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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4977 matches for " Hiroshi Noda "
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Portal Venous-Phase CT of the Liver in Patients without Chronic Liver Damage: Does Portal-Inflow Tracking Improve Enhancement and Image Quality?  [PDF]
Masayuki Kanematsu, Haruo Watanabe, Hiroshi Kondo, Satoshi Goshima, Hiroshi Kawada, Yoshifumi Noda
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2013.33018

Purpose: This study was undertaken to determine if portal-inflow bolus tracking outperforms aortic bolus tracking with respect to the image quality of contrast-enhanced portal venous-phase CT of the liver in patients without chronic liver damage. Materials and Methods: Contrast-enhanced CT of the liver was performed in 132 consecutive patients without chronic liver damage. Patients were prospectively assigned to three protocols: Protocol A—a portal venous-phase scan delay of 6 seconds after superior mesenteric venous (SMV) enhancement increased by 70 HU or 14 seconds after SMV enhancement was visually confirmed, and Protocols B and C—40 and 50 seconds, respectively, after abdominal aortic enhancement increased by 100 HU. Enhancement (ΔHU) of abdominal aorta, portal trunk, and liver parenchyma and diagnostic acceptability were assessed. Results: ΔHU of aorta was higher for protocol A than for protocols B and C (P < 0.05), whereas ΔHU of portal trunk was higher for protocol B than for protocols A and C (P < 0.05). ΔHUs of liver were similar in three protocols. No difference was found between diagnostic a  ptabilities of three protocols. Conclusion: Portal-inflow bolus tracking did not outperform aortic tracking in terms of optimization of portal venous-phase CT in patients without chronic liver damage.

Agroecosystems, Landscapes and Knowledge of Family Farmers from Arama?á Island, Upper Solim?es Region, Amazon  [PDF]
Ayrton Luiz Urizzi Martins, Sandra do Nascimento Noda, Hiroshi Noda, Lúcia Helena Pinheiro Martins, Elisabete Brocki
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/as.2018.910095
Abstract: The family farmer’s knowledge about floodplains agroecosystems dynamics is part of agrobiodiversity conservation cognitive strategies. This is because the conservation in floodplains is conditioned by the ecophysiological adaptation to the period and flood gradient of the agricultural lands and by the transformations promoted in the environment by the waters pulse. The aim of this study was to understand the cognitive strategies expressed in the organized meaning of agroecosystems by local knowledge, related to the geomorphological dynamics of the Aramaçá Island, Amazonas, Brazil. In this research, the Case Study and Ethnoecology were adopted as approach, taking the systemic complexity paradigm as a theoretical framework. To do so, it was necessary to establish a dialogue with the local knowledge through multitemporal analyses of satellite images, historical series of hydrological data, as well as cartographic documents of the locality. The floodplains amphibian mark, as a living organism in permanent autopoietic process, seems to be imprinted in the family farmer’s knowledge. In order to live in the floodplains and of floodplains, it is necessary, above all, to develop a cognitive ability capable of understanding not only the rivers action on the lands, but also that of the lands on the rivers as well. Therefore, the geomorphological dynamics in the spaces managed by the family farmers impose on them, risks and uncertainties, demanding from them strategies that allow knowing and dealing with this complexity.
Genetic Variability of Pumpkin Landraces in Brazilian Amazon  [PDF]
Lúcia Helena Pinheiro Martins, Hiroshi Noda, Maria Teresa Gomes Lopes, Maria Silvesnizia Paiva Mendon?a, Ayrton Luiz Urizzi Martins
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.712075
Abstract: The family farm of the Upper Solim?es region has maintained the great genetic variability of the pumpkin (Cucurbita maxima Duchesne) by the in situ conservation of the landraces which are widely used as human food. The aim of this study was to estimate the current level of genetic variability of pumpkin landraces by means of estimation techniques of genetic parameters. Landraces areas samples were the family farming production units located in floodplains ecosystems of Benjamin Constant (Upper Solim?es River) and Iranduba (Lower Solim?es River), Amazonas. The split-plot designs were adopted at the treatments where the main plots were the five pumpkin landraces and one commercial cultivar. Each landrace was obtained six half sib families distributed in the sub-plots. Among the results of this study, it can be concluded that the genetic variation within the each landrace is greater than the genetic variation among the landraces. The qualitative morphological characteristics bring together half-sib families collected in geographically distant locations. It can be concluded that, through the estimation of genetic parameters, there is genetic variability among local cultivars collected in family farming of Benjamin Constant and Iranduba, Amazonas.
