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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 6631 matches for " Henry Phillips "
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Modelling Financially Optimal Afforestation and Forest Management Scenarios Using a Bio-Economic Model  [PDF]
Mary Ryan, Cathal O’Donoghue, Henry Phillips
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2016.61003
Abstract: The expansion of non-industrial private forests (NIPF) in Ireland is unique in the European context in which the almost doubling of forest cover within the last thirty years has taken place largely on farmland. This is not surprising as Ireland has some of the highest growth rates for conifers in Europe and also has a large proportion of land which is marginal for agriculture but highly productive under forests. However, in recent years, afforestation in Ireland as in many European countries has fallen well short of policy targets. As the farm afforestation decision essentially involves an inter-temporal land use change, farmers need comprehensive information on forest market returns under different environmental conditions and forest management regimes. This paper describes the systematic development of a cohort forest bio-economic model which examines financially optimal afforestation and management choices. Simulating a range of productivity and harvesting scenarios for Sitka spruce, we find that different objectives result in different outcomes. We see substantial differences between the biologically optimal rotation, the reduced rotation in common usage and the financially optimal rotation which maximises net present value and find that the results are particularly sensitive to the choice of management and methodological assumptions. Specifically, we find that better site productivity and thin versus no-thin options result in shorter rotations across all optimisations, reinforcing the usefulness of this type of financial modelling approach. This information is critical for future policy design to further incentivise afforestation of agricultural land.
Size-Related Differences in the Thermoregulatory Habits of Free-Ranging Komodo Dragons
Henry J. Harlow,Deni Purwandana,Tim S. Jessop,John A. Phillips
International Journal of Zoology , 2010, DOI: 10.1155/2010/921371
Abstract: Thermoregulatory processes were compared among three-size groups of free-ranging Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) comprising small (5–20?kg), medium (20–40?gm) and large (40–70?kg) lizards. While all size groups maintained a similar preferred body temperature of 35 , they achieved this end point differently. Small dragons appeared to engage in sun shuttling behavior more vigorously than large dragons as represented by their greater frequency of daily ambient temperature and light intensity changes as well as a greater activity and overall exposure to the sun. Large dragons were more sedentary and sun shuttled less. Further, they appear to rely to a greater extent on microhabitat selection and employed mouth gaping evaporative cooling to maintain their preferred operational temperature and prevent overheating. A potential ecological consequence of size-specific thermoregulatory habits for dragons is separation of foraging areas. In part, differences in thermoregulation could contribute to inducing shifts in predatory strategies from active foraging in small dragons to more sedentary sit-and-wait ambush predators in adults. 1. Introduction During growth from hatchlings (0.1?kg) to adults (maximum of 87?kg), Komodo dragons (Varanus komodoensis) express the entire range of adult body size distribution of the genus Varanus. Associated with these changes in body size during growth are shifts in an individual’s ecology including habitat usage, predatory strategies, diet niche, and thermoregulatory behaviors [1–3]. For example, small juveniles are predominantly arboreal and forage on lizards, birds, and insects [4]. Medium-sized dragons are largely terrestrial and generalist predators, while larger dragons increasingly supplement their diet with ungulate prey including Timor deer (Cervus timorensis), wild pigs (Sus scrofa), and to some extent, water buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) [1, 3, 4]. Shifts in diet as a function of increasing body size result in altered feeding strategies moving from active foraging to a more sedentary sit-and-wait predatory habit in larger lizards [1, 2, 5]. Concomitant activities necessitating behavioral thermoregulation are also integrated into daily movement patterns of Komodo dragons which may be size dependent. Terrestrial, diurnal lizards behaviorally regulate within a preferred body temperature (Tb) range [6–9]. Measurements of the Tb of lizards during daytime activity periods suggest that lizards have a single species-specific preferred Tb [10, 11] which would imply that the amplitude and duration of the preferred temperature is
Interference with work in fibromyalgia - effect of treatment with pregabalin and relation to pain response
Sebastian Straube, R Moore, Jocelyn Paine, Sheena Derry, Ceri J Phillips, Ernst Hallier, Henry J McQuay
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-12-125
