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European and Developing Countries Clinical Trials Partnership (EDCTP): the path towards a true partnership
Mecky I Matee, Christine Manyando, Peter M Ndumbe, Tumani Corrah, Walter G Jaoko, Andrew Y Kitua, Herman PA Ambene, Mathieu Ndounga, Lynn Zijenah, David Ofori-Adjei, Simon Agwale, Steven Shongwe, Thomas Nyirenda, Michael Makanga
BMC Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-9-249
Abstract: EDCTP promotes collaborative research supported by multiple funding agencies and harnesses networking expertise across different African and European countries. EDCTP is different from other similar initiatives. The organisation of EDCTP blends important aspects of partnership that includes ownership, sustainability and responds to demand-driven research. The Developing Countries Coordinating Committee (DCCC); a team of independent scientists and representatives of regional health bodies from sub-Saharan Africa provides advice to the partnership. Thus EDCTP reflects a true partnership and the active involvement and contribution of these African scientists ensures joint ownership of the EDCTP programme with European counterparts.The following have been the major achievements of the EDCTP initiative since its formation in 2003; i) increase in the number of participating African countries from two to 26 in 2008 ii) the cumulative amount of funds spent on EDCTP projects has reached € 150 m, iii) the cumulative number of clinical trials approved has reached 40 and iv) there has been a significant increase number and diversity in capacity building activities.While we recognise that EDCTP faced enormous challenges in its first few years of existence, the strong involvement of African scientists and its new initiatives such as unconditional funding to regional networks of excellence in sub-Saharan Africa is envisaged to lead to a sustainable programme. Current data shows that the number of projects supported by EDCTP is increasing. DCCC proposes that this success story of true partnership should be used as model by partners involved in the fight against other infectious diseases of public health importance in the region.Tuberculosis, human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and malaria cross paths in sub-Saharan Africa, the epicentre of the three infections. Although HIV/AIDS, tuberculosis (TB) and malaria are three treatable and preventable diseases, they are having a devastatin
Trends in DDT and pyrethroid resistance in Anopheles gambiae s.s. populations from urban and agro-industrial settings in southern Cameroon
Philippe Nwane, Josiane Etang, Mouhamadou Chouaibou, Jean Toto, Clément Kerah-Hinzoumbé, Rémy Mimpfoundi, Herman Awono-Ambene, Frédéric Simard
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-9-163
Abstract: Mosquitoes were collected between 2001 and 2007 in four sites in South Cameroon, where insecticides are used for agricultural or personal protection purposes. Insecticide use was documented in each site by interviewing residents. Batches of 2-4 days old adult female mosquitoes reared from larval collections were tested for susceptibility to DDT, permethrin and deltamethrin using standard WHO procedures. Control, dead and survivors mosquitoes from bioassays were identified by PCR-RFLP and characterized for the kdr mutations using either the AS-PCR or the HOLA method.Four chemical insecticide groups were cited in the study sites: organochlorines, organophosphates, carbamates and pyrethroids. These chemicals were used for personal, crop or wood protection. In the four An. gambiae populations tested, significant variation in resistance levels, molecular forms composition and kdr frequencies were recorded in the time span of the study. Increases in DDT and pyrethroid resistance, as observed in most areas, were generally associated with an increase in the relative frequency of the S molecular form carrying the kdr mutations at higher frequencies. In Mangoum, however, where only the S form was present, a significant increase in the frequency of kdr alleles between 2003 to 2007 diverged with a decrease of the level of resistance to DDT and pyrethroids. Analyses of the kdr frequencies in dead and surviving mosquitoes showed partial correlation between the kdr genotypes and resistance phenotypes, suggesting that the kdr mechanism may act with certain co-factors to be identified.These results demonstrate the ongoing spread of kdr alleles in An. gambiae in Central Africa. The rapid evolution of insecticide resistance in this highly dynamic and genetically polymorphic species remains a challenge for its control.Agriculture and timber production are the main components of the economical activities in most equatorial African countries. These economic activities require intensive u
Credibility and Signaling as Strategic Drivers in China’s African Security Engagement  [PDF]
Fanie Herman
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2015.41005
Abstract: The aim of this paper is to show that strategic interaction provides a fruitful way to understand China’s decision-making behavior. States are actors in global politics and frequently have to make choices that are strategic. Credibility and uncertainty are central issues in this environment of incomplete information. This raises the question how China signals its motivations along this strategic chessboard. Strategic interaction assumes purposeful behavior from China in the African security environment. Signaling allows China to consider the problem of unknown motivations, making choices based in part, on what other actors are likely to do in the future. Knowing the choices of other African actors can help China judge what likely responses are.
