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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 1899 matches for " Hideko Mori "
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Japanese Are Modest Even When They Are Winners: Competence Ratings of Winners and Losers in Social Comparison  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori, Hideko Mori
Psychology (PSYCH) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/psych.2013.411119

Social comparison experiments in two different social conditions, competing between friends and between strangers, were carried out with 88 Japanese male undergraduates. Participants were asked to come to the laboratory in friend pairs to participate in the experiment. Two pairs were randomly combined for each experimental session. In the Between-Friends condition, one of the two pairs solved 20 anagrams competitively while the other pair observed them. In the Between-Strangers condition, one performer and one observer were randomly chosen in each pair and the performers solved anagram tasks competitively. As in our previous study, the anagram tasks were presented utilizing a presentation trick so that one performer-and-observer group viewed easier anagrams than the other group without their noticing the difference. As intended, those who viewed the easier anagrams outperformed the others, becoming winners in all sessions. No participants noticed the trick. After the task, all four participants rated the ability of the two performers including themselves. Their ability ratings showed that they tended to evaluate their own ability modestly. Even winners consistently rated themselves lower than the others rated them. Two possible explanations of why Japanese participants made such modest responses were presented and discussed.

Estimation of the Postmortem Duration of Mouse Tissue by Electron Spin Resonance Spectroscopy
Shinobu Ito,Tomohisa Mori,Hideko Kanazawa,Toshiko Sawaguchi
Journal of Toxicology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/973172
Abstract: Electron spin resonance (ESR) method is a simple method for detecting various free radicals simultaneously and directly. However, ESR spin trap method is unsuited to analyze weak ESR signals in organs because of water-induced dielectric loss (WIDL). To minimize WIDL occurring in biotissues and to improve detection sensitivity to free radicals in tissues, ESR cuvette was modified and used with 5,5-dimethtyl-1-pyrroline N-oxide (DMPO). The tissue samples were mouse brain, hart, lung, liver, kidney, pancreas, muscle, skin, and whole blood, where various ESR spin adduct signals including DMPO-ascorbyl radical (AsA?), DMPO-superoxide anion radical (OOH), and DMPO-hydrogen radical (H) signal were detected. Postmortem changes in DMPO-AsA? and DMPO-OOH were observed in various tissues of mouse. The signal peak of spin adduct was monitored until the 205th day postmortem. DMPO-AsA? in liver ( ?log (day), , , ) was found to linearly decrease with the logarithm of postmortem duration days. Therefore, DMPO-AsA? signal may be suitable for detecting an oxidation stress tracer from tissue in comparison with other spin adduct signal on ESR spin trap method. 1. Introduction Electron spin resonance (ESR) or electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) is now widely used to analyze free radical species in living body and materials. Possibility of application of ESR is studied in a forensic science area. It can be potentially used for estimating postmortem duration in the cause of death. Pashinian and Proshut [1], who suggested the potential of using ESR in forensic medicine, attempted to determine the time of the occurrence of mechanical trauma by measuring the ESR signals of bone marrow. Several studies have analyzed blood by ESR, because blood contains iron-containing proteins such as hemoglobin. Uzeneva [2], for example, studied on the ESR signals of posttraumatic blood. Mil' et al. [3] reported that the ESR signal intensity of blood of patients exposed to radiation at the Chernobyl nuclear accident is higher than that of healthy people. Nakamura et al. [4] reported on ESR signals induced by ionizing radiation in teeth. Quarino and kobilinsky. [5] used ESR to detect human hemoglobin from bloodstains. Türkes et al. [6] analyzed blood stored under blood bank conditions using ESR. They reported that the intensity of ESR signals from methemoglobin, nonheme irons, and organic radicals in dried human blood increase with time. Fujita et al. [7] showed that (1) ESR signals from bloodstains are effective in estimating the age of human and (2) ESR signals regularly change over time
The Postponement of Motherhood and its Child Health Consequences: Birth Weight and Weight Gain during the First Year of Life
Hideko Matsuo
Vienna Yearbook of Population Research , 2006,
