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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3948 matches for " Helmut Brand "
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Public health genomics Relevance of genomics for individual health information management, health policy development and effective health services.
Angela Brand,Helmut Brand
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2006, DOI: 10.2427/5914
Abstract: Healthcare delivery systems are facing fundamental challenges. New ways of organising theses systems based on the different needs of stakeholders’ are required to meet these challenges. While medicine is currently undergoing remarkable developments from its morphological and phenotype orientation to a molecular and genotype orientation, promoting the importance of prognosis and prediction, the discussion about the relevance of genome-based information and technologies for the health care system as a whole and especially for public health is still in its infancy. The following article discusses the relevance of genome-based information and technologies for individual health information management, health policy development and effective health services.
Public Health Genetics : Challenging "Public Health at the Crossroads"
Angela Brand,Helmut Brand
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2005, DOI: 10.2427/5999
Abstract: Dear public health professionals, Honestly, isn’t it time to ask whether or not we are doing “the right things”in public health? Are our present public health strategies evidence-based? The public health agenda demands a vision that reaches beyond research to the application of public health and the determination of it’s impact. In this scenario what is the role of genomics? In the past twenty years, advances in genome research have revolutionised what is known about the role of inheritance in health and disease.[1] Nowadays,we know that our DNA determines not only the cause of single-gene disorders, but also determines our predisposition to common diseases.Whereas medicine is currently undergoing extraordinary developments from its morphological and phenotype orientation to a molecular and genotype orientation, promoting the importance of prognosis and prediction, public health practice has to date concerned itself with environmental determinants of health and disease and has paid scant attention to genetic variations within the population. The advances brought about by genomics is changing these perceptions.[2,3] Many predict, that this knowledge will enable health promotion messages and disease prevention programmes to be specifically directed at susceptible individuals or at subgroups of the population, based on their genetic profile.[4,5] The new technologies will allow researchers to examine genetic mutations at the functional genomic unit level, and to better understand the significance of environmental factors such as noxious agents, nutrition and personal behaviour in relation to the causation of diseases such as cardiovascular diseases, psychiatric disorders and infectious diseases.
Public health research needs and challenges in transitional countries of South Eastern Europe
Genc Burazeri,Helmut Brand,Ulrich Laaser
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2009, DOI: 10.2427/5803
Abstract: The former communist countries of Southeastern Europe (SEE) are undergoing a rapid process of transformation from state-enforced rigid economies to market-oriented societies. Compared with European Union, SEE countries are characterized by higher death rates including not only infant mortality and maternal death, but also cardiovascular mortality and injuries. Yet, there is no sufficient research in SEE countries directed towards gaining a clear understanding of the health effects of transition and the fluctuations in health outcomes. A general characteristic in almost all SEE countries relates to the comparable problems they face for engaging in research work which include: (i) lack of funds; (ii) lack of expertise, and; (iii) lack of “good data”. Nevertheless, there is an emergent need to improve research capacities in order to address and analyze on a scientific basis the health problems and challenges in SEE countries. From this point of view, the Forum for Public Health in South Eastern Europe (FPH-SEE: www.snz.hr/fph-see) seems a suitable network to promote, provide guidance and support different research activities and research projects in SEE countries. To increase the visibility of FPH-SEE network and to enhance its collaboration and active communication with European academic institutions and donors, it was decided to establish an office near the Department of International Health, Faculty of Health, Medicine and Life Sciences, Maastricht University, which will be responsible for the coordination of the research network for SEE countries. This will help to promote research funding and to develop and strengthen research capacities in the SEE region.