Landscapes and ethno-knowledge in the Ticuna and Cocama agriculture at upper River Solim es, Amazonas, Brazil
Sandra do Nascimento Noda,Ayrton Luiz Urizzi Martins,Hiroshi Noda,Antonia Ivanilce Castro da Silva
Boletim do Museu Paraense Emílio Goeldi. Ciências Humanas , 2012,
Abstract: The units of landscape in the Cocama and Ticuna agriculture, in the upper River Solim es, are characterized by productionarrangements and management of natural resources. This paper aims to characterize these agro-ecological based practices,the landscaped results and its regional applicability. The survey was conducted in Novo Paraíso, at Bom Intento Island,and in Nova Alian a, both located in the municipality of Benjamin Constant, state of Amazonas, Brazil. The social andeconomic organization of Ticuna and Cocama Peoples is founded on kinship and communal ownership of natural resources,including spaces for gathering. Family units, despite their weak linkages with the market and its rules, have in the logicof reciprocity the motivation for the production, transmission and management of resources and factors of production.The landscapes are reconstructed by agro-ecological production derived from ethno-knowledge and correspond to theinherent processes of management and conservation of flora and fauna. This process allows the existence of compleximbrications of constantly changing landscapes in which forms of production are recreated for sufficiency and sustainability.
Remote Detection of the Electric Field Change Induced at the Seismic Wave Front from the Start of Fault Rupturing
Yukio Fujinawa,Kozo Takahashi,Yoichi Noda,Hiroshi Iitaka,Shinobu Yazaki
International Journal of Geophysics , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/752193
Abstract: Seismic waves are generally observed through the measurement of undulating elastic ground motion. We report the remote detection of the Earth's electric field variations almost simultaneously with the start of fault rupturing at about 100 km from the fault region using a special electric measurement. The rare but repeated detection indicates that the phenomenon is real. The characteristic time of diffusion is almost instantaneous, that is, less than 1 second to travel 100 km, more than ten times faster than ordinary seismic P wave propagation. We suggest that the measured electric field changes are produced by the electrokinetic effect through increased pore water pressure of the seismic pulse. It is also suggested that the long range propagation is due to the surface wave mode confined near the interface of the different conductivity. The length scale of the finite strength of the electric field is 16 km, 160 km for electric conductivity of 0.01, 0.001, Sm−1, respectively. This phenomenon suggests a new seismic sensing method and a new earthquake early warning system providing more seconds of lead time.
Cancer Risk in Diabetic Patients Treated with Metformin: A Systematic Review and Meta-analysis
Hiroshi Noto, Atsushi Goto, Tetsuro Tsujimoto, Mitsuhiko Noda
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0033411
Abstract: Background A growing body of evidence has suggested that metformin potentially reduces the risk of cancer. Our objective was to enhance the precision of estimates of the effect of metformin on the risk of any-site and site-specific cancers in patients with diabetes. Methods/Principal Findings We performed a search of MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov for pertinent articles published as of October 12, 2011, and included them in a systematic review and meta-analysis. We calculated pooled risk ratios (RRs) for overall cancer mortality and cancer incidence. Of the 21,195 diabetic patients reported in 6 studies (4 cohort studies, 2 RCTs), 991 (4.5%) cases of death from cancer were reported. A total of 11,117 (5.3%) cases of incident cancer at any site were reported among 210,892 patients in 10 studies (2 RCTs, 6 cohort studies, 2 case-control studies). The risks of cancer among metformin users were significantly lower than those among non-metformin users: the pooled RRs (95% confidence interval) were 0.66 (0.49–0.88) for cancer mortality, 0.67 (0.53–0.85) for all-cancer incidence, 0.68 (0.53–0.88) for colorectal cancer (n = 6), 0.20 (0.07–0.59) for hepatocellular cancer (n = 4), 0.67 (0.45–0.99) for lung cancer (n = 3). Conclusion/Significance The use of metformin in diabetic patients was associated with significantly lower risks of cancer mortality and incidence. However, this analysis is mainly based on observational studies and our findings underscore the more need for long-term RCTs to confirm this potential benefit for individuals with diabetes.
Sele??o de genótipos de piment?o resistentes à Xanthomonas campestris pv. vesicatoria (Doidge) Dye. sob condi??es naturais de infec??o
Noda, Hiroshi;Machado, Francisco Manoares;Martins, Ayrton Luiz Urizzi;
Acta Amazonica , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0044-59672003000300003
Abstract: the cultivation of pepper is decling in the floodplain ecosystem of the solim?es river, near manaus, amazonas, brazil, because the frequence of severe epidemics of bacterial spot caused by x. campestris pv. vesicatoria (doidge) dye. the inpa pepper improvement program for resistance to x. campestris pv. vesicatoria was initiated in 1976. in this paper is reported results of three experiments in upland and floodplain ecosystems in amazonas, in which f13 and f14 progenies of a interspecific cross of capsicum annuum and c. chinense (named hp-12) were evaluated for resistance to x. campestris pv. vesicatoria and fruit yield potential under natural conditions of plant infection. when the host population is composed of resistant and suceptible cultivars epidemic patterns fit the monomolecular model of disease progress and high levels of resistance, conferred by a genotype, were due to its capacity to restrict the velocity of disease progress. the progenies selected by the program have higher levels of resistance to the pathogen and higher yield potential than control, the susceptible cultivar cascadura ikeda. the potential for fruit yield is related to the host's level of resistance. also c. chinense is an important source of genetic resistance to x. campestris pv. vesicatoria for the pepper genetic improvement program.