Abstract: The postponement of motherhood is one of the most important trends in fertility behaviour in the last few decades. The consequences of late motherhood for child health are not well understood, however. One reason is that in the study of child health, the focus is either on birth (e.g., risk factors for low birth weight), or on child health after birth (e.g., child health consequences of low birth weight). The comprehensive view to child health underlying this paper is that both sides are closely linked. Those perinatal, behavioural and socio-demographic factors which affect birth weight also affect child health after birth. This paper addresses both issues together on the basis of two sets of Belgian regional data. The focus is on the relation between maternal age on the one hand, and birth weight and weight gain after birth (the latter conceptualised in an innovative way) as proxies of child health on the other hand. Our results confirm the importance of high maternal age as a risk factor for low birth weight. They also point to a long-term, though not necessarily permanent, effect of high maternal age on child health after birth for low birth weight children. These results differ from those of studies using other proxies for child health after birth such as physical and cognitive development, which point to permanent negative health effects of low birth weight, and even raise the question of negative intergenerational fertility effects
Structure and Instabilities of an Irradiated Viscous Protoplanetary Disk
Hideko Nomura
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1086/338489
Abstract: We investigate the structure and the stabilities of a protoplanetary disk, which is heated by viscous process in itself and by its central star. The disk is set to rotate with the Keplerian velocity and has the surface density distribution of the minimum mass solar nebula. We assume the vertical hydrostatic equilibrium and the radiative equilibrium at each point, and solve the two-dimensional radiative transfer equation by means of the Short Characteristic method in the spherical coordinate in order to determine the disk structure. Our calculation shows that at the outer region of the disk with a distance from the central star of x>1AU the radiative heating from the inner disk dominates the viscous heating even near the midplane. It is because of the high temperature distribution in the optically thin surface layer and the relatively high disk height as a consequence of the irradiation from the inner hot region of the disk. In addition, we examine the convective and the magnetorotational instabilities of the disk. As a result, the whole disk is convectively stable since the dusty region is not heated by the viscous dissipation from the midplane but by the radial radiative heating. On the other hand, almost all the disk is magnetorotationally unstable except for the region near the equatorial plane of from 2AU to 10AU. Finally we discuss the growth and the size distribution of dust particles in the disk, which suggests that there exist cm-sized particles in the surface layer, namely, in the exposed region of the disk.
Endophytic Fungi Associated with a Holoparasitic Plant, Balanophora japonica (Balanophoraceae)  [PDF]
Hideko Ikeda, Tatsuya Fukuda, Jun Yokoyama
American Journal of Plant Sciences (AJPS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ajps.2016.71016
Abstract: Holoparasitism is a special life cycle of flowering plants. All carbon resources are provided by photosynthetic host plants. A recent study revealed the presence of endophytic fungi in holoparasitic plants, but their ecological and evolutionary roles are still unknown. In this study, we examined endophytic fungi isolated from the holoparasitic plant Balanophora japonica (Balanophoraceae), collected from Kochi, Shikoku in western Japan. We isolated 23 fungal strains on inflorescences and tubers from three B. japonica plants at two locations and on one sample of the host plant (Symplocos lancifolia, Symplocaceae). Predominant isolates were Trichoderma-Hypocrea, Penicillium and Phialemonium. The first group was also predominant in the host plant. Fungal composition revealed in this study differed from the composition on B. harlandii or other root holoparasites with endophytic fungal (Rafflesia cantleyi) data. Those differences might be caused by various factors, including growth habits, location, phylogenetic position or host-parasite relationship.
A Revival of Little Black Sambo in Japan  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori
Advances in Literary Study (ALS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/als.2014.21003

In the late 1980s, a popular children’s book “Little Black Sambo”(hereafter,LBS) disappeared from all bookstores in Japan.The book was alleged to have racist characteristics such as the name of the boy, the way the illustrations caricatured blacks, etc. Mori (1997) revised the original story by changing the protagonist from a black boy to a black Labrador puppy, with eliminating the word “Sambo”,which had a historically pejorative connotation in the US. Mori (2005) conducted an experiment to compare the entertainment value of the two versions of LBS using four-year-old children and found no difference. Mori (2005) also casted a suspicion that the real reason why the book was withdrawnin Japan was a matter of piracy rather than racism. All Japanese publishers at that time had not properly obtained the copyright. Nowadays there are several versions of LBS available in bookstores all over Japan.

