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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1709 matches for " Hiroki Kuroda "
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Plasma-Electrolysis of Dinitrophenol in Gas-Liquid Boundary and Interpretation Using Molecular Orbital Theory  [PDF]
Hiroshi Okawa, Hiroki Kuroda, Keiko Hirayama-Katayama, Shin-Ichiro Kojima, Tetsuya Akitsu
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2019.71010
Abstract:
The advanced oxidation of 2,4-dinitrophenol (DNP), 2,5-DNP, and 3,4-DNP in aqueous solution has been investigated using a multi-gas, dielectric barrier discharge. Dielectric barrier discharge was operated in the aqueous solution and gas boundary. The degradation was measured by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The acceleration of the advanced-oxidation has been investigated by the combination of the anion exchange polymer membrane. The result indicated that the degradation pathways involve a rapid detachment of the nitro group and a slow opening of the aromatic-ring. The hydroxyl radical and the excited hydroxyl anion are responsible for the primary attack of the DNP with the production of dihydroxy-nitrobenzenes. The attack of hydroxyl radical occurs at the benzene ring carbon activated by the presence of a phenolic OH group and a nitro group. The result suggested that the reaction is dominated by a pseudo-first order kinetic reaction. The degradation process is interpreted using Molecular Orbital Theory.
Neural Induction in Xenopus: Requirement for Ectodermal and Endomesodermal Signals via Chordin, Noggin, β-Catenin, and Cerberus
Hiroki Kuroda,Oliver Wessely,E. M. De Robertis
PLOS Biology , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020092
Abstract: The origin of the signals that induce the differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS) is a long-standing question in vertebrate embryology. Here we show that Xenopus neural induction starts earlier than previously thought, at the blastula stage, and requires the combined activity of two distinct signaling centers. One is the well-known Nieuwkoop center, located in dorsal-vegetal cells, which expresses Nodal-related endomesodermal inducers. The other is a blastula Chordin- and Noggin-expressing (BCNE) center located in dorsal animal cells that contains both prospective neuroectoderm and Spemann organizer precursor cells. Both centers are downstream of the early β-Catenin signal. Molecular analyses demonstrated that the BCNE center was distinct from the Nieuwkoop center, and that the Nieuwkoop center expressed the secreted protein Cerberus (Cer). We found that explanted blastula dorsal animal cap cells that have not yet contacted a mesodermal substratum can, when cultured in saline solution, express definitive neural markers and differentiate histologically into CNS tissue. Transplantation experiments showed that the BCNE region was required for brain formation, even though it lacked CNS-inducing activity when transplanted ventrally. Cell-lineage studies demonstrated that BCNE cells give rise to a large part of the brain and retina and, in more posterior regions of the embryo, to floor plate and notochord. Loss-of-function experiments with antisense morpholino oligos (MO) showed that the CNS that forms in mesoderm-less Xenopus embryos (generated by injection with Cerberus-Short [CerS] mRNA) required Chordin (Chd), Noggin (Nog), and their upstream regulator β-Catenin. When mesoderm involution was prevented in dorsal marginal-zone explants, the anterior neural tissue formed in ectoderm was derived from BCNE cells and had a complete requirement for Chd. By injecting Chd morpholino oligos (Chd-MO) into prospective neuroectoderm and Cerberus morpholino oligos (Cer-MO) into prospective endomesoderm at the 8-cell stage, we showed that both layers cooperate in CNS formation. The results suggest a model for neural induction in Xenopus in which an early blastula β-Catenin signal predisposes the prospective neuroectoderm to neural induction by endomesodermal signals emanating from Spemann's organizer.
Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine Extracts on Endothelial-Dependent Adhesive Interactions with Monocytes Induced by Oxysterols
Yuji Naito,Makoto Shimozawa,Hiroki Manabe,Masaaki Kuroda
Biological Research , 2004,
Abstract: Red wine polyphenolic compounds have been demonstrated to possess antioxidant properties, and several studies have suggested that they might constitute a relevant dietary factor in the protection from coronary heart disease. The aim of the present study is to examine whether red wine extracts (RWE) can ameliorate oxysterol-induced endothelial response, and whether inhibition of adhesion molecule expression is involved in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. Surface expression and mRNA levels of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) were determined by ELISA and RT-PCR performed on human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) monolayers stimulated with 7b-hydroxycholesterol or 25-hydroxycholesterol. Incubation of HAEC with oxysterols (10 muM) increased expression of adhesion molecules in a time-dependent manner. Pretreatment of HAEC with RWE at final concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml significantly inhibited the increase of surface protein expression and mRNA levels. Adherence of monocytes to oxysterol-stimulated HAEC was increased compared to that of unstimulated cells. Treatment of HAEC with RWE significantly inhibited adherence of monocytes. These results suggest that RWE works as an anti-atherogenic agent through the inhibition of endothelial-dependent adhesive interactions with monocytes induced by oxysterols
Neural Induction in Xenopus: Requirement for Ectodermal and Endomesodermal Signals via Chordin, Noggin, β-Catenin, and Cerberus
Hiroki Kuroda,Oliver Wessely,E. M. De Robertis
PLOS Biology , 2004, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pbio.0020092
Abstract: The origin of the signals that induce the differentiation of the central nervous system (CNS) is a long-standing question in vertebrate embryology. Here we show that Xenopus neural induction starts earlier than previously thought, at the blastula stage, and requires the combined activity of two distinct signaling centers. One is the well-known Nieuwkoop center, located in dorsal-vegetal cells, which expresses Nodal-related endomesodermal inducers. The other is a blastula Chordin- and Noggin-expressing (BCNE) center located in dorsal animal cells that contains both prospective neuroectoderm and Spemann organizer precursor cells. Both centers are downstream of the early β-Catenin signal. Molecular analyses demonstrated that the BCNE center was distinct from the Nieuwkoop center, and that the Nieuwkoop center expressed the secreted protein Cerberus (Cer). We found that explanted blastula dorsal animal cap cells that have not yet contacted a mesodermal substratum can, when cultured in saline solution, express definitive neural markers and differentiate histologically into CNS tissue. Transplantation experiments showed that the BCNE region was required for brain formation, even though it lacked CNS-inducing activity when transplanted ventrally. Cell-lineage studies demonstrated that BCNE cells give rise to a large part of the brain and retina and, in more posterior regions of the embryo, to floor plate and notochord. Loss-of-function experiments with antisense morpholino oligos (MO) showed that the CNS that forms in mesoderm-less Xenopus embryos (generated by injection with Cerberus-Short [CerS] mRNA) required Chordin (Chd), Noggin (Nog), and their upstream regulator β-Catenin. When mesoderm involution was prevented in dorsal marginal-zone explants, the anterior neural tissue formed in ectoderm was derived from BCNE cells and had a complete requirement for Chd. By injecting Chd morpholino oligos (Chd-MO) into prospective neuroectoderm and Cerberus morpholino oligos (Cer-MO) into prospective endomesoderm at the 8-cell stage, we showed that both layers cooperate in CNS formation. The results suggest a model for neural induction in Xenopus in which an early blastula β-Catenin signal predisposes the prospective neuroectoderm to neural induction by endomesodermal signals emanating from Spemann's organizer.
