Abstract:
The aim of the study was to determine statistically significant factors with an impact on the early postoperative surgical outcome. Material and methods. The influence of applied fast-track components on surgical results and early postoperative outcome in 143 consecutive Kausch-Whipple procedure patients was evaluated in a single-center retrospective analysis of a prospective collection of patient-associated pre-, peri- and postoperative data from 1997-2006. Results. The in-hospital mortality rate was 2.8% (n=4). Fast-track measures were shown to have no effect on the morbidity rate in the multi-variate analysis. Over the study period, a decrease of intraoperative infusion volume from 14.2 mL/kg body weight/h in the first year to 10.7 mL/kg body weight/h in the last year was accompanied by an increase in patients requiring intraoperative catecholamines, up from 17% to 95%. The administration of ropivacain/sufentanil via thoracic peri-dural catheter injection initiated in 2000 and now considered the leading analgesic method, was used in 95% of the cases in 2006. Early extubation rate rose from 16.6% to 57.9%. Conclusions. Fast-track aspects in the perioperative management have become more important in several surgical procedure even in those with a greater invasiveness such as Kausch-Whipple. However, such techniques used in peri-operative management of Kausch-Whipple pancreatic-head resections had no impact on the morbidity rate. In addition, the low in-hospital mortality rate was particularly attributed to surgical competence.

Abstract:
The theoretical analysis of the Cooper pair susceptibility shows the two-band Fe-based superconductors (FeSC) to support the existence of the phase with nonzero Cooper pair momentum (called the Fulde--Ferrel--Larkin--Ovchinnikov phase or shortly FFLO), regardless of the order parameter symmetry. Moreover this phase for the FeSC model with $s_{\pm}$ symmetry is the ground state of the system near the Pauli limit. This article discusses the phase diagram $h-T$ for FeSC in the two-band model and its physical consequences. We compare the results for the superconducting order parameter with s-wave and $s_{\pm}$-wave symmetry -- in first case the FFLO phase can occur in both bands, while in second case only in one band. We analyze the resulting order parameter in real space -- showing that the FeSC with $s_{\pm}$-wave symmetry in the Pauli limit have typical properties of one-band systems, such as oscillations of the order parameter in real space with constant amplitude, whereas with s-wave symmetry the oscillations have an amplitude modulation. Discussing the free energy in the superconducting state we show that in absence of orbital effects, the phase transition from the BCS to the FFLO state is always first order, whereas from the FFLO phase to normal state is second order.

Abstract:
Specific heat measurements have been successfully used to probe unconventional superconducting phases in one-band heavy-fermion and organic superconductors. We extend the method to study successive phase transitions in multi-band materials such as iron based superconductors. The signatures are multiple peaks in the specific heat, at low temperatures and high magnetic field, which can lead the experimental verification of unconventional superconducting states with non-zero total momentum.

Abstract:
Iron-base superconductors exhibits features of systems where the Fulde-Ferrel-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase, a superconducting state with non-zero total momentum of Cooper pairs, is actively sought. Experimental and theoretical evidence points strongly to the FFLO phase in these materials above the Pauli limit. In this article we discuss the ground state of iron-base superconductors near the critical magnetic field and the full $h-T$ phase diagram for pnictides in case of intra-band pairing, in a three-band model with $s_{\pm}$ symmetry.

Abstract:
Fe-based superconductors (FeSC) exhibit all the properties of systems that allow the formation of a superconducting phase with oscillating order parameter, called the Fulde--Ferrell--Larkin--Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase. By the analysis of the Cooper pair susceptibility in two-band FeSC, such systems are shown to support the existence of a FFLO phase, regardless of the exhibited order parameter symmetry. We also show the state with nonzero Cooper pair momentum, in superconducting FeSC with $\sim \cos(k_{x}) \cdot \cos (k_{y})$ symmetry, to be the ground state of the system in a certain parameter range.

