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Endometriosis affects up to 1 every 5 women at their reproductive age, with variable
and complex symptomatology. Patients may be asymptomatic but may have pain
episodes or subfertility. Its negative impact is on patients’ health and
quality of life. Objective: it was to investigate the serum and peritoneal
fluid (PF) concentrations of Angiopoietin- 2, Interleukin-1β, and Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor, aiming to evaluate their
diagnostic performance in endometriosis. Methods: Serum and peritoneal
fluid samples were taken from 112 women undergoing laparoscopy for infertility,
pelvic pain or adnexal masses. 61 diagnosed with endometriosis and 51 controlled.
Primary outcome was to estimate serum and PF concentrations of Angio-2, IL-1β and VEGF and secondarily correlate
these concentrations to disease stages thus assuming their diagnostic potential.
Results: Significant differences were found between patients and control as
regards serum and PF concentration of all studied markers except serum IL-1β. Serum Angio-2 and PF VEGF showed a significantly higher level in more advanced stages of endometriosis. PF VEGF
showed a positively significant correlation with the stage of the disease, spearman
coefficient t = 0.442 p = 0.014. PF concentrations of Angio-2 and Serum VEGF
did not show significant pattern changes with stage-related levels. Diagnostic
potential of serum and PF concentrations of the 3 markers were assessed by the
ROC curve. Angio-2 proved an excellent diagnostic ability for endometriosis.
PF and serum VEGF proved an equal diagnostic performance, whereas, PF IL-1β was the least efficient. Based on
the results, we suggested preliminary serum threshold values for these markers
to be used as diagnostic or follow-up landmarks with relatively acceptable
sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values.
Conclusion: Non-invasive predictive biomarkers for endometriosis were Serum Angio-2,
IL-1β, and VEGF independently or in
combination with the estimated threshold values. Serum Angio-2 merit is
considered as a novel marker for endometriosis due to its diagnostic power.
This work dealt with a chemical stabilization of an expansive high plastic soil of Pliocene deposits exposed at El-Kawther quarter using cement kiln dust (CKD) and cement kiln dust with lime (L) to reduce their swelling and improve their geotechnical properties. Several specimens of the studied expansive soil were collected from El-Kawther quarter. Chemical analysis of the used cement kiln dust and the lime was conducted. Microstructural changes were examined using scanning electron microscope (SEM) before and after chemical treatment of the studied soil. Geotechnical properties including plasticity, compaction parameters, unconfined compressive strength (qu), ultrasonic velocities and free swelling of the studied soil were measured before and after the treatment. An optimum content of the cement kiln dust was 16% (CKD). The optimum content of the cement kiln dust with the lime was 14% (CKD) with 3% (L) according to pH-test. The results showed that the addition of cement kiln dust and cement kiln dust with lime led to a decrease in maximum dry density and an increase in optimum water content. Unconfined compressive strength values were increased using cement kiln dust and cement kiln dust with lime at 7 days curing time. Ultrasonic longitudinal (Vp) and shear (Vs) velocities values were also increased by addition of the cement kiln dust and the cement kiln dust with lime at 7 days curing time. Increment of the curing time from 7 to 28 days led to an increase in both unconfined compressive strength and ultrasonic velocities values. Free swelling percent of the studied soil was reduced from 80.0% to 0.0% after the treatment.