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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 974 matches for " Hiromi Kojima "
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Long-Term Effect of Enzyme Replacement Therapy with Fabry Disease
Manabu Komori,Yuika Sakurai,Hiromi Kojima,Toya Ohashi,Hiroshi Moriyama
International Journal of Otolaryngology , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/282487
Abstract: Objective. To determine the effects of enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) on the hearing acuity in patients with Fabry disease. Materials. The study sample comprised 34 ears of 17 affected patients who underwent pure-tone audiometry before and after ERT. Methods. The patients were studied in relation to factors such as changes in hearing, presence of accompanying symptoms, status of renal and cardiac function, age, and gender. Data of pure-tone audiometry obtained before ERT and at the final examination were compared. Results. At the end of the follow-up period, no significant worsening of hearing acuity was noted at the end of the follow-up period. SSNHL was detected in 10 ears of 6 patients. Steroid therapy successfully cured the disease in 9 of the 10 ears. Conclusions. No significant worsening of hearing acuity was noted from the beginning to the end of ERT. The rate of improvement in SSNHL of Fabry disease was excellent in the treated patients. Hearing loss is a factor that causes marked deterioration of the patients’ quality of life, and it is desirable that the hearing acuity of patients be periodically evaluated and prompt treatment of SSNHL be administered, if available. 1. Introduction Fabry disease is a genetic inborn error of metabolism in which the enzymatic activity of -galactosidase ( -Gal), a hydrolytic enzyme present in lysosomes, is decreased due to a gene mutation; this results in the accumulation of glycolipids, mainly in the vascular endothelium. This disorder was first reported in 1898 by 2 independent investigators, namely, Anderson from the UK and Fabry from Germany [1, 2]. The disease is acquired by X chromosome-linked inheritance, and male and female patients with Fabry disease are hemizygous and heterozygous, respectively. Further, male patients with Fabry disease can either present with the classic type of the disease or the late-onset subtype. The disease mainly involves the kidney, heart, and brain, and accordingly, affected patients often die in their 40?s or 50?s because of renal failure, heart failure, or cerebral infarction. In addition, angiokeratoma and hypohidrosis are present, with a variety of neurologic symptoms, including severe pain in the extremities, burning sensation, headache, dizziness, hearing loss, lack of motivation, and neurosis. According to the published literature, 54.5% [3] to 80% [4] of patients with Fabry disease experience hearing loss. In a previous study, we examined the relationship between hearing acuity and complications occurring in Fabry disease patients treated at our institution and found
Cholesteatoma Fibroblasts Promote Epithelial Cell Proliferation through Overexpression of Epiregulin
Mamoru Yoshikawa, Hiromi Kojima, Yuichiro Yaguchi, Naoko Okada, Hirohisa Saito, Hiroshi Moriyama
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066725
Abstract: To investigate whether keratinocytes proliferate in response to epiregulin produced by subepithelial fibroblasts derived from middle ear cholesteatoma. Tissue samples were obtained from patients undergoing tympanoplasty. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry were performed to examine epiregulin expression and localization in cholesteatoma tissues and retroauricular skin tissues. Fibroblasts were cultured from cholesteatoma tissues and from normal retroauricular skin. These fibroblasts were used as feeder cells for culture with a human keratinocyte cell line (PHK16-0b). To investigate the role of epiregulin in colony formation by PHK16-0b cells, epiregulin mRNA expression was knocked down in fibroblasts by using short interfering RNA and epiregulin protein was blocked with a neutralizing antibody. Epiregulin mRNA expression was significantly elevated in cholesteatoma tissues compared with that in normal retroauricular skin. Staining for epiregulin was more intense in the epithelial cells and subepithelial fibroblasts of cholesteatoma tissues than in retroauricular skin. When PHK16-0b cells were cultured with cholesteatoma fibroblasts, their colony-forming efficiency was 50% higher than when these cells were cultured with normal skin fibroblasts. Also, knockdown of epiregulin mRNA in cholesteatoma fibroblasts led to greater suppression of colony formation than knockdown in skin fibroblasts. Furthermore, the colony-forming efficiency of PHK16-0b cells was significantly reduced after treatment with an epiregulin neutralizing antibody in co-culture with cholesteatoma fibroblasts, but not in co-culture with skin fibroblasts. These results suggest that keratinocyte hyperproliferation in cholesteatoma is promoted through overexpression of epiregulin by subepithelial fibroblasts via epithelial–mesenchymal interactions, which may play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of middle ear cholesteatoma.
