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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 117911 matches for " Hiraga T "
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Simple Calculus of Resolving the Fiscal Policy Puzzle: The Role of Human Capital  [PDF]
Kazuki Hiraga
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2014.49093
Abstract: This paper investigates how much externality of human capital a la on-the-job training resolves the fiscal policy puzzle that is consistent with the empirical evidences which obtain the positive response of consumption and wage to increase of fiscal spending in general equilibrium model.
Simple Analysis of Dynamic Efficiency in Endogenous Fertility  [PDF]
Kazuki Hiraga
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2015.54063
Abstract: This paper compares with two conditions of dynamic (in)efficiency, which is “traditional” and “modified” in overlapped generations (OLG) model with endogenous fertility. We show that both two conditions of dynamic efficiency have a bliss point which maximizes the utility at steady state in endogenous fertility.
Fiscal Sustainability of Japanese Prefectural Government Debt  [PDF]
Rena Akamatsu, Kazuki Hiraga
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.38009
Abstract: This paper investigates whether the Japanese local government debt is sustainable. We apply the fiscal stabilization rule that each local government improves their primary balance in the current year when they issue additional debt the previous year. We check it using panel data of the Japanese prefectural governments. We find that Japanese prefectural governments were not sustainable across 1956-2007, though were sustainable across 1956-1989.
Effects of tiotropium on sympathetic activation during exercise in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients
Yoshimura K,Maekura R,Hiraga T,Kitada S
International Journal of COPD , 2012,
Abstract: Kenji Yoshimura, Ryoji Maekura, Toru Hiraga, Seigo Kitada, Keisuke Miki, Mari Miki, Yoshitaka TateishiDepartment of Respiratory Medicine, Toneyama National Hospital, Osaka, JapanBackground: Tiotropium partially relieves exertional dyspnea and reduces the risk of congestive heart failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, its effect on the sympathetic activation response to exercise is unknown.Aims: This study aimed to determine whether tiotropium use results in a sustained reduction in sympathetic activation during exercise.Methods: We conducted a 12-week, open-label (treatments: tiotropium 18 μg or oxitropium 0.2 mg × 3 mg), crossover study in 17 COPD patients. Treatment order was randomized across subjects. The subjects underwent a pulmonary function test and two modes of cardiopulmonary exercise (constant work rate and incremental exercise) testing using a cycle ergometer, with measurement of arterial catecholamines after each treatment period.Results: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were significantly larger in the tiotropium treatment group. In constant exercise testing, exercise endurance time was longer, with improvement in dyspnea during exercise and reduction in dynamic hyperinflation in the tiotropium treatment group. Similarly, in incremental exercise testing, exercise time, carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation at peak exercise were significantly higher in the tiotropium treatment group. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations and dyspnea intensity were also lower during submaximal isotime exercise and throughout the incremental workload exercise in the tiotropium treatment group.Conclusion: Tiotropium suppressed the increase of sympathetic activation during exercise at the end of the 6-week treatment, as compared with the effect of oxipropium. This effect might be attributed to improvement in lung function and exercise capacity and reduction in exertional dyspnea, which were associated with decreases in respiratory frequency and heart rate and reduced progression of arterial acidosis.Keywords: chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), anticholinergics, exercise testing, sympathetic activation
Effects of tiotropium on sympathetic activation during exercise in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients
Yoshimura K, Maekura R, Hiraga T, Kitada S, Miki K, Miki M, Tateishi Y
International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease , 2012, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S28677