Evaluation of Activity Patterns in Quinpirole-Treated Rats  [PDF]
Carlos L. Paíno
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2014.47030
Abstract: The present study aims to evaluate in rats the activity changes associated to treatments with D2-like receptor agonists using a simple behavioral procedure. Rats receiving a single dose of 1 mg/kg quinpirole or vehicle were scored for 6 spontaneous behaviors at different post-injection times. In each time point, the animals were placed in testing cages for 12 min and video-recorded during the last 2 min. The number of forelimb steps and the time spent sniffing were significantly increased by 15 min post-injection in the quinpirole group. Forelimb steps remained increased for at least 24 h. Scores of time spent sniffing, as well as time inactive and number of hindlimb steps appeared greatly altered at 90 and 180 min, but not at later time points. By 48 h, no differences between control and quinpirole-treated rats were observed. In conclusion, the simple behavioral procedure here proposed—or adaptations of it—provides a sensitive test to evaluate the time course of the effects of D2-like receptor agonists on rat spontaneous activity. Additionally, this test takes into account context-dependent sensitization. It can be adapted to different treatment conditions. This methodology would be useful for the preclinical screening of D2-like receptor drugs, using reduced numbers of animals to test those doses and treatment schedules producing less side-effects.
Oil Streak Visualisation of Fluid Flow Over Single D-Type Cylinder  [PDF]
Astu Pudjanarsa, Herman Sasongko
World Journal of Mechanics (WJM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wjm.2012.24024
Abstract: An experimental study on the effect of cut angle on circular cylinders to the drag force is performed. Six cylinders were cut at different angles and the air flow impinges perpendicular to the cut surface of the cylinder. The cut angles applied include: 0°, 30°, 45°, 53°, 55°, and 75°. The shear layer visualisation on the surface of cylinder was conducted as well. Drag force was measured using a wind tunnel force balance and the wind speed was set so that a corresponding Rey-nolds number of 5.3 × 104 was achieved. Visualisation was carried out by covering the cylinder with paper wetted by mixture of oil and titanium dioxide powder. Experimental results show that drag force has similar trend to that of previous experiment results. The minimum drag coefficient is attained at the cut angle of 53°. From oil streak visualisation the streamlines pattern of the flow over the cylinder could be reconstructed.
The Role of the Chinese Media in Establishing Common Ground between Sino-African Philosophical Traditions: A Case Study on Peacekeeping Operations  [PDF]
Fanie Herman, Andrew Szanajda
Chinese Studies (ChnStd) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/chnstd.2013.21006
Abstract: This work examines the role of the Chinese media in African peacekeeping operations (PKOs) in view of Chinese and African traditions that are combined through the concept of communitarianism. The values and belief systems of Confucianism and the African philosophy of Ubuntu in the peacekeeping environment stress the importance of focusing on collective achievements and producing results for the common good. Meanwhile, positive reporting is used as media approach to harmonize interaction between the peacekeepers and the parties in a conflict. As a result, as similar communal features are emphasized, value is added to China’s peacekeeping presence and confidence-building is encouraged. The Chinese media also has a good resonance on the perspectives of Africans toward China’s PKOs.
Upgrading Tests Using PSIM Tool of MPPT-PV Feedback-Current Controller  [PDF]
Herman Enrique Fernandez Hernandez
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2016.84022
Abstract: This paper presents improvement tests based in a feedback-current controller designed to Tracking Maximum Power Point in photovoltaic system (MPPT-PV). Previously, a version was developed exhibiting results satisfactory in simulation and through of a low cost prototype. Now, using a sophisticated physical model of solar cell available in PSIM program is shown other cases, considering variations both irradiation and temperature to evaluate successfully the controller. The results show that its system is suitable under dynamical changing atmospheric conditions operating with effectiveness acceptable.
