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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 465352 matches for " Henry A. Nasrallah "
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Lipidomics Reveals Early Metabolic Changes in Subjects with Schizophrenia: Effects of Atypical Antipsychotics
Joseph McEvoy, Rebecca A. Baillie, Hongjie Zhu, Peter Buckley, Matcheri S. Keshavan, Henry A. Nasrallah, George G. Dougherty, Jeffrey K. Yao, Rima Kaddurah-Daouk
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068717
Abstract: There is a critical need for mapping early metabolic changes in schizophrenia to capture failures in regulation of biochemical pathways and networks. This information could provide valuable insights about disease mechanisms, trajectory of disease progression, and diagnostic biomarkers. We used a lipidomics platform to measure individual lipid species in 20 drug-na?ve patients with a first episode of schizophrenia (FE group), 20 patients with chronic schizophrenia that had not adhered to prescribed medications (RE group), and 29 race-matched control subjects without schizophrenia. Lipid metabolic profiles were evaluated and compared between study groups and within groups before and after treatment with atypical antipsychotics, risperidone and aripiprazole. Finally, we mapped lipid profiles to n3 and n6 fatty acid synthesis pathways to elucidate which enzymes might be affected by disease and treatment. Compared to controls, the FE group showed significant down-regulation of several n3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), including 20:5n3, 22:5n3, and 22:6n3 within the phosphatidylcholine and phosphatidylethanolamine lipid classes. Differences between FE and controls were only observed in the n3 class PUFAs; no differences where noted in n6 class PUFAs. The RE group was not significantly different from controls, although some compositional differences within PUFAs were noted. Drug treatment was able to correct the aberrant PUFA levels noted in FE patients, but changes in re patients were not corrective. Treatment caused increases in both n3 and n6 class lipids. These results supported the hypothesis that phospholipid n3 fatty acid deficits are present early in the course of schizophrenia and tend not to persist throughout its course. These changes in lipid metabolism could indicate a metabolic vulnerability in patients with schizophrenia that occurs early in development of the disease.
The dynamics of alternative pathways to compensatory substitution
Chris A. Nasrallah
Quantitative Biology , 2013,
Abstract: The role of epistatic interactions among loci is a central question in evolutionary biology and is increasingly relevant in the genomic age. While the population genetics of compensatory substitution have received considerable attention, most studies have focused on the case when natural selection is very strong against deleterious intermediates. In the biologically-plausible scenario of weak to moderate selection there exist two alternate pathways for compensatory substitution. In one pathway, a deleterious mutation becomes fixed prior to occurrence of the compensatory mutation. In the other, the two loci are simultaneously polymorphic. The rates of compensatory substitution along these two pathways and their relative probabilities are functions of the population size, selection strength, mutation rate, and recombination rate. In this paper these rates and path probabilities are derived analytically and verified using population genetic simulations. The expected time durations of these two paths are similar when selection is moderate, but not when selection is weak. The effect of recombination on the dynamics of the substitution process are explored using simulation. Using the derived rates, a phylogenetic substitution model of the compensatory evolution process is presented that could be used for inference of population genetic parameters from interspecific data.
Independent S-Locus Mutations Caused Self-Fertility in Arabidopsis thaliana
Nathan A. Boggs,June B. Nasrallah,Mikhail E. Nasrallah
PLOS Genetics , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pgen.1000426
Abstract: A common yet poorly understood evolutionary transition among flowering plants is a switch from outbreeding to an inbreeding mode of mating. The model plant Arabidopsis thaliana evolved to an inbreeding state through the loss of self-incompatibility, a pollen-rejection system in which pollen recognition by the stigma is determined by tightly linked and co-evolving alleles of the S-locus receptor kinase (SRK) and its S-locus cysteine-rich ligand (SCR). Transformation of A. thaliana, with a functional AlSRKb-SCRb gene pair from its outcrossing relative A. lyrata, demonstrated that A. thaliana accessions harbor different sets of cryptic self-fertility–promoting mutations, not only in S-locus genes, but also in other loci required for self-incompatibility. However, it is still not known how many times and in what manner the switch to self-fertility occurred in the A. thaliana lineage. Here, we report on our identification of four accessions that are reverted to full self-incompatibility by transformation with AlSRKb-SCRb, bringing to five the number of accessions in which self-fertility is due to, and was likely caused by, S-locus inactivation. Analysis of S-haplotype organization reveals that inter-haplotypic recombination events, rearrangements, and deletions have restructured the S locus and its genes in these accessions. We also perform a Quantitative Trait Loci (QTL) analysis to identify modifier loci associated with self-fertility in the Col-0 reference accession, which cannot be reverted to full self-incompatibility. Our results indicate that the transition to inbreeding occurred by at least two, and possibly more, independent S-locus mutations, and identify a novel unstable modifier locus that contributes to self-fertility in Col-0.
Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis
John Pestian, Henry Nasrallah, Pawel Matykiewicz, Aurora Bennett and Antoon Leenaars
Biomedical Informatics Insights , 2012, DOI: 10.4137/BII.S4706
Abstract: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.
