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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4507 matches for " Hiroshi Hoshiai "
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Constitutively Active Soluble Form of Erythropoietin Receptor Suppresses Growth and Angiogenesis of Xenografts of Transfected Cancer Cell Lines  [PDF]
Yoshiko Yasuda, Yasuhiro Maeda, Satoshi Hara, Motoyoshi Tanaka, Eiji Koike, Yoh Watanabe, Seiji Masuda, Harufumi Yamasaki, Katsumi Okumoto, Hiroyoshi Konishi, Yoshitaka Horiuchi, Hiroshi Hoshiai
Journal of Cancer Therapy (JCT) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/jct.2011.21005
Abstract: We examined the effect of blocking the erythropoietin (Epo) signaling using an anti-Epo antibody, soluble form of Epo receptor (sEpoR) capable of binding to Epo or EpoR antagonist, and proved to be effective against xenografts of female reproductive organ malignancies and of cancer cell lines in nude mice. We transfected seven cancer cell lines of various origins to express constitutively active sEpoR, and examined their tumorigenesis in nude mice. Suppression of the tumor growth, decrease in viable and proliferating cells and reduction of vascular density were seen individually in all xenografts of transfected cell lines compared with the controls. Quantitative RT-PCR analyses showed that expression levels of Epo, EpoR, ?1A-adrenaline receptor (?1A-ADR) and muscalinic acetylcholine receptor subunit 3 mRNAs (m3-AchR) were higher in the majority of the wild-type xenografts than in the corresponding cell lines except for A549. In some of the transfected xenografts, EpoR, ?1A-ADR and m3-AchR mRNAs were down-regulated. Western blot analyses revealed that the constitutively activated ERK1/2MAPK was discernible in the majority of non-transfected cell lines and was reduced in the transfected cell lines. However, it was regained after exposure to acetylcholine and/or noradrenaline. These findings suggest that constitutively active sEpoR can effectively destroy the xenografts but signals from the autonomic neurotransmitters of the host produced under stress may interfere with this antitumor activity.
Behaviour of Ru(bpy)2+3 on the Surface of Water-Soluble Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes on Adding Other Cations  [PDF]
Hiroshi Shioyama
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2012.22015
Abstract: Behaviour of excited Ru(bpy)2+3 bound to the surface of water-soluble single-walled carbon nanotubes on addition of other cations have been investigated by measuring Ru(bpy) luminescence. In contrast to what was observed with a solution containing rod-like aggregation particles of Nafion, we found that Ru(bpy)2+3 has a stronger attraction than that of other cations to the sulfonic groups on the carbon nanotubes. Such a difference is attributed to the unique micro-environmental characteristics of the molecular assemblies.
Extension of Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH), Mathematical Background of Vortex Blob Method (VBM) and Moving Particle Semi-Implicit (MPS)  [PDF]
Hiroshi Isshiki
American Journal of Computational Mathematics (AJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajcm.2014.45036
Abstract: SPH has a reasonable mathematical background. Although VBM and MPS are similar to SPH, their ma-thematical backgrounds seem fragile. VBM has some problems in treating the viscous diffusion of vortices but is known as a practical method for calculating viscous flows. The mathematical background of MPS is also not sufficient. Not with standing, the numerical results seem reasonable in many cases. The problem common in both VBM and MPS is that the space derivatives necessary for calculating viscous diffusion are not estimated reasonably, although the treatment of advection is mathematically correct. This paper discusses a method to estimate the above mentioned problem of how to treat the space derivatives. The numerical results show the comparison among FDM (Finite Difference Method), SPH and MPS in detail. In some cases, there are big differences among them. An extension of SPH is also given.