Implementability by a Canonical Indirect Mechanism of an Optimal Two-Dimensional Direct Mechanism  [PDF]
Naoki Kojima
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.72016
Abstract: The present paper investigates the multi-dimensional mechanism design in which buyers have taste and budget as their private information. The paper shows an easy proof of a two-dimensional optimal direct mechanism by a one-dimensional indirect mechanism: A canonical mechanism in the traditional one-dimensional setting, i.e., function of one variable, the buyers taste. It also sheds light on where the difficulty lies implementability of a general direct mechanism—not optimal—by a canonical mechanism.
Two-Dimensional Mechanism Design and Implementability by an Indirect Mechanism  [PDF]
Naoki Kojima
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2017.76107
Abstract: This paper studies the problem on two-dimensional mechanism design where the buyer’s taste and budget are his private information. The paper investigates the problem by the method of dimension-reduction, i.e., by focusing only on the buyer’s budget and constructing an indirect mechanism: function of one variable, the buyer’s budget. It is an approach quite antipodal to that by Kojima [1] where he focused on the buyer’s taste instead of his budget. It is shown that the seller does not lose any money by adopting the indirect mechanism of this paper. In other words, the seller’s revenue-maximizing direct mechanism is implemented by such an indirect mechanism
An Empirical Analysis of Women’s Promotion in Japanese Companies: Comparison with Chinese and Korean Cases  [PDF]
Hiromi Ishizuka
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2016.63063
Abstract: The purpose of this study is to contribute to the economic revitalization of Japan by learning from other countries through a consideration of diversity. From Chinese urban areas, we study an example of a fluid labor market, and a firmly rooted movement of women into the workplace. From Korea, even though the male-female disparities are greater than those in Japan, we study a concrete case in terms of the rapid speed of the changing workplace. The framework includes not only promotion at the company level, but also lifestyle at the household level. The study uses the numerical values and analysis is through the Negative Binominal Regression Model. Findings include: 1) in Japan, there is “slow promotion” in the both case of men and women and a “glass ceiling” for women; 2) in China, the decisive male-female disparity is the difference in the “age of fixed retirement”. Gender gaps in working conditions are uncommon. Home factors slightly disturb promotions. Tenure is short and there is a fluid labor market. There is a “sticky floor” for women; 3) in Korea, the gender gap of graduate’s with more than a bachelor’s degree is small. Men with no official title are concentrated in the low rank, and have long tenures. There is a “sticky floor” for men. There are two years of compulsory military service for young men. Despite this, many men are promoted to higher managerial positions in their lifetimes.
An Empirical Analysis of Substitution and Complementarity of Gender Labor Demand of Enterprises in Japan, Korea, and China: With a Factor Decomposition of Gender Wage Differentials  [PDF]
Hiromi Ishizuka
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2018.810125
Abstract: The purpose of this study is the effect of expansion of female labor demand on male labor demand for labor market reform to facilitate Japanese economic development. Firstly, the estimates using Hicks’ (1970) partial elasticity of complementarity and Allen’s (1938) partial elasticity of substitution revealed an increase in male labor demand when female labor demand increased in all three countries. The results were a relationship of complementarity in labor demand between male and female regular employees in the order of China, South Korea, Japan. However, a push factor or a pull factor is assumed to make up a complementarity relationship. Therefore secondly, the factor decomposition analysis of wage gap is used to investigate which factors are applicable. The gender wage gap consists of economic rationality and economic irrational discriminatory [Neumark (1988); Oaxaca and Ransom (1994)]. The gap was confirmed in all three countries. Although the actual gender average wage difference was small in China, “discriminatory preference theory” was suggested that there is underpayment of women in Japan and Korea. In Japan, as women have a high potential labor force participation rate, expansion of female labor demand seems promising as an economic policy, not least because of the declining population. Labor-related economic policies are needed, such as the creation of a fluid labor market in China, or the implementation of effective
Comprehensive Genetic Screening of KCNQ4 in a Large Autosomal Dominant Nonsyndromic Hearing Loss Cohort: Genotype-Phenotype Correlations and a Founder Mutation
Takehiko Naito, Shin-ya Nishio, Yoh-ichiro Iwasa, Takuya Yano, Kozo Kumakawa, Satoko Abe, Kotaro Ishikawa, Hiromi Kojima, Atsushi Namba, Chie Oshikawa, Shin-ichi Usami
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0063231
Abstract: The present study of KCNQ4 mutations was carried out to 1) determine the prevalence by unbiased population-based genetic screening, 2) clarify the mutation spectrum and genotype/phenotype correlations, and 3) summarize clinical characteristics. In addition, a review of the reported mutations was performed for better understanding of this deafness gene. The screening using 287 probands from unbiased Japanese autosomal dominant nonsyndromic hearing loss (ADNSHL) families identified 19 families with 7 different disease causing mutations, indicating that the frequency is 6.62% (19/287). While the majority were private mutations, one particular recurrent mutation, c.211delC, was observed in 13 unrelated families. Haplotype analysis in the vicinity of c.211delC suggests existence of a common ancestor. The majority of the patients showed all frequency, but high-frequency predominant, sensorineural hearing loss. The present study adds a new typical audiogram configuration characterized by mid-frequency predominant hearing loss caused by the p.V230E mutation. A variant at the N-terminal site (c. 211delC) showed typical ski-slope type audiogram configuration. Concerning clinical features, onset age was from 3 to 40 years old, and mostly in the teens, and hearing loss was gradually progressive. Progressive nature is a common feature of patients with KCNQ4 mutations regardless of the mutation type. In conclusion, KCNQ4 mutations are frequent among ADNSHL patients, and therefore screening of the gene and molecular confirmation of these mutations have become important in the diagnosis of these conditions.
Alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems: a brief review of epidemiological studies
Kojima Masayo
BioPsychoSocial Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0759-6-21
Abstract: The number of articles on alexithymia has been steadily increasing since the word “alexithymia” was coined in the 1970s to denote a common characteristic that is observed among classic psychosomatic patients in whom therapy was unsuccessful. Alexithymia, a disorder of affect regulation, has been suggested to be broadly associated with various mental and physical health problems. However, most available evidence is based on anecdotal reports or cross-sectional observations. To clarify the predictive value of alexithymia for health problems, a systematic review of prospective studies was conducted. A search of the PubMed database identified 1,507 articles on “alexithymia” that were published by July 31, 2011. Among them, only 7 studies examined the developmental risks of alexithymia for health problems among nonclinical populations and 38 studies examined the prognostic value of alexithymia among clinical populations. Approximately half of the studies reported statistically significant adverse effects, while 5 studies demonstrated favorable effects of alexithymia on health outcomes; four of them were associated with surgical interventions and two involved cancer patients. The studies that showed insignificant results tended to have a small sample size. In conclusion, epidemiological evidence regarding alexithymia as a prognostic risk factor for health problems remains un-established. Even though alexithymia is considered to be an unfavorable characteristic for disease control and health promotion overall, some beneficial aspects are suggested. More prospective studies with sufficient sample sizes and follow-up period, especially those involving life course analyses, are needed to confirm the contribution of alexithymia to health problems.
Dehydrated Kitchen Waste as a Feedstuff for Laying Hens
Sadao Kojima
International Journal of Poultry Science , 2005,
Abstract: An experiment was conducted to determine the effects of dehydrated kitchen waste (DKW) product as a feedstuff for laying hens. Fresh food wastes of a retirement house were prepared for the experiment. This was mostly leftover food, plate scrapings and cooking residue. The kitchen waste was blended and dried by the temperature in the heater set at 80 to 85oC in which the product temperature reached 60 to 65oC. The DKW product contained 12.24% moisture, 15.14% Crude Protein, 5.33% crude fat, 2.34% crude fiber, 5.26% ash, 2.82% Ca, 0.29% P and 0.31% Na. A total of 40 laying hens were fed a control diet (diet 1) or one of three diets containing 12.5% DKW (diet 2); 25.0% DKW (diet 3); 50.0% DKW (diet 4). There were 10 birds per treatment and 5 birds per replicate. The diet with 50.0% DKW decreased egg weight (P< 0.001). There were no significant differences in egg production rate and feed conversion. The birds fed diets 1, 2 and 3 increased body weights during feeding period. The eggshell strength tended to weaken with increased DKW. The lightness (L*) of eggshell color was significantly higher with increasing DKW (P< 0.001), and the reverse was true for the redness (a*) of eggshell color. Roche color fan values decreased as DKW content increased. These results indicate that dehydrated kitchen wastes contains the nutritional value and that may be useful as feedstuffs for laying hens.
Wakimoto realization of the elliptic algebra $U_{q,p}(\hat{sl_N})$
Takeo Kojima
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1142/S0217751X09046308
Abstract: We construct a free field realization of the elliptic quantum algebra $U_{q,p}(\hat{sl_N})$ for arbitrary level $k \neq 0,-N$. We study Drinfeld current and the screening current associated with $U_{q,p}(\hat{sl_N})$ for arbitrary level $k$. In the limit $p \to 0$ this realization becomes $q$-Wakimoto realization for $U_q(\hat{sl_N})$.
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