Abstract:
The effects of a single non-magnetic impurity on superconducting states in the Penson-Kolb-Hubbard model have been analyzed. The investigations have been performed within two steps: (i) the homogeneous system is analysed using the Bogoliubov transformation, whereas (ii) the inhomogeneous system is investigated self-consistent Bogoliubova-de Gennes equations (by exact diagonalization and the kernel polynomial method). We analysed both signs of pair hopping, which correspond to s-wave and $\eta$-wave superconductivity. Our results show that an enhancement of the local superconducting gap at the impurity-site occurs for both cases. We obtained that Cooper pairs are scattered (at the impurity site) into the states which are from the neighborhoods of the states, which are commensurate ones with the crystal lattice. Additionally, in the $\eta$-phase there are peaks in the local-energy gap (in momentum space), which are connected with long-range oscillations in the spatial distribution of the energy gap, superconducting order parameter as well as effective pairing potential. Our results can be contrasted with the experiment and predicts how to experimentally differentiate these two different symmetries of superconducting order parameter by scanning tunneling microscopy technique.

Abstract:
The recent experimental support for the presence of the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) phase in the CeCoIn5 directed the attention towards the mechanisms responsible for this type of superconductivity. We investigate the FFLO state in a model where on--site/inter--site pairing coexists with repulsive pair hopping interaction. The latter interaction is interesting in that it leads to pairing with nonzero momentum of the Cooper pairs even in the absence of the external magnetic field (the so-called eta-pairing). It turns out that depending on the strength of the pair hopping interaction the magnetic field can induce one of two types of the FFLO phase with different spatial modulations of the order parameter. It is argued that the properties of the FFLO phase may give information about the magnitude of the pair hopping interaction. We also show that eta-pairing and d-wave superconductivity may coexist in the FFLO state. It holds true also for superconductors which in the absence of magnetic field are of pure d-wave type.

Abstract:
The influence of incommensurate spin density waves (SDW) on superconductivity in unconventional superconductors is studied by means of the Bogolubov-de Gennes (BdG) equations. Exploiting translational symmetries of a magnetically ordered two-dimensional system we propose an approach that allows to solve the BdG equations on much larger clusters than it is usually possible for inhomogeneous systems. Applying this approach we demonstrate that the presence of incommensurate spin density waves induces real-space inhomogeneity of the superconducting order parameter even in the absence of external magnetic field. In this case a homogeneous order parameter of the Bardeen-Cooper-Schrieffer-type superconducting state is slightly modulated, or equivalently, a small fraction of the charge carriers form Cooper pairs with non-zero total momentum. However, when a sufficiently strong magnetic field is applied, the homogeneous component of the order parameter is suppressed and the system transits to the Fulde-Ferrell-Larkin-Ovchinnikov (FFLO) state, where the order parameter oscillates changing sign. We show that for s-wave pairing the presence of external magnetic field diminishes the destructive influence of the SDW order on superconductivity. A simple explanation of this effect is also proposed.

Abstract:
Obtaining a thermodynamically accurate phase diagram through numerical calculations is a computationally expensive problem that is crucially important to understanding the complex phenomena of solid state physics, such as superconductivity. In this work we show how this type of analysis can be significantly accelerated through the use of modern GPUs. We illustrate this with a concrete example of free energy calculation in multi-band iron-based superconductors, known to exhibit a superconducting state with oscillating order parameter. Our approach can also be used for classical BCS-type superconductors. With a customized algorithm and compiler tuning we are able to achieve a 19x speedup compared to the CPU (119x compared to a single CPU core), reducing calculation time from minutes to mere seconds, enabling the analysis of larger systems and the elimination of finite size effects.

Abstract:
In this paper we determine the phase diagrams (for $T=0$ as well as $T>0$) of the Penson-Kolb-Hubbard model for two dimensional square lattice within Hartree-Fock mean-field theory focusing on investigation of superconducting phases and possibility of the occurrence of the phase separation. We obtain that the phase separation, which is a state of coexistence of two different superconducting phases (with $s$-wave and $\eta$-wave symmetries), occurs in define range of the electron concentration. In addition, increasing temperature can change the symmetry of the superconducting order parameter (from $\eta$-wave into $s$-wave). The system considered exhibits also an interesting multicritical behaviour including bicritical points.