Abstract: ts of tiotropium on sympathetic activation during exercise in stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease patients Original Research (2882) Total Article Views Authors: Yoshimura K, Maekura R, Hiraga T, Kitada S, Miki K, Miki M, Tateishi Y Published Date May 2012 Volume 2012:7 Pages 109 - 118 DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.2147/COPD.S28677 Received: 29 November 2011 Accepted: 12 January 2012 Published: 02 May 2012 Kenji Yoshimura, Ryoji Maekura, Toru Hiraga, Seigo Kitada, Keisuke Miki, Mari Miki, Yoshitaka Tateishi Department of Respiratory Medicine, Toneyama National Hospital, Osaka, Japan Background: Tiotropium partially relieves exertional dyspnea and reduces the risk of congestive heart failure in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients. However, its effect on the sympathetic activation response to exercise is unknown. Aims: This study aimed to determine whether tiotropium use results in a sustained reduction in sympathetic activation during exercise. Methods: We conducted a 12-week, open-label (treatments: tiotropium 18 μg or oxitropium 0.2 mg × 3 mg), crossover study in 17 COPD patients. Treatment order was randomized across subjects. The subjects underwent a pulmonary function test and two modes of cardiopulmonary exercise (constant work rate and incremental exercise) testing using a cycle ergometer, with measurement of arterial catecholamines after each treatment period. Results: Forced expiratory volume in 1 second and forced vital capacity were significantly larger in the tiotropium treatment group. In constant exercise testing, exercise endurance time was longer, with improvement in dyspnea during exercise and reduction in dynamic hyperinflation in the tiotropium treatment group. Similarly, in incremental exercise testing, exercise time, carbon dioxide production, and minute ventilation at peak exercise were significantly higher in the tiotropium treatment group. Plasma norepinephrine concentrations and dyspnea intensity were also lower during submaximal isotime exercise and throughout the incremental workload exercise in the tiotropium treatment group. Conclusion: Tiotropium suppressed the increase of sympathetic activation during exercise at the end of the 6-week treatment, as compared with the effect of oxipropium. This effect might be attributed to improvement in lung function and exercise capacity and reduction in exertional dyspnea, which were associated with decreases in respiratory frequency and heart rate and reduced progression of arterial acidosis.
ASTRO-H White Paper - Shock and Acceleration
F. Aharonian,Y. Uchiyama,D. Khangulyan,T. Tanaka,M. Chernyakova,T. Fukuyama,J. Hiraga,for the ASTRO-H Science Working Group
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: We discuss the prospects for a progress to be brought by ASTRO-H in the understanding of the physics of particle acceleration in astrophysical environments. Particular emphasis will be put on the synergy with gamma-ray astronomy, in the context of the rapid developments of recent years. Selected topics include: shock acceleration in supernova remnants (SNRs) and in clusters of galaxies, and the extreme particle acceleration seen in gamma-ray binaries. Since the hydrodynamics and thermal properties of shocks in these objects are covered in other white papers, we focus on the aspects related to the process of particle acceleration. In the case of SNRs, we emphasize the importance of SXS and HXI observations of the X-ray emission of young SNRs dominated by synchrotron radiation, particularly SNR RX J1713.7-3946. We argue that the HXI observations of young SNRs, as a byproduct of SXS observations dedicated for studies of the shock dynamics and nucleosynthesis, will provide powerful constraints on shock acceleration theories. Also, we discuss gamma-ray binary systems, where extreme particle acceleration is inferred regardless of the nature (a neutron star or a black hole) of the compact object. Finally, for galaxy clusters, we propose searches for hard X-ray emission of secondary electrons from interactions of ultra-high energy cosmic rays accelerated at accretion shocks. This should allow us to understand the contribution of galaxy clusters to the flux of cosmic rays above 10^18 eV.
1H and 13C NMR spectroscopic studies of half-esters from monohydrolysis of dialkyl bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylates
Yoshikazu Hiraga,Satomi Niwayama
Spectroscopy: An International Journal , 2004, DOI: 10.1155/2004/451925
Abstract: The structures of the half-esters from the monohydrolysis of (exo,exo)-, (endo,endo)-, and (endo,exo)-dialkyl bicyclo[2.2.1]hept-5-ene-2,3-dicarboxylates were determined by 1H and 13C NMR as well as 2D NMR spectra, and the complete spectral assignment has been made. After conversion of one of the carboalkoxy groups to a carboxyl group, different tendencies were observed for the differences in 1H and 13C NMR chemical shifts between half-esters and the corresponding diesters.
