Abstract:
We consider finite volume effects on the electro-magnetic pion form factor near the chiral limit, in the so-called $\epsilon$ regime. The pseudoscalar-vector-pseudoscalar three-point function is calculated in the $\epsilon$ expansion of chiral perturbation theory to the next-to-leading order. In the $\epsilon$ regime, finite volume effects are non-perturbatively large in general. However, we find a way to remove its dominant part, by inserting momenta to the correlators, and taking an appropriate ratio of them. The subleading contribution is, then, shown to be perturbatively small, and one can extract the form factor as in a similar way to that in the $p$ regime.

Abstract:
We consider finite volume effects on the electromagnetic form factor of the pion. We compute the peudoscalar-vector-pseudoscalar correlator in the $\epsilon$ expansion of chiral perturbation theory up to the next-to-leading order and find a way to remove the dominant part, which comes from a contribution of the pion zero-mode. Inserting non-zero momentum to relevant operators (or taking a subtraction of the correlators at different time-slices), and taking an appropriate ratio of them, one can automatically cancel the zero-mode's contribution, which becomes non-perturbatively large $\sim \mathcal{O}(100 \%)$ in the $\epsilon$ regime. The remaining finite volume dependence, which comes from the non-zero momentum modes, is shown to be perturbatively small even in such an extremal case. Since the zero-mode's dominance is universal in any finite volume scaling, and we do not rely on any particular feature of the $\epsilon$ expansion, our method has a wide application to many other correlators of QCD.

Abstract:
We investigate the $J_1$-$J_2$ spin chain consisting of spins with magnitude $\frac12$. The nearest-neighbor and the next-nearest-neighbor exchange interactions are ferromagnetic and antiferromagnetic, respectively, and induce strong frustration. Both these interactions involve the bond alternation. We find exact solutions for all the degenerate ground states on the phase boundary of the ferromagnetic phase. The degeneracy remains irrespective of two parameters representing the bond alternation. The exact solutions are of closed forms for no bond alternation and of recursion formulae in general. The exact solutions are applicable to the $\Delta$ chain as a special case.

Abstract:
Introduction: Recently, new plates with locking screws have been developed and used for medial open-wedge high tibial osteotomy (HTO). The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare biomechanical properties of different internal fixations in open-wedge HTO using the two currently available locking plates. Methods: Eight paired fresh-frozen cadaveric lower extremities were vertically embedded in steel boxes. The axial compression load was applied to the legs using the mechanical testing machine. The axial compression load test from 0 N to 550 N and the failure test were performed before and after HTO. One side of the leg of a specimen was fixed with the Puddu locking plate and the other side was fixed with the TomoFix plate to compare the two plates using the same specimen. A mode of failure and vertical displacement of the medial and lateral parts of the tibia at the osteotomy gap was recorded using a video camera in the failure test. The load–displacement data were analyzed to calculate stiffness, failure load, and displacement at failure. Results: The mean failure load was 1471.4 N and 1692.3 N and total vertical displacement at failure was 3.1 mm and 2.9 mm with the Puddu and TomoFix plates, respectively. During axial compression loading, displacements mainly occurred at the lateral osteotomy gap, while the medial gap was well preserved. No significant differences were observed in the failure load, displacement, or mode of failure between the two plates. Conclusions: The Puddu and TomoFix plates had similar biomechanical properties in open-wedge HTO. The results indicated reliable stability after open-wedge HTO without fibular osteotomy.

Abstract:
We chronically treated adult male mice with fluoxetine, and examined its effect on several forms of behavior of mice. During fluoxetine treatments, mice showed a marked increase in day-to-day fluctuations of home cage activity levels that was characterized by occasional switching between hypoactivity and hyperactivity within a few days. This destabilized cage activity was accompanied by increased anxiety-related behaviors and could be observed up to 4 weeks after withdrawal from fluoxetine. As reported previously, the granule cell dematuration by fluoxetine includes a reduction of synaptic facilitation at the granule cell output, mossy fiber, synapse to the juvenile level. Mossy fiber synaptic facilitation examined electrophysiologically in acute hippocampal slices also remained suppressed after fluoxetine withdrawal and significantly correlated with the fluctuation of cage activity levels in individual mice. Furthermore, in mice lacking the 5-HT4 receptor, in which the granule cell dematuration has been shown to be attenuated, fluoxetine had no significant effect on the fluctuation of cage activity levels.Our results demonstrate that the SSRI fluoxetine can induce marked day-to-day changes in activity levels of mice in the familiar environment, and that the dematuration of the hippocampal granule cells is closely associated with the expression of this destabilized behavior. Based on these results, we propose that the granule cell dematuration can be a potential cellular basis underlying switching-like changes in the behavioral state associated with SSRI treatments.Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) have been commonly used to treat mood and anxiety disorders, while some severe adverse effects have been reported [1,2]. Although SSRIs can immediately change extracellular levels of serotonin in the central nervous system, therapeutic effects of these drugs usually require weeks of treatments [3]. Some of adverse psychiatric effects of SSRIs also emerge wit

Abstract:
We investigate the mixed diamond chain composed of spins 1 and 1/2 when the exchange interaction is alternatingly distorted. Depending on the strengths of frustration and distortion, this system has various ground states. Each ground state consists of an array of spin clusters separated by singlet dimers by virtue of an infinite number of local conservation laws. We determine the ground state phase diagram by numerically analyzing each spin cluster. In particular for strong distortion, we find an infinite series of quantum phase transitions by the cluster expansion method and conformal field theory. This leads to the infinite series of steps in the behavior of the Curie constant and residual entropy.

Abstract:
We formulate statistical mechanics for the mixed diamond chain with spins of magnitudes 1 and 1/2. Owing to a series of conservation laws, any eigenstate of this system is decomposed into eigenstates of finite odd-length spin-1 chains. The ground state undergoes five quantum phase transitions with varying the parameter $\lambda$ controlling frustration. We obtain the values of the residual entropy and the Curie constant which characterize each phase and phase boundary at low temperatures. We further find various characteristic finite-temperature properties such as the nonmonotonic temperature dependence of the magnetic susceptibility, the multipeak structure in the $\lambda$-dependence of entropy, the plateau-like temperature dependence of entropy and the multipeak structure of specific heat.

Abstract:
The ground states of two types of distorted mixed diamond chains with spins 1 and 1/2 are investigated using exact diagonalization, DMRG, and mapping onto low-energy effective models. In the undistorted case, the ground state consists of an array of independent spin-1 clusters separated by singlet dimers. The lattice distortion induces an effective interaction between cluster spins. When this effective interaction is antiferromagnetic, several Haldane phases appear with or without spontaneous translational symmetry breakdown (STSB). The transition between the Haldane phase without STSB and that with $(n+1)$-fold STSB ($n$ = 1, 2, and 3) belongs to the same universality class as the $(n+1)$-clock model. In contrast, when the effective interaction is ferromagnetic, the quantized and partial ferrimagnetic phases appear with or without STSB. An effective low-energy theory for the partial ferrimagnetic phase is presented.

Abstract:
The mixed diamond chain is a frustrated Heisenberg chain composed of successive diamond-shaped units with two kinds of spins of magnitudes S and S/2 (S: integer). Ratio $lambda$ of two exchange parameters controls the strength of frustration. With varying $lambda$, the Haldane state and several spin cluster states appear as the ground state. A spin cluster state is a tensor product of exact local eigenstates of cluster spins. We prove that a spin cluster state is the ground state in a finite interval of $lambda$. For S=1, we numerically determine the total phase diagram consisting of five phases.