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Parent involvement when developing health education programmes
Holger Hassel,Katharina M Keimer
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2008, DOI: 10.2427/5848
Abstract: Background: The problem of obesity in children and adults has been widely recognised and described in the literature [1]. There are several challenges leading to an augmentation of the problem. Firstly, the aetiology of overweight and obesity is not clear. Secondly, the long term effectiveness of prevention programmes is low. Only in some groups and for a short period of time an effect may be visible [2]. Thirdly, little is known about what children should learn when [3]. A proper concept of educating children in regard to healthy eating or physical activity does not exist. As far as we know an essential pre-requisite for health education programmes is that they are lifestyleoriented and easily transferable into daily family life [4]. For this, working together with the parents would be essential. The main goal of this article will be 1) to get a better understanding of what parents and nurses/ teachers want 2) to strengthen the point that this method is one way to involve the target groups and thus it is likely to increase the acceptance of health education programmes 3) to describe that focus group discussions are a useful tool to identify the opinions of the target group. Methods: In the frame of three projects, focus groups with nurses/ teachers and parents have been carried out. Results and Conclusions: Results from different focus group discussions with pedagogues and parents will be discussed and conclusions for health education programmes relevant to all key players involved will be identified.
Mixing Enhancement in a Coaxial Jet Mixer  [PDF]
Valery Zhdanov, Egon Hassel
Advances in Materials Physics and Chemistry (AMPC) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ampc.2012.24B035
Abstract: Experimental investigations of mixing in a coaxial jet mixer have been carried out applying Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) methods simultaneously. A developed turbulent jet of an aqueous solution of Rhodamine 6G issued from the nozzle was mixed with co-flow water. Velocity and scalar fields were studied quite far downstream flow to control the formation of a quasi homogeneous mixture. The intensity of mixing was varied by mouthpieces with rectangular and triangular vortex generators of different sizes installed in the nozzle. The formation length of the quasi homogeneous mixture was reduced about 10 jet diameters by the tabs. The triangular tabs were more effective than the rectangular ones.
Tetanus: Pathophysiology, Treatment, and the Possibility of Using Botulinum Toxin against Tetanus-Induced Rigidity and Spasms
Bj?rnar Hassel
Toxins , 2013, DOI: 10.3390/toxins5010073
Abstract: Tetanus toxin, the product of Clostridium tetani, is the cause of tetanus symptoms. Tetanus toxin is taken up into terminals of lower motor neurons and transported axonally to the spinal cord and/or brainstem. Here the toxin moves trans-synaptically into inhibitory nerve terminals, where vesicular release of inhibitory neurotransmitters becomes blocked, leading to disinhibition of lower motor neurons. Muscle rigidity and spasms ensue, often manifesting as trismus/lockjaw, dysphagia, opistotonus, or rigidity and spasms of respiratory, laryngeal, and abdominal muscles, which may cause respiratory failure. Botulinum toxin, in contrast, largely remains in lower motor neuron terminals, inhibiting acetylcholine release and muscle activity. Therefore, botulinum toxin may reduce tetanus symptoms. Trismus may be treated with botulinum toxin injections into the masseter and temporalis muscles. This should probably be done early in the course of tetanus to reduce the risk of pulmonary aspiration, involuntary tongue biting, anorexia and dental caries. Other muscle groups are also amenable to botulinum toxin treatment. Six tetanus patients have been successfully treated with botulinum toxin A. This review discusses the use of botulinum toxin for tetanus in the context of the pathophysiology, symptomatology, and medical treatment of Clostridium tetani infection.
Theory of the Bloch Oscillating Transistor
J. Hassel,H. Seppa
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1063/1.1831553
Abstract: The Bloch oscillating transistor (BOT) is a device, where single electron current through a normal tunnel junction can be used to enhance Cooper pair current in a mesoscopic Josephson junction leading to signal amplification. In this paper we develop a theory, where the BOT dynamics is described as a two-level system. The theory is used to predict current-voltage characteristics and small-signal response. Transition from stable operation into hysteretic regime is studied. By identifying the two-level switching noise as the main source of fluctuations, the expressions for equivalent noise sources and the noise temperature are derived. The validity of the model is tested by comparing the results with simulations.
The Bloch Oscillating Transistor
H. Sepp?,J. Hassel
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: We introduce a new mesoscopic transistor, which consists of a superconducting island connected to superconducting and normal electrodes via two mesoscopic tunnel junctions. Furthermore, the island is being charged through a resistor. The interplay between Bloch oscillations, single-electron effects and ohmic current leads to a device having a high current gain. The operation and characteristics of the transistor are analyzed with a numerical model.
Large sets of consecutive Maass forms and fluctuations in the Weyl remainder
Holger Then
Mathematics , 2012,
Abstract: We explore an algorithm which systematically finds all discrete eigenvalues of an analytic eigenvalue problem. The algorithm is more simple and elementary as could be expected before. It consists of Hejhal's identity, linearisation, and Turing bounds. Using the algorithm, we compute more than one hundredsixty thousand consecutive eigenvalues of the Laplacian on the modular surface, and investigate the asymptotic and statistic properties of the fluctuations in the Weyl remainder. We summarize the findings in two conjectures. One is on the maximum size of the Weyl remainder, and the other is on the distribution of a suitably scaled version of the Weyl remainder.