Penile ectopic testis: experience of an adolescent
PA Ongom
East and Central African Journal of Surgery , 2011,
Abstract: This report describes a case of a penile ectopic testis a 14 years old. The condition had been present since birth. Social reasons hampered earlier referral for appropriate medical care. There had been progressive penile development, in association with a swelling, and normal secondary sexual characteristics. The scrotum was well developed on the right side. The right testis and spermatic cord were normal in size and position. The left scrotum was empty. There was an ovoid mass (the left testis) at the right (contralateral), dorsal, proximal half of the penile shaft. It was normal in size with a palpable spermatic cord. An ultrasound scan confirmed these findings. Surgical exploration and mobilization of the ectopic testis was done through a left inguinal incision. A gubernaculum was present. Colle’s fascia of the left scrotum was dissected. A left scrotal incision was used to anchor (orchidopexy) the left testis in a sub-Dartos pouch. Postoperative recovery was normal. It was concluded that a penile ectopic testis, normal in size, may present during adolescence. The condition is correctible though there is need for screening and early detection in children through national Health Policy interventions. East and Central African Journal of Surgery. 2011 Nov/ December;16 (3)
Environmental ethics: An African understanding
PA Ojomo
African Journal of Environmental Science and Technology , 2011,
Abstract: Global concerns about the current environmental crisis have culminated into some controversial environmental ethical theories, that is, normative environmental ethics, sentientist ethics, biocentric ethics, ecocentric ethics and eco-feminist ethics. One of the fundamental underlying features connecting these environmental ethical theories is their grounding in Western perspectives and cultural experiences. Given that environmental concerns are global concerns, and that the imperative of environmental ethics is challenging those life-threatening concerns, critical explorations of environmental ethics need to go beyond the Western horizon. But with respect to the African perspective to environmental ethics and the people’s cultural understanding of the environmental crisis, little has been done in this penultimate area. However, Segun Ogungbemi and Godfrey Tangwa have pioneered philosophical discussions on environmental ethics from an African vantage point. Hence, Ogungbemi defends what he calls “ethics of nature-relatedness,” while Tangwa proposes “ecobio-communitarianism” as a definitive theory of an African orientation to environmental ethics. This paper is therefore a contribution to the consolidation of an African orientation to environmental ethics through a critique and reconstruction of some of the misrepresentations of the African perspective to the environment, implicit in the arguments of Ogungbemi and Tangwa.
The use of traps and the need for conservation of Synodontis fisheries in Asa Lake, Ilorin, Nigeria
PA Araoye
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The basket conical traps are commonly used to catch Synodontis species by the fishermen in Asa Lake, Ilorin, Nigeria because these species are caught alive to attract higher market values. Fleets of these traps randomly set at the bottom shoreline by fishermen at three different locations around the lake from the dam site to the river source were examined for Synodontis catch in 12 months. The specimen of Synodontis schall and Synodontis gambiensis were encountered with the latter occurring in August to October corresponding only with the flood season around the lake. S. schall occurred throughout the seasons but more abundantly in the traps during the dry season. All the specimens of Synodontis caught were found alive with mean standard length ranging from 7.8 to 16.75 cm for S. schall and 16.8 to 22.48 for S. gambiensis. Their corresponding weights ranges are 12.50 to 77.45 g and 49.75 to 92.76, for S. schall and S. gambiensis, respectively. Gravid specimens of both species were caught between the months of June to August in both the fixed and the lost traps. A total of 18 lost traps were recovered during the 12 months of research particularly during the flood seasons. There were no lost traps in November to March. The period of low catch (October and November) also corresponded with the season when the juveniles of S. schall became abundant in the lake. The total fish catch in the wet and dry season was significantly different (P<0.05) in both species. ‘Ghost fishing’ a phenomenon that usually occurred when the set traps were lost due to high floods around the lake and the need for conservation of these valuable water resources are discussed.
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