Suicide Note Classification Using Natural Language Processing: A Content Analysis
John Pestian,Henry Nasrallah,Pawel Matykiewicz,Aurora Bennett
Biomedical Informatics Insights , 2010,
Abstract: Suicide is the second leading cause of death among 25–34 year olds and the third leading cause of death among 15–25 year olds in the United States. In the Emergency Department, where suicidal patients often present, estimating the risk of repeated attempts is generally left to clinical judgment. This paper presents our second attempt to determine the role of computational algorithms in understanding a suicidal patient’s thoughts, as represented by suicide notes. We focus on developing methods of natural language processing that distinguish between genuine and elicited suicide notes. We hypothesize that machine learning algorithms can categorize suicide notes as well as mental health professionals and psychiatric physician trainees do. The data used are comprised of suicide notes from 33 suicide completers and matched to 33 elicited notes from healthy control group members. Eleven mental health professionals and 31 psychiatric trainees were asked to decide if a note was genuine or elicited. Their decisions were compared to nine different machine-learning algorithms. The results indicate that trainees accurately classified notes 49% of the time, mental health professionals accurately classified notes 63% of the time, and the best machine learning algorithm accurately classified the notes 78% of the time. This is an important step in developing an evidence-based predictor of repeated suicide attempts because it shows that natural language processing can aid in distinguishing between classes of suicidal notes.
Strange quark mass from Finite Energy QCD sum rules to five loops
Cesareo A. Dominguez,Nasrallah F. Nasrallah,Raoul R?ntsch,Karl Schilcher
Physics , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2008/05/020
Abstract: The strange quark mass is determined from a new QCD Finite Energy Sum Rule (FESR) optimized to reduce considerably the systematic uncertainties arising from the hadronic resonance sector. As a result, the main uncertainty in this determination is due to the value of $\Lambda_{QCD}$. The correlator of axial-vector divergences is used in perturbative QCD to five-loop order, including quark and gluon condensate contributions, in the framework of both Fixed Order (FOPT), and Contour Improved Perturbation Theory (CIPT). The latter exhibits very good convergence, leading to a remarkably stable result in the very wide range $s_0 = 1.0 - 4.0 {GeV}^2$, where $s_0$ is the radius of the integration contour in the complex energy (squared) plane. The value of the strange quark mass in this framework at a scale of 2 GeV is $m_s(2 {GeV}) = 95 \pm 5 (111 \pm 6) {MeV}$ for $\Lambda_{QCD} = 420 (330) {MeV}$, respectively.
Strange quark condensate from QCD sum rules to five loops
Dominguez, C. A.;Nasrallah, N. F.;Schilcher, K.
High Energy Physics - Phenomenology , 2007, DOI: 10.1088/1126-6708/2008/02/072
Abstract: It is argued that it is valid to use QCD sum rules to determine the scalar and pseudoscalar two-point functions at zero momentum, which in turn determine the ratio of the strange to non-strange quark condensates $R_{su} = \frac{<\bar{s} s>}{<\bar{q} q>}$ with ($q=u,d$). This is done in the framework of a new set of QCD Finite Energy Sum Rules (FESR) that involve as integration kernel a second degree polynomial, tuned to reduce considerably the systematic uncertainties in the hadronic spectral functions. As a result, the parameters limiting the precision of this determination are $\Lambda_{QCD}$, and to a major extent the strange quark mass. From the positivity of $R_{su}$ there follows an upper bound on the latter: $\bar{m_{s}} (2 {GeV}) \leq 121 (105) {MeV}$, for $\Lambda_{QCD} = 330 (420) {MeV} .$
The form factor of the transition gamma gamma * pi^0
N. Nasrallah
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.63.054028
Abstract: A simple method is used to extrapolate the form factor for the process gamma* gamma *--->pi^0 when two virtual photons produce a pi ^0 from the region of large spacelike photon virtualities to the experimentally accessible case when one of the photons is real. The method is also applied to the study of the axial anomaly and omega -rho -pi coupling and to the pion charge and charge radius. The results compare favourably with the experimental measurements.
Two photon decay of the pseudoscalars, the chiral symmetry breaking corrections
N. Nasrallah
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.66.076012
Abstract: The extrapolation of the decay amplitudes of the pseudoscalar mesons into two photons from the soft meson limit where it is obtained from the axial-anomaly to the mass shell involves the contribution of the 0^ - continuum. These chiral symmetry breaking corrections turn out to be large. The effects of these corrections on the calculated pi ^0 decay rate, on the values of the singlet-octet mixing angle and on the ratios f_8 / f_pi and f_0 / f_pi are discussed. The implications for the transition form factors gamma gamma* --> pseudoscalars are also evaluated and confronted with the available experimental data.
Energy of surface states for 3D magnetic Schrodinger operators
Marwa Nasrallah
Mathematics , 2014,
Abstract: We establish a semi-classical formula for the sum of eigenvalues of a magnetic Schrodinger operator in a three-dimensional domain with compact smooth boundary and Neumann boundary conditions. The eigenvalues we consider have eigenfunctions localized near the boundary of the domain, hence they correspond to surface states. Using relevant coordinates that straighten out the boundary, the leading order term of the energy is described in terms of the eigenvalues of model operators in the half-axis and the half-plane.
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