Cutting and Welding of High-Strength Steels Using Non-Vacuum Electron Beam as a Universal Tool for Material Processing  [PDF]
Thomas Hassel, Nils Murray, Georgii Klimov, Alexander Beniyash
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2016.44056
Abstract: Using a non-vacuum electron beam, a two-step process chain for plate materials is a feasible possibility. Cutting and welding can be performed in subsequent steps on the same machine for a highly productive process chain. The electron beam is a tool with high energy conversion efficiency, which is largely independent of the type of metal. Its high power density qualifies the non-vacuum electron beam as an outstanding energy source for the well-known NVEB welding as well as for high-speed cutting. Welding is possible with or without filler wire or shielding gas, depending on the application. The NVEB-cutting process employs a co-moving cutting head with a sliding seal for extremely high cutting speeds producing high quality edges. Due to direct removal of fumes and dust, NVEBC with local suction is an exceptionally clean and fast process. The NVEB welding process is possible directly after cutting, without further edge preparation. The potential directions of development of non-vacuum electron beam technologies are discussed. An exemplary two-step process chain using high-strength steel is presented to highlight possible application in industries such as general steel construction, automotive, shipbuilding, railway vehicle or crane construction. An analysis of the mechanical properties of the resulting weld seam is presented.
Using the intervention mapping protocol to develop a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in a multi-centre European project: the IDEFICS intervention
Vera Verbestel, Stefaan De Henauw, Lea Maes, Leen Haerens, Staffan M?rild, Gabriele Eiben, Lauren Lissner, Luis A Moreno, Natalia Frauca, Gianvincenzo Barba, éva Kovács, Kenn Konstabel, Michael Tornaritis, Katharina Gallois, Holger Hassel, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-82
Abstract: The intervention mapping protocol (IMP) was used to develop the community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity in 3 to 10 years old children. It is a theory- and evidence-based tool for the structured planning and development of health promotion programs that requires the completion of six different steps. These steps were elaborated by two coordinating centers and discussed with the other participating centers until agreement was reached. Focus group research was performed in all participating centers to provide an informed basis for intervention development.The application of the IMP resulted in an overall intervention framework with ten intervention modules targeting environmental and personal factors through the family, the school and the community. The summary results of the focus group research were used to inform the development of the overall intervention. The cultural adaptation of the overall intervention was realised by using country specific focus group results. The need for cultural adaptation was considered during the entire process to improve program adoption and implementation. A plan was developed to evaluate program effectiveness and quality of implementation.The IDEFICS project developed a community-based intervention for the prevention of childhood obesity by using to the intervention mapping heuristic. The IDEFICS intervention consists of a general and standardized intervention framework that allows for cultural adaptation to make the intervention feasible and to enhance deliverability in all participating countries. The present manuscript demonstrates that the development of an intervention is a long process that needs to be done systematically. Time, human resources and finances need to be planned beforehand to make interventions evidence-based and culturally relevant.The prevalence of overweight and obesity in Europe has increased during the past decades [1,2] and is considered a significant public health problem [2]. Th
Evaluation of Screw Reinforcement on Bearing Performance of Wood Depending on Screw Position  [PDF]
Satoru Murakami, Akihisa Kitamori, Kiho Jung, Ivon B. Hassel, Kohei Komatsu
Open Journal of Civil Engineering (OJCE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojce.2012.23021
Abstract: In this study, the reinforcement of wood by screws for partial compression perpendicular to the grain was studied. For the estimation of stiffness and strength, the reinforcement effect of screws depending on their position under the loading plate was evaluated by taking into account the internal displacement distribution of the wood. The finite element analysis (FEA) was used to investigate the internal displacement distribution of the wood. Then an approximate function that can be applied to various internal displacement distributions under loading plate was proposed. From the shear resistance mechanism between the screw and wood by taking their relative displacement distribution into consideration, the equations to estimate the initial stiffness and yield strength of the bearing performance of the wood reinforced by screws were derived. Then partial compression test was carried out for wood reinforced by screws with setting screw thread at various positions. The values obtained by the equations corresponded with the tendency of the experimental results. It was found that the screw reinforcement is more effective when its thread is positioned as much as distant from the contact surface.
Gold nanostructures by directional solid-state decomposition
Srdjan Milenkovic,André Schneider,Achim Walter Hassel
Gold Bulletin , 2006, DOI: 10.1007/BF03215552
Abstract: This study addresses a novel approach of obtaining gold nanostructures, via directional eutectoid decomposition and selective etching of Fe-Au alloys. The eutectoid transformation occurs at 2.3%Au, which agrees perfectly with existing DTA and calculated data. The results are thus experimentally supporting the calculated part of the binary Fe-Au phase diagram. Gold nanofibres were rectangular in shape, constrained with two perpendicular crystallographic directions, showing the faceted nature of the Au phase. In addition, it was shown that a range of gold nanostructures, including gold nanoparticles, short nanorods, and nanofibres might be achieved depending on the processing route. The uniformity and regularity of the obtained nanostructures are limited, due to a non-cooperative mechanism of the eutectoid transformation. These homomorph gold nanostructures have the same high potential as other gold nanostructures but also the advantage of being inherently organized in a single crystalline matrix.
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