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Histo-Blood Group Gene Polymorphisms as Potential Genetic Modifiers of Infection and Cystic Fibrosis Lung Disease Severity
Jennifer L. Taylor-Cousar, Maimoona A. Zariwala, Lauranell H. Burch, Rhonda G. Pace, Mitchell L. Drumm, Hollin Calloway, Haiying Fan, Brent W. Weston, Fred A. Wright, Michael R. Knowles, for the Gene Modifier Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0004270
Abstract: Background The pulmonary phenotype in cystic fibrosis (CF) is variable; thus, environmental and genetic factors likely contribute to clinical heterogeneity. We hypothesized that genetically determined ABO histo-blood group antigen (ABH) differences in glycosylation may lead to differences in microbial binding by airway mucus, and thus predispose to early lung infection and more severe lung disease in a subset of patients with CF. Methods and Principal Findings Clinical information and DNA was collected on >800 patients with the ΔF508/ΔF508 genotype. Patients in the most severe and mildest quartiles for lung phenotype were enrolled. Blood samples underwent lymphocyte transformation and DNA extraction using standard methods. PCR and sequencing were performed using standard techniques to identify the 9 SNPs required to determine ABO blood type, and to identify the four SNPs that account for 90–95% of Lewis status in Caucasians. Allele identification of the one nonsynonymous SNP in FUT2 that accounts for >95% of the incidence of nonsecretor phenotype in Caucasians was completed using an ABI Taqman assay. The overall prevalence of ABO types, and of FUT2 (secretor) and FUT 3 (Lewis) alleles was consistent with that found in the Caucasian population. There was no difference in distribution of ABH type in the severe versus mild patients, or the age of onset of Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in the severe or mild groups. Multivariate analyses of other clinical phenotypes, including gender, asthma, and meconium ileus demonstrated no differences between groups based on ABH type. Conclusions and Significance Polymorphisms in the genes encoding ABO blood type, secretor or Lewis genotypes were not shown to associate with severity of CF lung disease, or age of onset of P. aeruginosa infection, nor was there any association with other clinical phenotypes in a group of 808 patients homozygous for the ΔF508 mutation.
Anger and self-reported delinquency in university students
Clive R. Hollin,Christopher Marsh,,Claire A. J. Bloxsom
European Journal of Psychology Applied to Legal Context , 2011,
Abstract: The association between anger and criminal, particularly violent, behaviour is firmly established in the literature. However, most of the extant research has been conducted with clinical and legally sanctioned forensic populations. The present study sought to examine anger in a non forensic population using a self-report measure of delinquency. The Novaco Anger Scale and Provocation Inventory (NAS-PI; Novaco, 2003) and the Self-Report Delinquency Questionnaire (Elliot & Ageton, 1980) were completed by male and female university students. The total anger score was associated with overall delinquency and specifically with crimes against the person and against property. Males reported higher levels of anger and a greater involvement in criminal acts. The practical implications of the findings within a legal context are discussed.
Validation of the post sleep questionnaire for assessing subjects with restless legs syndrome: results from two double-blind, multicenter, placebo-controlled clinical trials
Daniel M Canafax, Abhijeet Bhanegaonkar, Murtuza Bharmal, Michael Calloway
BMC Neurology , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2377-11-48
Abstract: Pooled data were analyzed from two 12-week, randomized, placebo-controlled trials of gabapentin enacarbil (N = 540). At baseline and Week 12, subjects completed the PSQ and other validated health surveys: IRLS Rating Scale, Clinical Global Impression of Improvement (CGI-I), Profile of Mood States (POMS), Medical Outcomes Study Scale-Sleep (MOS-Sleep), and RLS-Quality of Life (RLSQoL). Pooled data were used post hoc to examine the convergent, divergent, known-group validity and the responsiveness of the PSQ.Convergent validity was demonstrated by significant correlations between baseline PSQ items and total scores of IRLS, POMS, RLSQoL, and the MOS-Sleep Scale (p ≤ 0.007 each). Divergent validity was demonstrated through the lack of significant correlations between PSQ items and demographic characteristics. Correlations (p < 0.0001) between RLS severity groups and PSQ items demonstrated known-group validity. Mean changes in investigator- and subject-rated CGI-I scores for each PSQ item (p < 0.0001) demonstrated the PSQ's responsiveness to patient change as reported by their care provider.Although these analyses were potentially limited by the use of clinical trial data and not prospective data from a study conducted solely for validation purposes, the PSQ demonstrated robust psychometric properties and is a valid instrument for assessing sleep and sleep improvements in subjects with moderate-to-severe RLS symptoms.This study analyzed data from two registered trials, NCT00298623 and NCT00365352.Restless Legs Syndrome (RLS) is a sensorimotor disorder that can substantially disrupt sleep. It affects 5-10% of the general population [1], predominantly women [1,2], and has been characterized as chronic in individuals with moderate-to-severe symptoms requiring treatment [3]. The criteria that define RLS include an urge to move the legs due to unpleasant or uncomfortable sensations during periods of rest, the relief of symptoms through leg movements, and symptoms that follow
Desafíos de los emprendimientos educativos en las fábricas recuperadas
Fernández,Ana María; Calloway,Cecilia; Cabrera,Candela;
Anuario de investigaciones , 2009,
Abstract: this paper belongs to the ubacyt investigation p019 "autogestión, estado y producción de subjetividad: experiencias de fábricas y empresas recuperadas en argentina". it is an investigation of a descriptive-exploratory nature following a qualitative methodology to obtain and analyze information. the theoretical frame has a multireferential criterion that articulates ideas from social sciences, social psychology, theories of discursive productions and community psychology. some characteristics of educational enterprises that work inside of three of the recovered factories of the city of buenos aires are presented. it is about self-managed collectives composed by teaching staff, students and workers, that form high schools for young and adults based in popular education. in them prevails a self-managing, horizontal logic, in contrast with the characteristics of traditional education institutions. their functioning goes by assembly.