Melanthera discoidea: Um novo hospedeiro de ralstonia solanacearum
Fitopatologia Brasileira , 2001,
Low-Carbohydrate Diets and All-Cause Mortality: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Observational Studies
Hiroshi Noto, Atsushi Goto, Tetsuro Tsujimoto, Mitsuhiko Noda
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0055030
Abstract: Objective Low-carbohydrate diets and their combination with high-protein diets have been gaining widespread popularity to control weight. In addition to weight loss, they may have favorable short-term effects on the risk factors of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Our objective was to elucidate their long-term effects on mortality and CVD incidence. Data sources MEDLINE, EMBASE, ISI Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and ClinicalTrials.gov for relevant articles published as of September 2012. Cohort studies of at least one year’s follow-up period were included. Review methods Identified articles were systematically reviewed and those with pertinent data were selected for meta-analysis. Pooled risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for all-cause mortality, CVD mortality and CVD incidence were calculated using the random-effects model with inverse-variance weighting. Results We included 17 studies for a systematic review, followed by a meta-analysis using pertinent data. Of the 272,216 people in 4 cohort studies using the low-carbohydrate score, 15,981 (5.9%) cases of death from all-cause were reported. The risk of all-cause mortality among those with high low-carbohydrate score was significantly elevated: the pooled RR (95% CI) was 1.31 (1.07–1.59). A total of 3,214 (1.3%) cases of CVD death among 249,272 subjects in 3 cohort studies and 5,081 (2.3%) incident CVD cases among 220,691 people in different 4 cohort studies were reported. The risks of CVD mortality and incidence were not statistically increased: the pooled RRs (95% CIs) were 1.10 (0.98–1.24) and 0.98 (0.78–1.24), respectively. Analyses using low-carbohydrate/high-protein score yielded similar results. Conclusion Low-carbohydrate diets were associated with a significantly higher risk of all-cause mortality and they were not significantly associated with a risk of CVD mortality and incidence. However, this analysis is based on limited observational studies and large-scale trials on the complex interactions between low-carbohydrate diets and long-term outcomes are needed.
Novel Approach for the Detection of the Vestiges of Testicular mRNA Splicing Errors in Mature Spermatozoa of Japanese Black Bulls
Taichi Noda, Mitsuhiro Sakase, Moriyuki Fukushima, Hiroshi Harayama
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0057296
Abstract: There is a serious problem with the reduction of male reproductive performance of the livestock in the world. We have a hypothesis that the splicing error-caused derivation of aberrant sperm motility-related proteins may be one of its causal factors. It is thought that fresh testicular tissues are necessary for the detection of splicing errors of the mRNA. However, it is difficult to obtain testicular tissues from a number of agriculturally important bulls by surgical methods, because such procedures may have deleterious effects on bulls’ reproductive performance. The aim of this study was to examine the usefulness of mRNA fragments collected from ejaculated spermatozoa as alternative analytical samples for detection of the splicing errors. In the first experiment, we characterized the alternative splicing and splicing error of bull testicular ADCY10 mRNA which coded the synthase of the regulatory molecule for sperm motility “cAMP”. In testes, the exon 11-lacking variant coding the truncated ADCY10 was derived by alternative splicing. However, splicing errors, which accompanied the frame shift in the second cyclase domain, were occasionally observed in the exon 11-lacking variant. This aberrant variant retained intronic nucleotides (4 bases, CCAG) connecting the initial part of exon 10 due to splicing errors and consequently yielded the cleavage site for a restriction enzyme (Cac8I) which recognized the nucleotide sequences (GCNNGC). In the second experiment, we recovered residual testicular mRNA fragments from ejaculated spermatozoa and observed the splicing error-caused derivation of the aberrant variant of ADCY 10. Ejaculated spermatozoa conserved mRNA fragments of the exon 11-lacking variant coding exons 9, 10, 12 and 13. Moreover, the above-mentioned aberrant variant of ADCY10 mRNA fragment was detectable by Cac8I digestion treatment using the sperm mRNAs. These results indicate the utility of sperm mRNA fragments for the detection of splicing errors in bull testicular mRNAs.
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