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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1072 matches for " Holly Snyder "
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Systemic Hematogenous Maintenance of Memory Inflation by MCMV Infection
Corinne J. Smith,Holly Turula,Christopher M. Snyder
PLOS Pathogens , 2014, DOI: doi/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004233
Abstract: Several low-grade persistent viral infections induce and sustain very large numbers of virus-specific effector T cells. This was first described as a response to cytomegalovirus (CMV), a herpesvirus that establishes a life-long persistent/latent infection, and sustains the largest known effector T cell populations in healthy people. These T cells remain functional and traffic systemically, which has led to the recent exploration of CMV as a persistent vaccine vector. However, the maintenance of this remarkable response is not understood. Current models propose that reservoirs of viral antigen and/or latently infected cells in lymph nodes stimulate T cell proliferation and effector differentiation, followed by migration of progeny to non-lymphoid tissues where they control CMV reactivation. We tested this model using murine CMV (MCMV), a natural mouse pathogen and homologue of human CMV (HCMV). While T cells within draining lymph nodes divided at a higher rate than cells elsewhere, antigen-dependent proliferation of MCMV-specific effector T cells was observed systemically. Strikingly, inhibition of T cell egress from lymph nodes failed to eliminate systemic T cell division, and did not prevent the maintenance of the inflationary populations. In fact, we found that the vast majority of inflationary cells, including most cells undergoing antigen-driven division, had not migrated into the parenchyma of non-lymphoid tissues but were instead exposed to the blood supply. Indeed, the immunodominance and effector phenotype of inflationary cells, both of which are primary hallmarks of memory inflation, were largely confined to blood-localized T cells. Together these results support a new model of MCMV-driven memory inflation in which most immune surveillance occurs in circulation, and in which most inflationary effector T cells are produced in response to viral antigen presented by cells that are accessible to the blood supply.
Relationship of nine constants  [PDF]
Michael Snyder
Natural Science (NS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ns.2013.59117

Through the process of trial and error, four unitless equations made up of nine constants have been found with exact answers. The related constants are the Speed of Light [1], the Planck constant [2], Wien’s displacement constant [3], Avogadro’s number [4], the universal Gravity constant [5], the Ampere constant [6], the Faraday constant [7], the Gas constant [8] and Apery’s constant [9].

Inhibition of CCL2 Signaling in Combination with Docetaxel Treatment Has Profound Inhibitory Effects on Prostate Cancer Growth in Bone
Peter S. Kirk,Theodore Koreckij,Holly M. Nguyen,Lisha G. Brown,Linda A. Snyder,Robert L. Vessella,Eva Corey
International Journal of Molecular Sciences , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/ijms140510483
Abstract: The C-C chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2) stimulates migration, proliferation, and invasion of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, and its signaling also plays a role in the activation of osteoclasts. Therefore targeting CCL2 signaling in regulation of tumor progression in bone metastases is an area of intense research. The objective of our study was to investigate the efficacy of CCL2 blockade by neutralizing antibodies to inhibit the growth of PCa in bone. We used a preclinical model of cancer growth in the bone in which PCa C4-2B cells were injected directly into murine tibiae. Animals were treated for ten weeks with neutralizing anti-CCL2 antibodies, docetaxel, or a combination of both, and then followed an additional nine weeks. CCL2 blockade inhibited the growth of PCa in bone, with even more pronounced inhibition in combination with docetaxel. CCL2 blockade also resulted in increases in bone mineral density. Furthermore, our results showed that the tumor inhibition lasted even after discontinuation of the treatment. Our data provide compelling evidence that CCL2 blockade slows PCa growth in bone, both alone and in combination with docetaxel. These results support the continued investigations of CCL2 blockade as a treatment for advanced metastatic PCa.
Lack of Serologic Evidence to Link IgA Nephropathy with Celiac Disease or Immune Reactivity to Gluten
Sina Moeller, Pietro A. Canetta, Annette K. Taylor, Carolina Arguelles-Grande, Holly Snyder, Peter H. Green, Krzysztof Kiryluk, Armin Alaedini
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094677
Abstract: IgA nephropathy is the most common form of primary glomerulonephritis worldwide. Mucosal infections and food antigens, including wheat gluten, have been proposed as potential contributing environmental factors. Increased immune reactivity to gluten and/or association with celiac disease, an autoimmune disorder triggered by ingestion of gluten, have been reported in IgA nephropathy. However, studies are inconsistent about this association. We aimed to evaluate the proposed link between IgA nephropathy and celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten by conducting a comprehensive analysis of associated serologic markers in cohorts of well-characterized patients and controls. Study participants included patients with biopsy-proven IgA nephropathy (n = 99), unaffected controls of similar age, gender, and race (n = 96), and patients with biopsy-proven celiac disease (n = 30). All serum specimens were tested for IgG and IgA antibodies to native gliadin and deamidated gliadin, as well as IgA antibody to transglutaminase 2 (TG2). Anti-TG2 antibody-positive nephropathy patients and unaffected controls were subsequently tested for IgA anti-endomysial antibody and genotyped for celiac disease-associated HLA-DQ2 and -DQ8 alleles. In comparison to unaffected controls, there was not a statistically significant increase in IgA or IgG antibody reactivity to gliadin in individuals with IgA nephropathy. In addition, the levels of celiac disease-specific serologic markers, i.e., antibodies to deamidated gliadin and TG2, did not differ between IgA nephropathy patients and unaffected controls. Results of the additional anti-endomysial antibody testing and HLA genotyping were corroborative. The data from this case-control study do not reveal any evidence to suggest a significant role for celiac disease or immune reactivity to gluten in IgA nephropathy.