Abstract: We performed a meta-analysis of individual patient data from four large trials of pregabalin for fibromyalgia lasting 8-14 weeks. We analysed data on interference with work, inferred from answers to component questions of Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), Short Form 36 Health Survey, Sheehan Disability Scale, and Multidimensional Assessment of Fatigue, including "How many days in the past week did you miss work, including housework, because of fibromyalgia?" from FIQ. Analyses were performed according to randomised treatment group (pregabalin 150-600 mg daily or placebo), pain improvement (0-10 numerical pain rating scale scores at trial beginning vs. end), and end of trial pain state (100 mm visual analogue pain scale [VAS]).Comparing treatment group average outcomes revealed modest improvement over the duration of the trials, more so with active treatment than with placebo. For the 'work missed' question from FIQ the change for patients on placebo was from 2.2 (standard deviation [SD] 2.3) days of work lost per week at trial beginning to 1.9 (SD 2.1) days lost at trial end (p < 0.01). For patients on 600 mg pregabalin the change was from 2.1 (SD 2.2) days to 1.6 (SD 2.0) days (p < 0.001). However, the change in days of work lost was substantial in patients with a good pain response: from 2.0 (SD 2.2) days to 0.97 (SD 1.6) days (p < 0.0001) for those experiencing >/= 50% pain improvement and from 1.9 (SD 2.2) days to 0.73 (SD 1.4) days (p < 0.0001) for those achieving a low level of pain at trial end (<30 mm on the VAS). Patients achieving both >/= 50% pain improvement and a pain score <30 mm on the VAS had the largest improvement, from 2.0 (SD 2.2) days to 0.60 (SD 1.3) days (p < 0.0001). Analysing answers to the other questions yielded qualitatively similar results.Effective pain treatment goes along with benefit regarding work. A reduction in time off work >1 day per week can be achieved in patients with good pain responses.Fibromyalgia is a common chroni
Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), cyxlooxygenase-2 selective inhibitors (coxibs) and gastrointestinal harm: review of clinical trials and clinical practice
R Andrew Moore, Sheena Derry, Ceri J Phillips, Henry J McQuay
BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2474-7-79
Abstract: We used a series of systematic literature searches to find full publications of relevant studies for evidence about the efficacy of these different gastroprotection strategies in clinical trials, and for evidence that they worked and were adhered to in clinical practice – whether they were effective. We chose to use good quality systematic reviews and meta-analyses when they were available.Evidence of efficacy of coxibs compared to NSAIDs for upper gastrointestinal bleeding was strong, with consistent reductions in events of about 50% in large randomised trials (34,460 patients), meta-analyses of randomised trials (52,474 patients), and large observational studies in clinical practice (3,093 bleeding events). Evidence on the efficacy of NSAID plus gastroprotection with acid suppressants (proton pump inhibitors, PPIs, and histamine antagonists, H2As) was based mainly on the surrogate measure of endoscopic ulcers. The limited information on damage to the bowel suggested that NSAID plus PPI was more damaging than coxibs.Eleven observational studies studied 1.6 million patients, of whom 911,000 were NSAID users, and showed that 76% (range 65% to 90%) of patients with at least one gastrointestinal risk factor received no prescription for gastroprotective agent with an NSAID. The exception was a cohort of US veterans with previous gastrointestinal bleeding, where 75% had gastroprotection with an NSAID. When gastroprotection was prescribed, it was often described as inadequate. A single study suggested that patient adherence to prescribed gastroprotection was low.Evidence for efficacy of gastroprotection strategies with NSAIDs is limited. In clinical practice few patients who need gastroprotection get it, and those who get it may not take it. For coxibs, gastroprotection is inherent, although probably not complete.Chronic pain affects one adult in five in Europe [1], limits functioning, and is an enormous problem for healthcare. Osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis, and ba
Numerical renormalization using dimensional regularization: a simple test case in the Lippmann-Schwinger equation
D. R. Phillips,I. R. Afnan,A. G. Henry-Edwards
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevC.61.044002
Abstract: Dimensional regularization is applied to the Lippmann-Schwinger equation for a separable potential which gives rise to logarithmic singularities in the Born series. For this potential a subtraction at a fixed energy can be used to renormalize the amplitude and produce a finite solution to the integral equation for all energies. This can be done either algebraically or numerically. In the latter case dimensional regularization can be implemented by solving the integral equation in a lower number of dimensions, fixing the potential strength, and computing the phase shifts, while taking the limit as the number of dimensions approaches three. We demonstrate that these steps can be carried out in a numerically stable way, and show that the results thereby obtained agree with those found when the renormalization is performed algebraically to four significant figures.
Infrared/Terahertz double resonance spectroscopy of CH3F and CH3Cl at atmospheric pressure
Dane J. Phillips,Elizabeth A. Tanner,Frank C. De Lucia,Henry O. Everitt
Physics , 2012,
Abstract: A new method for highly selective remote sensing of atmospheric trace polar molecular gases is described. Based on infrared/terahertz double resonance spectroscopic techniques, the molecule- specific coincidence between the lines of a CO2 laser and rotational-vibrational molecular absorption transitions provide two dimensions of recognition specificity: infrared coincidence frequency and the corresponding terahertz frequency whose absorption strength is modulated by the laser. Atmospheric pressure broadening expands the molecular recognition "specificity matrix" by simultaneously relaxing the infrared coincidence requirement and strengthening the corresponding terahertz signature. Representative double resonance spectra are calculated for prototypical molecules CH3F and CH3Cl and their principal isotopomers, from which a heuristic model is developed to estimate the specificity matrix and double resonance signature strength for any polar molecule.
