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Hexagonal nano-crystalline boron carbonitride (h-BCN) films grown on Si (100) substrate have been precisely investigated. The films were synthesized by radio frequency plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition using tris-dimethylamino borane as a single-source molecular precursor. The deposition was performed by setting RF power at 400 - 800 W. The reaction pressure was at 2.6 Pa and the substrate temperature was recorded at 700°C - 800°C. Formation of the nano-crystalline h-BCN compound has been confirmed by X-ray diffraction analysis. The diffraction peaks at 26.3° together with a small unknown peak at 29.2° were elucidated due to the formation of an h-BCN structure. The films composed of B, C, and N atoms with different B-N, B-C, C-N chemical bonds in forming the sp2-BCN atomic configuration studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Orientation and local structures of the h-BCN hybrid were studied by near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) measurements. The dominant presence of p* and s* resonance peaks of the sp2
In this paper, we present a multi-name incomplete information structural model which possess the contagion mechanism and its efficient Monte Carlo algorithm based on Interacting Particle System. Along with the Credit Grades, which is industrially used single-name credit model, we suppose that investors can observe firm values and defaults but are not informed of the threshold level at which a firm is deemed to default. Additionally, in order to model the possibility of crisis normalization, we introduce the concept of memory period after default. During the memory period after a default, public investors remember when the previous default occurred and directly reflect that information for updating their belief. When the memory period after a default finish, investors forget about that default and shift their interest to recent defaults if exist. One of the variance reduction techniques, relying upon Interacting Particle System, is combined with the standard Monte Carlo method to address the rare but critical events represented by the tail of loss distribution of portfolio.
measurement of abdominal strength is important for evaluating trunk
myofunction, adequate devices for these measurements have not been developed.
As a consequence, the relationships between abdominal strength and abdominal
muscle thickness have also not been determined. This study aimed to develop a
new device for measuring abdominal strength and to examine the relationship
between abdominal muscle strength and thickness. The subjects in the study
included 50 young males (age, 19.1 ± 0.32 years; height, 171.0 ± 6.55 cm;
weight, 69.5 ± 12.15 kg). The measurement of abdominal flexion strength had
high reliability with an intra-class correlation coefficient (ICC) >0.9. The
thickness of the rectus abdominis muscle was measured under two conditions
using an ultrasound imaging method; relaxation and strength exertion. Abdominal
muscle thickness was significantly thicker during exertion than during
relaxation. Abdominal flexion strength showed a significant correlation with
muscle thickness during both relaxation (r = 0.69) and strength exertion (r =
0.71). No significant difference was found between these correlation
coefficients. In conclusion, the values of abdominal strength determined by our
newly-developed measuring device had high reliability, with abdominal flexion
strength showing a relatively close relationship with the thickness of the
rectus abdominis during strength exertion and relaxation.