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Effects of Teachers Level of Education and Experience on Teacher-Child Interactions in Early Childhood Institutions  [PDF]
Nana Yaa Nyarko, Hillar Addo
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411131

Early childhood care and development (ECCD) in Ghana have received attention in the lat decade. To ensure quality of instruction and build capacity of early childhood teachers and caregivers, the National Nursery Teachers’ Training Centre was set up by the government to offer specialized training in nursery education for teachers and nursery attendants. Universities and the Colleges of Education have been mandated to train teachers for early childhood education. This study therefore sought to find out the effects of level of education and years of experience of teachers on their interactions with children (3 - 5) in early-childhood institutions in Ghana using the Caregiver Child Interaction Scale (r = 0.77). The sample (N = 103; Female 99%): made up of teachers from thirty-one preschools in the Greater Accra Region of Ghana were observed during their normal classroom routine. There appeared not to be any statistically significant difference between the teachers’ level of education and years of experience on the interaction scores.

Body mass index, weight gain during pregnancy and obstetric outcomes
VN Addo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2010,
Abstract: Objectives: To find out the effects of pregnancy weight gain in different body mass index (BMI) groups on maternal and neonatal outcomes in women delivering singletons at term. Design: Retrospective analysis of clinical records of patients attending antenatal clinics and delivering in hospital from January 1st 1992 to December 31st 2009. Setting: A private specialist hospital. Methods: The records of patients starting antenatal care in the first trimester, attending at least four clinics and delivering singletons from 37 completed weeks up to 42 weeks gestation were analysed. Patients’ booking gestational age, height, weight and obstetric and neonatal outcomes at delivery were noted. Results: The total number of deliveries was 2,391 out of which 1755 (72.4%) were analysed. The overweight and obese group compared to the normal were significantly older, shorter, weighed more at booking and gained more weight during pregnancy. The overweight or obese were significantly more likely to have induction of labour and be delivered by caesarean section compared to the normal. Maternal and neonatal outcomes which were more significant in the overweight and obese were macrosomia, stillbirth, perineal trauma, post-partum haemorrhage and retained placenta. Conclusions: Most deliveries in the two BMI groups resulted in normal weight babies. Overweight and Obesity is associated with significantly increased incidence of adverse maternal and neonatal outcomes. It is recommended that further studies involving larger samples comparable to those done in western countries are carried out.
Pregnant women's knowledge of and attitudes to HIV testing at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, Kumasi
VN Addo
Ghana Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: A questionnaire survey on the knowledge about human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) and attitudes to voluntary counselling and testing (VCT) in pregnancy of 334 antenatal attendants at Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital (KATH) was conducted. The survey showed that HIV/AIDS is recognized as a life-threatening condition and is mainly acquired through unprotected sexual intercourse with an infected partner, use of unsterile sharp instruments and blood transfusion. Knowledge about mother to child transmission (MTCT) was lacking. The majority of women who had done the test did so as a pre-requisite for church blessing of their marriage. VCT would be acceptable especially when anonymity is ensured and drug treatment is available for mother and child should the pregnant woman test positive for HIV.
Retsensioon Jaan Laasi raamatu Teadus diktatuuri kütkeis. Eesti teadusest ja k rgharidusest natsionaalsotsialistliku ja sovetliku teaduspoliitika raames. Epikriis” (Tallinn: Argo, 2010. 504 lk) kohta.
Anu Raudsepp,Hillar Toomiste
Methis : Studia humaniora Estonica , 2011,
Analysis of a Student-Centered, Self-Paced Pedagogy Style for Teaching Information Systems Courses
Sharon Paranto,Hillar Neumann
Journal of Systemics, Cybernetics and Informatics , 2006,
Abstract: The entry-level skills for students enrolling in a college-level information systems course can vary widely. This paper analyzes the impact of a "student-centered" pedagogy model, in which students use a self-paced approach for learning the material in an introductory information systems course, with pre-assigned dates for lectures and for assignment/exam deadlines. This new paradigm was implemented in several sections of an introductory information systems course over a two-semester time span. Under the new model, tutorial-style textbooks were used to help students master the material, all other materials were available online, and all exams were given using a hands-on, task-oriented online testing package, which included a multiple-choice/true-false component to test student understanding of the conceptual portion of the course. An anonymous student survey was used to gain student perceptions of the level of learning that took place under the new paradigm, as well as to measure student satisfaction with the course design, and a pre-/post-test was used to provide a measure of student learning.