Transient phases during fast crystallization of organic thin films from solution
Jing Wan,Yang Li,Jeffrey G. Ulbrandt,Detlef-M. Smilgies,Jonathan Hollin,Adam C. Whalley,Randall L. Headrick
Physics , 2015,
Abstract: We report an in-situ microbeam grazing incidence X-ray scattering study of 2,7-dioctyl[1]benzothieno[3,2-b][1]benzothiophene (C$_8$-BTBT) organic semiconductor thin film deposition by hollow pen writing. Multiple transient phases are observed during the crystallization for substrate temperatures up to $\approx$93$^\circ$C. The layered smectic liquid-crystalline phase of C$_8$-BTBT initially forms and preceedes inter-layer ordering, followed by a transient crystalline phase for temperature $>$60$^\circ$C, and ultimately the stable phase. Based on these results, we demonstrate a method to produce extremely large grain size and high carrier mobility during high-speed processing. For high writing speed (25 mm/s) mobility up to 3.0 cm$^2$/V-s has been observed.
The sustainability of new programs and innovations: a review of the empirical literature and recommendations for future research
Shannon Wiltsey Stirman, John Kimberly, Natasha Cook, Amber Calloway, Frank Castro, Martin Charns
Implementation Science , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1748-5908-7-17
Abstract: Two coders identified 125 studies on sustainability that met eligibility criteria. An initial coding scheme was developed based on constructs identified in previous literature on implementation. Additional codes were generated deductively. Related constructs among factors were identified by consensus and collapsed under the general categories. Studies that described the extent to which programs or innovations were sustained were also categorized and summarized.Although "sustainability" was the term most commonly used in the literature to refer to what happened after initial implementation, not all the studies that were reviewed actually presented working definitions of the term. Most study designs were retrospective and naturalistic. Approximately half of the studies relied on self-reports to assess sustainability or elements that influence sustainability. Approximately half employed quantitative methodologies, and the remainder employed qualitative or mixed methodologies. Few studies that investigated sustainability outcomes employed rigorous methods of evaluation (e.g., objective evaluation, judgement of implementation quality or fidelity). Among those that did, a small number reported full sustainment or high fidelity. Very little research has examined the extent, nature, or impact of adaptations to the interventions or programs once implemented. Influences on sustainability included organizational context, capacity, processes, and factors related to the new program or practice themselves.Clearer definitions and research that is guided by the conceptual literature on sustainability are critical to the development of the research in the area. Further efforts to characterize the phenomenon and the factors that influence it will enhance the quality of future research. Careful consideration must also be given to interactions among influences at multiple levels, as well as issues such as fidelity, modification, and changes in implementation over time. While prospectiv
Evaluation of a continuum source tungsten coil atomic absorption spectrometer: a study of Zn behavior
Nóbrega, Joaquim A.;Rust, Jennifer;Calloway, Jr., Clifton P.;Jones, Bradley T.;
Journal of the Brazilian Chemical Society , 2005, DOI: 10.1590/S0103-50532005000400023
Abstract: the performance of a tungsten coil atomizer atomic absorption spectrometer with a d2 lamp continuum source, a czerny-turner monochromator, and a charge coupled device detector was evaluated for the determination of zn. the main attractive characteristics of the instrument are its simplicity and the relative low cost of the atomizer. in spite of a poor limit of detection (40 μg l-1, 3 blank standard deviation/slope), zn was accurately determined in one water and one urine certified reference standards. the recovery in water was 106% and in urine the obtained result is in the acceptable certified range.
Infusing Disability Sport into the Sport Management Curriculum
Deborah R. Shapiro,Brenda G. Pitts,Mary A. Hums,Jimmy Calloway
Choregia , 2012,
Abstract: Disability sport is growing around the world with momentum and is described as a “movement” (Bailey, 2008; DePauw & Gavron, 2005). While there are more similarities than differences with sport management for able-bodied athletes and those with disabilities, there are additional needs and considerations for persons with disabilities (DePauw & Gavron, 2005). The noticeable visibility of individuals with disabilities in society, including sport, raises concerns about the degree to which sport management academic programs have modified their curricula to ensure that individuals working in the sport management field are prepared to deal with theuniqueness of disability sport. This paper (a) discusses theoretical perspectives toward understanding and thinking about disability, (b) explores ways to enhance sport management curricula through infusion of disability sport, (c) reflects upon current social practices for curriculum integration of athletes with disabilities in sport, and (d) acknowledges infusion of disability sport businesses, organizations and events.