The Effective Chiral Model of Quantum Hadrodynamics Applied to Nuclear Matter and Neutron Stars  [PDF]
Hiroshi Uechi
Journal of Applied Mathematics and Physics (JAMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jamp.2015.32017
Abstract:

We review theoretical relations between macroscopic properties of neutron stars and microscopic quantities of nuclear matter, such as consistency of hadronic nuclear models and observed masses of neutron stars. The relativistic hadronic field theory, quantum hadrodynamics (QHD), and mean-field approximations of the theory are applied to saturation properties of symmetric nuclear and neutron matter. The equivalence between mean-field approximations and Hartree approximation is emphasized in terms of renormalized effective masses and effective coupling constants of hadrons. This is important to prove that the direct application of mean-field (Hartree) approximation to nuclear and neutron matter is inadequate to examine physical observables. The equations of state (EOS), binding energies of nuclear matter, self-consistency of nuclear matter, are reviewed, and the result of chiral Hartree-Fock \"\"approximation is shown. Neutron stars and history of nuclear astrophysics, nuclear model and nuclear matter, possibility of hadron and hadron-quark neutron stars are briefly reviewed. The hadronic models are very useful and practical for understanding astrophysical phenomena, nuclear

Patterns in Stroke Occurrence on Warm Days in Winter by Associations Analysis  [PDF]
Hiroshi Morimoto
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2015.512074
Abstract: There is increasing interest in the effects of meteorological factors on stroke occurrence. A number of studies have found that cold exposure was a trigger to the onset of cerebral infarction in winter. It was believed that the case of stroke occurrence on warm days in winterwas just a coincidence and negligible. The main objective of this study was to offer the evidence against the above belief. We aimed to find typical patterns among stroke occurrences in case the weather became warmer in winter. Associations analysis was conducted using daily data of emergency transport at Nagoya City in Japan. Typical patterns were identified among risky stroke occurrences even for the case that the weather became warmer in winter. These findings will contribute to an accurate forecast of stroke occurrence in winter.
Hidden Markov Models and Self-Organizing Maps Applied to Stroke Incidence  [PDF]
Hiroshi Morimoto
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2016.63017
Abstract: Several studies were devoted to investigate the effects of meteorological factors on the occurrence of stroke. Regression models had been mostly used to assess the correlation between weather and stroke incidence. However, these methods could not describe the process proceeding in the back-ground of stroke incidence. The purpose of this study was to provide a new approach based on Hidden Markov Models (HMMs) and self-organizing maps (SOM), interpreting the background from the viewpoint of weather variability. Based on meteorological data, SOM was performed to classify weather patterns. Using these classes by SOM as randomly changing “states”, our Hidden Markov Models were constructed with “observation data” that were extracted from the daily data of emergency transport at Nagoya City in Japan. We showed that SOM was an effective method to get weather patterns that would serve as “states” of Hidden Markov Models. Our Hidden Markov Models provided effective models to clarify background process for stroke incidence. The effectiveness of these Hidden Markov Models was estimated by stochastic test for root mean square errors (RMSE). “HMMs with states by SOM” would serve as a description of the background process of stroke incidence and were useful to show the influence of weather on stroke onset. This finding will contribute to an improvement of our understanding for links between weather variability and stroke incidence.
Hidden Markov Models to Estimate the Lagged Effects of Weather on Stroke and Ischemic Heart Disease  [PDF]
Hiroshi Morimoto
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/am.2016.713122
Abstract: The links between low temperature and the incidence of disease have been studied by many researchers. What remains still unclear is the exact nature of the relation, especially the mechanism by which the change of weather effects on the onset of diseases. The existence of lag period between exposure to temperature and its effect on mortality may reflect the nature of the onset of diseases. Therefore, to assess lagged effects becomes potentially important. The most of studies on lags used the method by Lag-distributed Poisson Regression, and neglected extreme case as random noise to get correlations. In order to assess the lagged effect, we proposed a new approach, i.e., Hidden Markov Model by Self Organized Map (HMM by SOM) apart from well-known regression models. HMM by SOM includes the randomness in its nature and encompasses the extreme cases which were neglected by auto-regression models. The daily data of the number of patients transported by ambulance in Nagoya, Japan, were used. SOM was carried out to classify the meteorological elements into six classes. These classes were used as “states” of HMM. HMM was used to describe a background process which might produce the time series of the incidence of diseases. The background process was considered to change randomly weather states, classified by SOM. We estimated the lagged effects of weather change on the onset of both cerebral infarction and ischemic heart disease. This fact is potentially important in that if one could trace a path in the chain of events leading from temperature change to death, one might be able to prevent it and avert the fatal outcome.