Getting Rid of the Horizontal-to-Vertical Strategy: A Case Report of a Japanese Research Psychologist  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2014.24040
Abstract: Most Japanese research psychologists have used “Horizontal-to-Vertical Conversion Strategy” for their research, simply replicating experimental studies published in Western journals with Japanese participants and publishing papers only in Japanese (the traditional orthography of the Japanese language is vertical). This short article criticized this prevailing research strategy among Japanese psychologists and reported a series of studies resulted from an invention of new experimental procedure. It showed an example of a Japanese researcher who had got rid of the inadequate approach by inventing a new experimental method. It also aimed to encourage Japanese psychologists to conduct innovative research and publish their studies in English journals.
Assessment of the Implicit Attitude of Japanese People toward Blacks and Little Black Sambo  [PDF]
Kazuo Mori
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.61001
We examined whether Japanese people, 47 junior high school students, 49 undergraduates, and 52 older adults, possessed negative attitudes against blacks and the picture book Little Black Sambo. We assessed the implicit attitude toward the target word pairs, “black/white” and “Sambo/Heidi,” by utilizing a paper-based Implicit Association Test and found that both black and Sambo were associated more negatively than white and Heidi. However, the implicit attitudes assessed with a single-target IAT showed that 67 Japanese students showed positive implicit scores for blacks but with smaller valences. A post hoc analysis revealed that the reading experience of Little Black Sambo did not show a significant difference between the implicit attitudes of those who had and had not read the book.
Secular Changes in Child Height in Japan and South Korea: Consumption of Animal Proteins and “Essential Nutrients”  [PDF]
Hiroshi Mori
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2018.912106
Abstract: Child height in Japan and South Korea increased dramatically over the past half century. At age 17 - 18 years, male students in Japan were 2 cm taller in the 1960s through 1970s, still barely taller in the 1980s than S. Korean students, but by the early 1990s they ceased to grow any taller in height, whereas their Korean peers kept increasing in height to overtake their Japanese peers by 3 cm in the mid-2000s. Economic growth was rapid in both countries, but S. Korea some two decades behind Japan. Per capita GDP in Japan was four times that in S. Korea in the mid-1980s and twice in the early-2000s. Food consumption increased conspicuously in both countries, with per capita net supply of animal products in Japan noticeably exceeding that in S. Korea in the early-2000s. However, per capita total caloric intake has been a few hundred kcal/day greater in S. Korea than in Japan since the end of 1970s, mainly from cereals. In particular, S. Koreans have consumed nearly twice as many vegetables as Japanese after the early 1980s. What may deserve attention is that Japanese youth, as compared to their older generations, drastically reduced their consumption of fruit and vegetables in the mid-1970s, whereas their S. Korean counterparts have maintained their consumption of these produce. These contrasts in food consumption patterns may have contributed to the differences in child height development in the two countries.
Banking Underserved Market Segments  [PDF]
Margherita Mori
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2019.73042
This paper aims at discussing how to contribute to sustainable development by targeting underbanked market segments: according to a common view, they include people who have become blacklisted by major banks, are young consumers, want to avoid debt collectors, are fed-up with fees, are out of a job or had a bad customer experience; in these cases, traditional financial services could—or would—be hardly accessed and informal channels tend to prevail. The unbanked too call for attention, as that they do not even hold a bank account and hence are excluded from formal banking opportunities, which is likely to pave the way to alternative, less reputable business models. Given the high number of potential consumers involved worldwide, furthering their financial inclusion sounds like a must. In sight of reaching this ambitious goal, the starting point can be identified with an extensive analysis of the underlying concepts, that are closely linked to the Sustainable Development Goals adopted by the United Nations in 2015; the next step revolves around the features of the market segments under investigation, their financial needs that remain unsatisfied and the strategic tools that are likely to improve the state of the art. The main findings lead to stress that usually listed categories to be better served by banks do not tell the whole story, which should act as a stimulus to disseminate best practices and to suggest concrete proposals; they can help to meet the critical challenges of social and economic sustainability within the framework of the generation pact and may also allow financial institutions to expand their activity profitably. Conclusions imply that a more inclusive financial system would provide benefits to the underbanked (not to mention the unbanked), as well as to society at large, with financial competence, literacy and education set to gain momentum.
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