Perspectives on Cognitive Therapy Training within Community Mental Health Settings: Implications for Clinician Satisfaction and Skill Development
Shannon Wiltsey Stirman,Christopher J. Miller,Katherine Toder,Amber Calloway,Aaron T. Beck,Arthur C. Evans,Paul Crits-Christoph
Depression Research and Treatment , 2012, DOI: 10.1155/2012/391084
Abstract: Despite the mounting evidence of the benefits of cognitive therapy for depression and suicidal behaviors over usual care, like other evidence-based psychosocial treatments (EBTs), it has not been widely adopted in clinical practice. Studies have shown that training followed by intensive consultation is needed to prepare providers to an appropriate level of competency in complex, multisession treatment packages such as cognitive therapy. Given the critical role of training in EBT implementation, more information on factors associated with the success and challenges of training programs is needed. To identify potential reasons for variation in training outcomes across ten agencies in a large, urban community mental health system, we explored program evaluation data and examined provider, consultant, and training program administrator perspectives through follow-up interviews. Perceptions of cognitive therapy, contextual factors, and reactions to feedback on audio recordings emerged as broad categories of themes identified from interviews. These factors may interact and impact clinician efforts to learn cognitive therapy and deliver it skillfully in their practice. The findings highlight experiences and stakeholder perspectives that may contribute to more or less successful training outcomes. 1. Introduction The public health impact and high rates of depression and suicide in community populations are well established [1–5]. Accumulating evidence indicates that providing psychosocial evidence-based treatments (EBTs) such as cognitive therapy (CT; [6]) results in substantial benefits to physical and mental health symptoms, quality of life outcomes, and reduction of health disparities and suicide attempts [7–9]. Training clinicians in community mental health agencies to provide CT for depression can result in improved treatment outcomes [8]. Like other EBTs, however, CT has not been widely adopted in clinical practice. Until recently, few systematic implementation efforts or training opportunities existed in the public sector [10, 11]. In response to the shortage of adequately trained providers [10], policymakers have devoted substantial resources in recent years to train providers in EBTs in the context of large-scale implementation programs [11, 12]. In 2007, the Beck Initiative was formed as a collaborative partnership between the Philadelphia Department of Behavioral Health and Intellectual disAbilities Services (DBHIDS), and the University of Pennsylvania (Penn) to implement CT within the city’s behavioral health provider agencies. The mental health
A Twin Study of Mitochondrial DNA Polymorphisms Shows that Heteroplasmy at Multiple Sites Is Associated with mtDNA Variant 16093 but Not with Zygosity
Toby Andrew, Cassandra D. Calloway, Sarah Stuart, Sang Hoon Lee, Raj Gill, Gail Clement, Philip Chowienczyk, Tim D. Spector, Ana M. Valdes
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0022332
Abstract: The mitochondrial theory of ageing proposes that damage to mitochondria and diminished mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) repair are major contributors to cellular dysfunction and age-related diseases. We investigate the prevalence of heteroplasmy in the mtDNA control region in buccal swab and blood derived samples for 178 women from the TwinsUK cohort (41 DZ pair 39 MZ pairs, 18 singletons, mean age 57.5 range 28–82) and its relationship to age, BMI and fasting insulin and glucose serum levels. The overall estimated prevalence of heteroplasmy for both tissues in the control region measured for 37 sites was 17%. The prevalence of heteroplasmy was higher among the older half of the study subjects than in the younger half (23% vs 10% p<0.03), primarily reflecting the increase in the prevalence of a heteroplasmic dinucleotide CA repeat in variable region II (VRII) with age. The VRII 523–524 heteroplasmic site (heteroplasmic in 25 subjects) was also associated with a decrease in BMI. In addition, concordance rates for common heteroplasmy were observed to be near complete for both dizygotic (DZ = 94%) and monozygotic twin pairs (MZ = 100%), consistent with previous reports that suggest variation in heteroplasmy rates between generations are determined by bottlenecks in maternal transmission of mitochondria. Differences in the prevalence of heteroplasmy were observed overall between samples derived from buccal swabs (19%) and blood (15%, p<0.04). These were particularly marked at position 16093 of hypervariable region I (HVI, 7% vs 0%, respectively, p<4×10?11). The presence of the C allele at position 16093 in blood was associated with the presence of heteroplasmy in buccal swabs at this position (p = 3.5×10?14) and also at VRII (p = 2×10?4) suggesting a possible predisposing role for this site in the accumulation of heteroplasmy. Our data indicate that BMI is potentially associated with control region heteroplasmy.
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