Free Secondary Education and the Changing Roles of the Heads of Public Schools in Tanzania: Are They Ready for New Responsibilities?  [PDF]
Henry Godda
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.65001
This study investigated the management capacity of heads of public secondary schools in the implementation of Free Secondary Education (FSE) policy in Singida municipality. The study was descriptive research survey which employed both qualitative and quantitative research designs. Questionnaires and interviews were used to collect data from 200 teachers, 10 school heads and 5 municipal secondary education officers. The findings indicated that heads of public secondary schools in Singida municipality possessed managerial skills to run their schools effectively despite of being faced by several challenges, like inadequate funds to cater for some of the school needs, misconception by parents that FSE policy catered for all the fees and rapid increase of student enrollment. The findings further revealed that school heads use informal and formal coping strategies like community participation and informal peer coaching to manage the challenges of FSE.
Growing a Kerr Black Hole  [PDF]
Leon F. Phillips
Journal of Modern Physics (JMP) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jmp.2015.613181
Abstract: Growth of a black hole requires the participation of a near-by accretion disk if it is to occur at a significant rate. The Kerr solution of Einstein’s equation is a vacuum solution, but the center of a realistic Kerr black hole is not a vacuum, so the predicted disk singularity does not exist. Instead, the center of a black hole is occupied by an ultra-dense, spheroidal core whose diameter is greater than that of the theoretical disk singularity. The surface of a black hole’s core is continually bombarded by energetic particles from the external universe. Hence the cold remnant of a gravitationally-collapsed star that has often been assumed to be present at the center of a black hole must be replaced conceptually by a quark-gluon plasma whose temperature is of the order of 1012 K or more. The gravitational potential well of a black hole is extremely deep (TeV), but the number of discrete energy levels below the infinite-red-shift surface is finite. Information can be conveyed to observers in the external universe by thermally-excited fermions that escape from levels near the top of a black hole potential well.
The DEEP Groth Strip Survey XII: The Metallicity of Field Galaxies at 0.26
Henry A. Kobulnicky,Christopher N. A. Willmer,Benjamin J. Weiner,David C. Koo,Andrew C. Phillips,S. M. Faber,Vicki L. Sarajedini,Luc Simard,Nicole P. Vogt
Physics , 2003,
Abstract: Using spectroscopic data from the Deep Extragalactic Evolutionary Probe (DEEP) Groth Strip survey (DGSS), we analyze the gas-phase oxygen abundances for 56 emission-line field galaxies in the redshift range 0.26
A 96-Channel FPGA-based Time-to-Digital Converter
Mircea Bogdan,Henry Frisch,Mary Heintz,Alexander Paramonov,Harold Sanders,Steve Chappa,Robert DeMaat,Rod Klein,Ting Miao,Peter Wilson,Thomas J. Phillips
Physics , 2005, DOI: 10.1016/j.nima.2005.08.071
Abstract: We describe an FPGA-based, 96-channel, time-to-digital converter (TDC) intended for use with the Central Outer Tracker (COT) in the CDF Experiment at the Fermilab Tevatron. The COT system is digitized and read out by 315 TDC cards, each serving 96 wires of the chamber. The TDC is physically configured as a 9U VME card. The functionality is almost entirely programmed in firmware in two Altera Stratix FPGA's. The special capabilities of this device are the availability of 840 MHz LVDS inputs, multiple phase-locked clock modules, and abundant memory. The TDC system operates with an input resolution of 1.2 ns. Each input can accept up to 7 hits per collision. The time-to-digital conversion is done by first sampling each of the 96 inputs in 1.2-ns bins and filling a circular memory; the memory addresses of logical transitions (edges) in the input data are then translated into the time of arrival and width of the COT pulses. Memory pipelines with a depth of 5.5 $\mu$s allow deadtime-less operation in the first-level trigger. The TDC VME interface allows a 64-bit Chain Block Transfer of multiple boards in a crate with transfer-rates up to 47 Mbytes/sec. The TDC also contains a separately-programmed data path that produces prompt trigger data every Tevatron crossing. The full TDC design and multi-card test results are described. The physical simplicity ensures low-maintenance; the functionality being in firmware allows reprogramming for other applications.
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