The Ability of Edible Mushrooms to Act as Biocatalysts: Preparation of Chiral Alcohols Using Basidiomycete Strains  [PDF]
Kohji Ishihara, Yukiko Nishikawa, Mari Kaneko, Anna Kinoshita, Nozomi Kumazawa, Daichi Kobashigawa, Kohei Kuroda, Masashi Osawa, Tatsunori Yamamoto, Nobuyoshi Nakajima, Hiroki Hamada, Noriyoshi Masuoka
Advances in Microbiology (AiM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/aim.2012.22008
Abstract: To examine the potential ability of edible mushrooms to act as biocatalysts, 19 basidiomycete strains were screened. Modified media (PG, O, and PGO medium) for liquid cultivation of these basidiomycete strains were designed and tested. Wet cells (>10 g) of 4 basidiomycete strains (Pleurotus salmoneostramineus H7, P. salmoneostramineus H13, Ganoderma lucidum NBRC31863, Flammulina velutipes NBRC31862) were harvested from PGO medium for 7 days. The stereoselective reduction of α-keto esters using the 4 strains was tested. It was found that each of these strains had a reducing activity toward 6 aliphatic α-keto esters. In the presence of L-alanine as an additive, the reduction of ethyl 2-oxobutanoate and ethyl 2-oxopentanoete by P. salmoneostramineus H7 produced the corresponding alcohol with a high conversion ratio and with excellent enantiomeric excess (>99% e.e. (R)). Furthermore, ethyl pyruvate, ethyl 2-oxobutanoate, and ethyl 2-oxopentanoate were predominantly reduced to the corresponding (R)-hydroxy ester (>99% e.e.) by G. lucidum. Thus, we found that these edible mushrooms have great potential to be used as biocatalysts for the stereoselective reduction of carbonyl compounds.
Predicting Optimal Trading Actions Using a Genetic Algorithm and Ensemble Method  [PDF]
Kazuma Kuroda
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2017.96012
Abstract: Machine learning has been applied to the foreign exchange market for algorithmic trading. However, the selection of trading algorithms is a difficult problem. In this work, an approach that combines trading agents is designed. In the proposed approach, an artificial neural network is used to predict the optimum actions of each agent for USD/JPY currency pairs. The agents are trained using a genetic algorithm and are then combined using an ensemble method. We compare the performance of the combined agent to the average performance of many agents. Simulation results show that the total return is better when the combined agent is used.
Rapid evaluation by lung-cardiac-inferior vena cava (LCI) integrated ultrasound for differentiating heart failure from pulmonary disease as the cause of acute dyspnea in the emergency setting
Katsuya Kajimoto, Keiko Madeen, Tomoko Nakayama, Hiroki Tsudo, Tadahide Kuroda, Takashi Abe
Cardiovascular Ultrasound , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1476-7120-10-49
Abstract: Between March 2011 and March 2012, 90 consecutive patients (45 women, 78.1?±?9.9?years) admitted to the emergency room of our hospital for acute dyspnea were enrolled. Within 30?minutes of admission, all patients underwent conventional physical examination, rapid ultrasound (lung-cardiac-inferior vena cava [LCI] integrated ultrasound) examination with a hand-held device, routine laboratory tests, measurement of brain natriuretic peptide, and chest X-ray in the emergency room.The final diagnosis was acute dyspnea due to AHFS in 53 patients, acute dyspnea due to pulmonary disease despite a history of heart failure in 18 patients, and acute dyspnea due to pulmonary disease in 19 patients. Lung ultrasound alone showed a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 96.2, 54.0, 90.9, and 75.0%, respectively, for differentiating AHFS from pulmonary disease. On the other hand, LCI integrated ultrasound had a sensitivity, specificity, negative predictive value, and positive predictive value of 94.3, 91.9, 91.9, and 94.3%, respectively.Our study demonstrated that rapid evaluation by LCI integrated ultrasound is extremely accurate for differentiating acute dyspnea due to AHFS from that caused by primary pulmonary disease in the emergency setting.Acute dyspnea is one of the main reasons for admission to the emergency department (ED) [1]. Physicians working in the ED often need to make a rapid diagnosis and devise a treatment plan on the basis of limited clinical information [2,3]. In paticular, acute heart failue syndromes (AHFS) are challenging, since the clinical, radiographic, and laboratory parameters have variable diagnostic value because AHFS are a heterogeneous set of clinical syndromes [4]. Traditional diagnostic criteria for heart failure are based on the history, physical examination, and chest radiograph findings [5-8]. However, these criteria are often not very useful for ED patients because of only having intermediate accura