Performance Visualization for Hearing-Impaired Students
Rumi Hiraga,Mitsuo Kawashima
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2005,
Abstract: We have been teaching computer music to hearing impaired students of Tsukuba College of Technology for six years. Although students have hearing difficulties, almost all of them show an interest in music. Thus, this has been a challenging class to turn their weakness into enjoyment. We thought that performance visualization is a good method for them to keep their interest in music and try cooperative performances with others. In this paper, we describe our computer music class and the result of our preliminary experiment on the effectiveness of visual assistance. Though it was not a complete experiment with a sufficient number of subjects, the result showed that the show-ahead and selected-note-only types of performance visualization were necessary according to the purpose of the visual aid.
Search for Sc-K line emission from RX J0852.0--4622 Supernova remnant with Suzaku
Junko S. Hiraga,Y. Kobayashi,T. Tamagawa,A. Hayato,A. Bamba,Y. Terada,R. Petre,H. Katagiri,H. Tsunemi
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1093/pasj/61.2.275
Abstract: We searched for evidence of line emission around 4keV from the northwestern rim of the supernova remnant RX J0852.0-4622 using Suzaku XIS data. Several papers have reported the detection of an emission line around 4.1keV from this region of the sky. This line would arise from K-band fluorescence by Sc, the immediate decay product of 44Ti. We performed spectral analysis for the entire portion of the NW rim of the remnant within the XIS field of view, as well as various regions corresponding to regions of published claims of line emission. We found no line emission around 4.1keV anywhere, and are able to set a restrictive upper limit to the X-ray flux: 1.1x10^-6 s^-1 cm^-2 for the entire field. For every region, our flux upper limit falls below that of the previously claimed detection. Therefore, we conclude that, to date, no definite X-ray line feature from Sc-K emission has been detected in the NW rim of RX J0852.0-4622. Our negative-detection supports the recent claim that RX J0852-4622 is neither young (1700--4000 yr) nor nearby(~750 pc).
Suzaku X-ray Observations of the Fermi Bubbles: Northernmost Cap and Southeast Claw Discovered with MAXI-SSC
M. Tahara,J. Kataoka,Y. Takeuchi,T. Totani,Y. Sofue,J. S. Hiraga,H. Tsunemi,Y. Inoue,M. Kimura,C. C. Cheung,S. Nakashima
Physics , 2015, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/802/2/91
Abstract: We report on Suzaku observations of large-scale X-ray structures possibly related with the Fermi Bubbles obtained in 2013 with a total duration of ~ 80 ks. The observed regions were the: (i) northern cap (N-cap; l ~ 0 deg, 45 deg < b < 55 deg) seen in the Mid-band (1.7-4.0 keV) map recently provided by MAXI-SSC and (ii) southeast claw (SE-claw; l ~ 10 deg, -20 deg < b < -10 deg) seen in the ROSAT all-sky map and MAXI-SSC Low-band (0.7-1.7 keV) map. In each region, we detected diffuse X-ray emissions which are represented by a three component plasma model consisting of an unabsorbed thermal component (kT ~ 0.1 keV) from the Local Bubble, absorbed kT = 0.30+/-0.05 keV emission representing the Galactic Halo, and a power-law component due to the isotropic cosmic X-ray background radiation. The emission measure of the GH component in the SE-claw shows an excess by a factor of ~ 2.5 over the surrounding emission at 2 deg away. We also found a broad excess in the 1.7-4.0 keV count rates across the N-cap after compiling other archival data from Suzaku and Swift. The spectral stacking analysis of the N-cap data indicates the presence of another thermal component with kT = 0.70 (+0.22,-0.11) keV. The temperature of kT ~ 0.3 keV of the Galactic Halo is higher than the ubiquitous value of kT ~ 0.2 keV near the Fermi Bubbles, and can be even higher (~ 0.7 keV). We discuss our findings in the context of bubble-halo interaction.
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