Comment on the article "Distilling free-form natural laws from experimental data"
Christopher Hillar,Friedrich Sommer
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: In the article "Distilling free-form natural laws from experimental data", Schmidt and Lipson introduced the idea that free-form natural laws can be learned from experimental measurements in a physical system using symbolic (genetic) regression algorithms. An important claim in this work is that the algorithm finds laws in data without having incorporated any prior knowledge of physics. Upon close inspection, however, we show that their method implicitly incorporates Hamilton's equations of motions and Newton's second law, demystifying how they are able to find Hamiltonians and special classes of Lagrangians from data.
Cyclic Resultants
Christopher J. Hillar
Mathematics , 2004,
Abstract: We characterize polynomials having the same set of nonzero cyclic resultants. Generically, for a polynomial $f$ of degree $d$, there are exactly $2^{d-1}$ distinct degree $d$ polynomials with the same set of cyclic resultants as $f$. However, in the generic monic case, degree $d$ polynomials are uniquely determined by their cyclic resultants. Moreover, two reciprocal (``palindromic'') polynomials giving rise to the same set of nonzero cyclic resultants are equal. In the process, we also prove a unique factorization result in semigroup algebras involving products of binomials. Finally, we discuss how our results yield algorithms for explicit reconstruction of polynomials from their cyclic resultants.
Logarithmic Derivatives of Solutions to Linear Differential Equations
Christopher J. Hillar
Mathematics , 2003,
Abstract: Given an ordinary differential field $K$ of characteristic zero, it is known that if $y$ and $1/y$ satisfy linear differential equations with coefficients in $K$, then $y'/y$ is algebraic over $K$. We present a new short proof of this fact using Gr\"{o}bner basis techniques and give a direct method for finding a polynomial over $K$ that $y'/y$ satisfies. Moreover, we provide explicit degree bounds and extend the result to fields with positive characteristic. Finally, we give an application of our method to a class of nonlinear differential equations.
Advances on the Bessis-Moussa-Villani Trace Conjecture
Christopher J. Hillar
Mathematics , 2005,
Abstract: A long-standing conjecture asserts that the polynomial \[p(t) = \text{Tr}[(A+tB)^m]\] has nonnegative coefficients whenever $m$ is a positive integer and $A$ and $B$ are any two $n \times n$ positive semidefinite Hermitian matrices. The conjecture arises from a question raised by Bessis, Moussa, and Villani (1975) in connection with a problem in theoretical physics. Their conjecture, as shown recently by Lieb and Seiringer, is equivalent to the trace positivity statement above. In this paper, we derive a fundamental set of equations satisfied by $A$ and $B$ that minimize or maximize a coefficient of $p(t)$. Applied to the Bessis-Moussa-Villani (BMV) conjecture, these equations provide several reductions. In particular, we prove that it is enough to show that (1) it is true for infinitely many $m$, (2) a nonzero (matrix) coefficient of $(A+tB)^m$ always has at least one positive eigenvalue, or (3) the result holds for singular positive semidefinite matrices. Moreover, we prove that if the conjecture is false for some $m$, then it is false for all larger $m$.
Sums of squares over totally real fields are rational sums of squares
Christopher J. Hillar
Mathematics , 2007,
Abstract: Let $K$ be a totally real number field with Galois closure $L$. We prove that if $f \in \mathbb Q[x_1,...,x_n]$ is a sum of $m$ squares in $K[x_1,...,x_n]$, then $f$ is a sum of \[4m \cdot 2^{[L: \mathbb Q]+1} {[L: \mathbb Q] +1 \choose 2}\] squares in $\mathbb Q[x_1,...,x_n]$. Moreover, our argument is constructive and generalizes to the case of commutative $K$-algebras. This result gives a partial resolution to a question of Sturmfels on the algebraic degree of certain semidefinite programing problems.
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