Core-Collapse Supernovae as Supercomputing Science: a status report toward 6D simulations with exact Boltzmann neutrino transport in full general relativity
Kei Kotake,Kohsuke Sumiyoshi,Shoichi Yamada,Tomoya Takiwaki,Takami Kuroda,Yudai Suwa,Hiroki Nagakura
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: This is a status report on our endeavor to reveal the mechanism of core-collapse supernovae (CCSNe) by large-scale numerical simulations. Multi-dimensionality of the supernova engine, general relativistic magnetohydrodynamics, energy and lepton number transport by neutrinos emitted from the forming neutron star as well as nuclear interactions there, are all believed to play crucial roles in repelling infalling matter and producing energetic explosions. These ingredients are nonlinearly coupled with one another in the dynamics of core-collapse, bounce, and shock expansion. Serious quantitative studies of CCSNe hence make extensive numerical computations mandatory. Since neutrinos are neither in thermal nor in chemical equilibrium in general, their distributions in the phase space should be computed. This is a six dimensional (6D) neutrino transport problem and quite a challenge even for those with an access to the most advanced numerical resources such as the "K computer". To tackle this problem, we have embarked on multi-front efforts. In particular we report in this paper our recent progresses in the treatments of multi-dimensional (multi-D) radiation-hydrodynamics. We are currently proceeding on two different paths to the ultimate goal; in one approach we employ an approximate but highly efficient scheme for neutrino transport and treat 3D hydrodynamics and/or general relativity rigorously; some neutrino-driven explosions will be presented and comparisons will be made between 2D and 3D models quantitatively; in the second approach, on the other hand, exact but so far Newtonian Boltzmann equations are solved in two and three spatial dimensions; we will show some demonstrative test simulations. We will also address the perspectives of exa-scale computations on the next generation supercomputers.
Inhibitory Effects of Red Wine Extracts on Endothelial-Dependent Adhesive Interactions with Monocytes Induced by Oxysterols
Naito,Yuji; Shimozawa,Makoto; Manabe,Hiroki; Kuroda,Masaaki; Tomatsuri,Naoya; Uchiyama,Kazuhiko; Takagi,Tomohisa; Yoshida,Norimasa; Yoshikawa,Toshikazu;
Biological Research , 2004, DOI: 10.4067/S0716-97602004000200009
Abstract: red wine polyphenolic compounds have been demonstrated to possess antioxidant properties, and several studies have suggested that they might constitute a relevant dietary factor in the protection from coronary heart disease. the aim of the present study is to examine whether red wine extracts (rwe) can ameliorate oxysterol-induced endothelial response, and whether inhibition of adhesion molecule expression is involved in monocyte adhesion to endothelial cells. surface expression and mrna levels of adhesion molecules (intercellular adhesion molecule 1 and vascular cell adhesion molecule 1) were determined by elisa and rt-pcr performed on human aortic endothelial cells (haec) monolayers stimulated with 7b-hydroxycholesterol or 25-hydroxycholesterol. incubation of haec with oxysterols (10 mm) increased expression of adhesion molecules in a time-dependent manner. pretreatment of haec with rwe at final concentrations of 1, 10, and 100 ng/ml significantly inhibited the increase of surface protein expression and mrna levels. adherence of monocytes to oxysterol-stimulated haec was increased compared to that of unstimulated cells. treatment of haec with rwe significantly inhibited adherence of monocytes. these results suggest that rwe works as an anti-atherogenic agent through the inhibition of endothelial-dependent adhesive interactions with monocytes induced by oxysterols
Effect of the Position of Reaction-Site in Amphipathic-Type Thioester in Aqueous Amidation Reaction  [PDF]
Ikumi Otomo, Chiaki Kuroda
Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science (ACES) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/aces.2015.53032
Abstract: Amphipathic-type thioesters CH3(CH2)mCOS(CH2)nCOONa (m + n = 12) were synthesized and their reaction with various alkylamines was examined. Compounds having thioester moiety close to carboxylate (m = 10, n = 2) afforded the corresponding amides in good yields, while the substrate having thioester moiety distant from carboxylate (m = 2, n = 10) afforded the amides in relatively low yield. In all cases, the difference in yield due to the chain length of amine was not observed. The results indicated that the reaction took place effectively near the surface of micelle. However, the reaction was found to occur not only on micelle surface but also in solution.
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