Leukemia and Benzene
Robert Snyder
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2012, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph9082875
Abstract: Excessive exposure to benzene has been known for more than a century to damage the bone marrow resulting in decreases in the numbers of circulating blood cells, and ultimately, aplastic anemia. Of more recent vintage has been the appreciation that an alternative outcome of benzene exposure has been the development of one or more types of leukemia. While many investigators agree that the array of toxic metabolites, generated in the liver or in the bone marrow, can lead to traumatic bone marrow injury, the more subtle mechanisms leading to leukemia have yet to be critically dissected. This problem appears to have more general interest because of the recognition that so-called “second cancer” that results from prior treatment with alkylating agents to yield tumor remissions, often results in a type of leukemia reminiscent of benzene-induced leukemia. Furthermore, there is a growing literature attempting to characterize the fine structure of the marrow and the identification of so called “niches” that house a variety of stem cells and other types of cells. Some of these “niches” may harbor cells capable of initiating leukemias. The control of stem cell differentiation and proliferation via both inter- and intra-cellular signaling will ultimately determine the fate of these transformed stem cells. The ability of these cells to avoid checkpoints that would prevent them from contributing to the leukemogenic response is an additional area for study. Much of the study of benzene-induced bone marrow damage has concentrated on determining which of the benzene metabolites lead to leukemogenesis. The emphasis now should be directed to understanding how benzene metabolites alter bone marrow cell biology.
Antes, agora, adiante: hipertexto, letramento e mudan?a
Snyder, Ilana;
Educa??o em Revista , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0102-46982010000300013
Abstract: this paper considers the complex connections between hypertext, literacy and educational change. it begins with four stories that illuminate some of the challenges that confront the field of hypertext research: notably, literacy teachers' tendency to conservatism in their pedagogical practices and the remarkable cultural endurance of the printed book. the paper asks: how might literacy educators do more than shuffle into the future? a number of suggestions are offered: devise a common language to talk about the changes to literacy practices associated with the use of new media; identify theories that help explain the changes to literacy practices in the digital age; suggest a direction for the third generation of hypertext research and theory. the first generation of hypertext research and theory produced some elegant and evocative ideas but made too many claims. the second generation took another look at hypertext, but this time in the unbounded context of the internet. too often, however, it clung to old ideas that no longer made sense in the new on-line environment. the third generation promises to demonstrate how productive it can be to traverse traditional disciplinary and theoretical boundaries in pursuit of new understandings of on-line literacy designed to inform teaching and learning.
Vías de salida de los regímenes sultánicos. Una combinación de perspectivas estructurales y voluntaristas
Richard Snyder
Araucaria , 2002,
The Digital Culture and Communication: More than just Classroom Learning
Kristen Snyder
Seminar.net , 2005,
Abstract: This paper presents a conceptual model of the digital culture that reflects the multi-dimensionality of ICT in education: pedagogy, communication, technology and organizational systems. The model grew out of a three-year study of an online professional development program for educators in seven countries. The focus of the paper is to explore the relationship between human dynamics and technological systems for advancing the school as an organization. Considering the digital culture of schools from an organizational communication culture perspective awakens us to the importance of looking at the subculture that emerges through human exchange reflecting core values and beliefs. When we consider the digital world in which students already live, and match it against the challenge of schools for human citizen development, we begin to see that a digital culture is more than technological. It is organizational, it is communicative, and it is cultural. Through the creation of cultural webs, motivated by humans, and assisted by technology, online communication has the possibility to shape a collective space for cross cultural connections that support a shared democracy.
The Ethics Of Reconciling : Learning From Canada’s Truth And Reconciliation Commission
Emily Snyder
Les Ateliers de l’éthique , 2010,
Abstract: In 2008, the Truth and Reconciliation Commission of Canada (TRC) was initiated to address the historical and contemporary injustices and impacts of Indian Residential Schools. Of the many goals of the TRC, I focus on reconciliation and how the TRC aims to promote this through public education and engagement. To explore this, I consider two questions:1) who does the TRC include in the process of reconciliation? And 2) how might I, as someone who is not Indigenous (specifically, as someone who is “white”), be engaged by the TRC?Ethical queries arise which speak to broader concerns about the TRC’s capability to fulfill its public education goals. I raise several concerns about whether the TRC’s plan to convoke the col- lective will result in over-simplifying the process by relying on blunt, poorly defined identity cate- gories that erase the heterogeneity of those residing in Canada, as well as the complexity of the conflict among us. I attempt to situate myself in-between proclamations of “success” or “failure” of the TRC, to better understand what can be learned from contested truths and experiences of uncertainty.
Overview and Summary of Complementary Therapies: Are These Really Nursing?
Snyder, M
Online Journal of Issues in Nursing , 2001,
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