brain lateralization. In this paper, asymmetric gene expression in the left/right hemispheres of Drosophila brain was genome-widely analyzed to help understand the molecular mechanism of brain asymmetry. Using microarray analysis of total RNAs of the left/right brain hemispheres, thirty-eight genes were found to be differentially expressed in the left/right hemispheres. This result supports that Drosophila brain is asymmetrical at the molecular level. Among thirty-eight genes, six genes of interests were chosen for further analysis based on their protein structures or previous studies: dpr6, CG13299, CG13068, Lim3, CG43759, and Ir21a. Those six genes encode proteins that serve various functions like neural gene expression, memory control, ion channel, and membrane receptor. Surprisingly, all six genes of interests have their peak expression during the early embryonic stages, suggesting that they may play a role in the developmental stage of brain lateralization. Overall, these findings of differential gene expressions in the left/right brain hemispheres can serve as a basic foundation for further research on the understanding of the molecular mechanism of brain asymmetry.
Chinese Americans and Cityhood Movement in Hacienda Heights in 2003  [PDF]
Hung Yu-Ju
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2015.44015
Abstract: Cityhood incorporation is a common local issue in the American local history regarding different political, social, and economic factors. However, the creation of municipality becomes more controversial agenda in certain local regions when suburban ethnic communities are rapidly created by post-1965 immigration. It is reflected by the cityhood movement in Hacienda Heights in 2003, when Chinese/Taiwanese immigrants added ethnic elements in these public and civic activities. This study provides further observation and investigation to the impact that Chinese capitalize on their ethnic and non-ethnic social networks to increase their power in the community-based civic matters, while showing various dimensions on the responses from local multiethnic communities.
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