Secular Changes in Child Height in Japan and South Korea: Consumption of Animal Proteins and “Essential Nutrients”  [PDF]
Hiroshi Mori
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.912106
Abstract: Child height in Japan and South Korea increased dramatically over the past half century. At age 17 - 18 years, male students in Japan were 2 cm taller in the 1960s through 1970s, still barely taller in the 1980s than S. Korean students, but by the early 1990s they ceased to grow any taller in height, whereas their Korean peers kept increasing in height to overtake their Japanese peers by 3 cm in the mid-2000s. Economic growth was rapid in both countries, but S. Korea some two decades behind Japan. Per capita GDP in Japan was four times that in S. Korea in the mid-1980s and twice in the early-2000s. Food consumption increased conspicuously in both countries, with per capita net supply of animal products in Japan noticeably exceeding that in S. Korea in the early-2000s. However, per capita total caloric intake has been a few hundred kcal/day greater in S. Korea than in Japan since the end of 1970s, mainly from cereals. In particular, S. Koreans have consumed nearly twice as many vegetables as Japanese after the early 1980s. What may deserve attention is that Japanese youth, as compared to their older generations, drastically reduced their consumption of fruit and vegetables in the mid-1970s, whereas their S. Korean counterparts have maintained their consumption of these produce. These contrasts in food consumption patterns may have contributed to the differences in child height development in the two countries.
Presence/Absence of Two Types of Z-DNA Binding Domains in the Genomes of Organisms from Archaea, Bacteria, and Eukaryotes and Its Implications  [PDF]
Hiroshi Nakashima
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2019.121001
Abstract: We conducted genome sequence analysis to examine the presence/absence of two types of Z-DNA binding domains in various organisms. We examined 68 organisms from archaea, 914 organisms from bacteria, and 199 organisms from eukaryotes. RecA protein from Escherichia coli has a Z-DNA binding domain and this protein promotes homologous recombination. All the organisms examined had this domain. This result indicated that this domain is essential for all the organisms. RNA editing enzyme, adenosine deaminase from human has another type of Z-DNA binding domain. This domain was observed in some organisms of archaea, bacteria, and eukaryotes. The presence/absence of Z-DNA binding domain in adenosine deaminase indicated that gain and loss of this domain had occurred in the process of evolution. The implication of presence and absence of this domain is discussed in this study.
Temporal Optimality of a Via-Posture on Trajectory during Sit-to-Stand and Back-to-Sit Movements  [PDF]
Hiroshi R. Yamasaki, Urara Nakamura, Hiroshi Nagasaki
Journal of Biomedical Science and Engineering (JBiSE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbise.2014.77041
Abstract: The purpose of this study was to examine the hypothesis that the minimum angle-jerk with via-point model could account for the temporal consistency of kinematics in sit-to-stand (STS) and back-to-sit (BTS) movements. The positions of bony landmarks on the subjects during the tasks were recorded using a Vicon motion analysis system to yield the angular displacement and position of the center of mass (COM) of a three-link rigid body model in the sagittal plane. Minimum angle-jerk and minimum jerk trajectories with a via-point were computed for joint angle and COM, respectively. Five to six candidate points were selected as the via-point from the measured trajectory based on the separate kinematic events. The results show the optimal angular trajectories using the via-points (via-angles) before the seat-off for STS, and at around the seat-contact for BTS resembles the measured angular trajectories well, indicating that the posture at the via-point was temporally optimal to produce the minimum angle-jerk trajectory for both movements. It is hypothesized that the multi-joint angular patterns during STS and BTS movements were organized to pass through the via-point, namely the via-posture along the minimum angle-jerk trajectory.
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