Abstract:
In this paper, we report the design and moleculardocking study of analogues of antimycin A_{3} as inhibitors of anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 of breast cancer. Twenty designed compounds and the original antimycin A_{3} were docked based on their interaction with breast tumor receptor binding target Bcl-2. The docking resulted in the five top-ranked compounds, namely, compounds 11, 14, 15, 16, and 20, which have a lower G binding energy, better affinity and stronger hydrogen bonding interactions to the active site of Bcl-2 than antimycin A_{3}. Among those five top-ranked compounds, analogue compounds 11 and 14, which have an 18-membered tetralactone core and 18-membered tetraol core, respectively, exhibited the strongest hydrogen bond interaction, formed high stability conformation, and demonstrated the greatest inhibitory activity on the catalytic site of Bcl-2.

Abstract:
We conducted diastereodifferentiating [2+2] photocycloadditions of cyclo-hexenones modified with a chiral 8-( p-methoxy phenyl)menthyl auxiliary with olefins in water. Although the photoreaction didn’t proceed at all in pure water owing to very low solubility, the use of surfactants [sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) or dodecylamine hydrochloride (DAH)] and additive (organic solvent) enabled the reactions to progress with moderate to high conversions and yields. Furthermore, we synthesized a new menthol derivative substrate containing a ( p-octyloxy)phenyl group for enhancing hydrophobicity, and elucidated that this new substrate was found to be a suitable chiral auxiliary in this asymmetric photoreaction in aqueous system. The additive effect of organic molecules on the yield and diastereoselectivity of the photo-adducts is also discussed.

Because the
transient O_{3} injury of leaves is lost with time, the evaluation of O_{3} effect on the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (F_{v}/F_{m})
is difficult. Thus, the authors examined F_{v}/F_{m} in rice leaves exposed to
different O_{3} concentrations (0, 0.1, and 0.3 cm^{3}·m^{-}^{3},
expressed as O^{0}, O^{0.1}, and O^{0.3}) under
different dark adaptation periods (0, 1, 5, 10, 20, and 30 min, expressed as D^{0},
D^{1}, D^{5}, D^{10}, D^{20}

Abstract:
In the minimal supersymmetric standard model, we have studied the evolution of the neutrino flavor mixing by using the renormalization group equation(RGE) with the Georgi-Jarlskog texture for the Yukawa coupling matrices.For the large Yukawa coupling of the charged lepton, i.e.,$\tan\b \gg 1$, the neutrino flavor mixing increases significantly with running down to the electroweak scale by the RGE. If one wishes to get the large neutrino flavor mixing $\sin \th_{23}$ at the electroweak scale, which is suggested by the muon neutrino deficit in the atomospheric neutrino flux, the initial condition $\sin \th_{23}\geq 0.27$ is required at the GUT scale. Combined with the see-saw enhancement of the neutrino flavor mixing, the large mixing is naturally reproduced by setting the reasonable initial condition.

Abstract:
We have studied structures of the neutrino flavor mixing matrix focusing on the neutrino oscillations at CHORUS and NOMAD as well as the one at LSND(or KARMEN). We have assumed two typical neutrino mass hierarchies $m_3\simeq m_2\gg m_1$ and $m_3\gg m_2\gg m_1({\rm or}\simeq m_1)$. Taking into account the see-saw mechanism of neutrino masses, the reasonable neutrino flavor mixing patterns have been discussed. The observation of the neutrino oscillation at CHORUS and NOMAD presents us the important constraint for the structure of the neutrino flavor mixing matrix. The atomospheric neutrino anomaly has been discussed in relation to the CHORUS and NOMAD experiments.

Abstract:
The degree distributions of many real world networks follow power-laws whose exponents tend to fall between two and three. Within the framework of the Barabasi-Albert model (BA model), we explain this empirical observation by a simple fact. To that end we propose a modified BA model with one parameter that serves as a regulatory factor for the growth rate of added links in scale-free networks. The regulatory factor has something to do with the obvious fact that one link has two nodes. The modified model also allows to connect nodes by newly added links that do not necessarily emanate from new nodes. Another related model using the master equation is also given, from which the same power-law degree distribution can be derived.

Abstract:
A model for directed networks is proposed and power laws for their in-degree and/or out-degree distributions are derived from the model. It is based on the Barabasi-Albert model and contains two parameters. The parameters serve as regulatory factors for the contributions of new nodes through in- and out-degrees. The model allows a newly added link to connect directly two nodes already present in the network. Such a link is called an inner link, while a link attached to a new node is called an outer link. Using relationships between inner and outer links, we investigate power laws for in- and out-degree distributions of directed networks. This model enables us to predict some interesting features of directed networks; in particular, the World Wide Web and the networks of citation and phone-call.

Abstract:
We consider the case that the solar neutrino deficit is due to the vacuum oscillation. The lepton mass matrices with nearly bi-maximal mixings are needed in order to explain both solar and atmospheric neutrino deficit. A texture with the symmetry of flavour democracy or $S_3$ has been investigated by taking account of the symmetry breaking terms of the charged lepton mass matrix. It is found that predicted mixings can be considerably changed from the neutrino mixings $\sin^2 2\th_\odot\simeq 1$ and $\sin^2 2\th_{\rm atm}\simeq 8/9$ at the symmetric limit. The correlation between $|U_{e3}|$ and $|U_{e1}U_{e2}^*|$ is also presented. The test of the model is discussed by focusing on the three flavor analyses in the solar neutrinos, atmospheric neutrinos and long baseline experiments.

Abstract:
We study the averaging problem from a point of view of variation of spatial volume $V$. We show that in the space of spherically symmetric dust solutions which are regular on the spatial manifold $S^3$ the variation $\delta V$ vanishes at the Friedmann-Lemaitre-Robertson-Walker (FLRW) solution in an appropriate sense, which supports the validity of the FLRW solution as the averaged solution. We also present the second variation $\delta^2 V$, giving the leading effect of the deviation from the FLRW solution.

Abstract:
The U(1) flavor symmetry explains the large mixing of neutrinos while it leads to the unique texture for the quark mass matrices. It is remarked that U(1) symmetric mass matrices have the phenomenological defects. In the quark sector, the mixing $V_{ub}$ is predicted to be large compared with the expected value $\l^4$ at the GUT scale. In the lepton sector, U(1) charges, which give a large mixing in the neutrino sector, also lead to the large one in the charged lepton sector. In the viewpoint of the flavor symmetry, this is an unpleasant feature because the neutrino mass hierarchy is determined only by unknown coefficients of ${\cal O}(1)$, and the near-maximal flavor mixing is not guaranteed in the case of both large angle rotations. These defects disappear by introducing additional discrete symmetries $Z_2\times Z_2'$. The $U(1)\times Z_2\times Z_2'$ quark-lepton mass matrices are presented by taking account of the recent data of atmospheric neutrinos and solar neutrinos.