European public health reports between expectations and reality
Birgit Cornelius-Taylor,Helmut Brand
Italian Journal of Public Health , 2004, DOI: 10.2427/6137
Abstract: Despite the great variety of regional and national health reports that have been drawn up in the European Region, authors and users demand that health reports should be conceived as an instrument for health policy. Under the research project “Evaluation of national and regional health reports (Eva PHR)” within the Health Monitoring Programme of the European Union, the policy impact of health reports drawn up in 19 European countries has been analysed with the objective of identifying best practice models. Modelled on an agreed list of criteria, regional and national health reports were analysed with regard to their contents, structure and political relevance. Simultaneously, a qualitative analysis of semi-structured interviews held with policy makers (politicians, decision-makers in administration and stakeholders) on the experiences, ideas and expectations they have with regard to health reporting was carried out. The presently prevailing practice of descriptive health reporting is characterised by a great heterogeneity among all received reports and by a discrepancy between the expectations of policy makers and actual health reporting. Whereas most health reports in Europe focus on covering the widest possible range of issues and on presenting existing data and indicators accordingly, most decision makers attach considerable importance to linking epidemiology with information about health care provision, financing and evaluation of programmes and activities. To increase the policy relevance of public health reporting, authors should work in close collaboration with policy makers and consider different kinds of products with differing forms and content. Furthermore, the development of methodical instruments for routine policy oriented health reporting could close the current gap between the perceptions of authors and users.
Nonlinear Fluid Dynamics Description of non-Newtonian Fluids
Harald Pleiner,Mario Liu,Helmut R. Brand
Physics , 2004, DOI: 10.1007/s00397-004-0365-8
Abstract: Nonlinear hydrodynamic equations for visco-elastic media are discussed. We start from the recently derived fully hydrodynamic nonlinear description of permanent elasticity that utilizes the (Eulerian) strain tensor. The reversible quadratic nonlinearities in the strain tensor dynamics are of the 'lower convected' type, unambiguously. Replacing the (often neglected) strain diffusion by a relaxation of the strain as a minimal ingredient, a generalized hydrodynamic description of viscoelasticity is obtained. This can be used to get a nonlinear dynamic equation for the stress tensor (sometimes called constitutive equation) in terms of a power series in the variables. The form of this equation and in particular the form of the nonlinear convective term is not universal but depends on various material parameters. A comparison with existing phenomenological models is given. In particular we discuss how these ad-hoc models fit into the hydrodynamic description and where the various non-Newtonian contributions are coming from.
The Amplitude Equation for the Rosensweig Instability in Magnetic Fluids and Gels
Stefan Bohlius,Harald Pleiner,Helmut R. Brand
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1143/PTP.125.1
Abstract: The Rosensweig instability has a special character among the frequently discussed instabilities. One distinct property is the necessary presence of a deformable surface, and another very important fact is, that the driving force acts purely via the surface and shows no bulk effect. These properties make it rather difficult to give a correct weakly nonlinear analysis. In this paper we give a detailed derivation of the appropriate amplitude equation based on the hydrodynamic equations emphasizing the conceptually new procedures necessary to deal with the distinct properties mentioned above. First the deformable surface requires a fully dynamic treatment of the instability and the observed stationary case can be interpreted as the limiting case of a frozen-in characteristic mode. Second, the fact that the driving force is manifest in the boundary conditions, only, requires a considerable change in the formalism of weakly nonlinear bifurcation theory. To obtain the amplitude equations a combination of solubility conditions and (normal stress) boundary conditions has to be invoked in all orders of the expansions.
Microscopic and macroscopic theories for the dynamics of polar liquid crystals
Raphael Wittkowski,Hartmut L?wen,Helmut R. Brand
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.84.041708
Abstract: We derive and analyze the dynamic equations for polar liquid crystals in two spatial dimensions in the framework of classical dynamical density functional theory (DDFT). Translational density variations, polarization, and quadrupolar order are used as order-parameter fields. The results are critically compared with those obtained using the macroscopic approach of time-dependent Ginzburg-Landau (GL) equations for the analogous order-parameter fields. We demonstrate that for both the microscopic DDFT and the macroscopic GL approach the resulting dissipative dynamics can be derived from a dissipation function. We obtain microscopic expressions for all diagonal contributions and for many of the cross-coupling terms emerging from a GL approach. Thus we establish a bridge between molecular correlations and macroscopic modeling for the dissipative dynamics of polar liquid crystals.
Convective Nonlinearity in Non-Newtonian Fluids
Hubert Temmen,Harald Pleiner,Mario Liu,Helmut R. Brand
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevLett.84.3228
Abstract: In the limit of infinite yield time for stresses, the hydrodynamic equations for viscoelastic, Non-Newtonian liquids such as polymer melts must reduce to that for solids. This piece of information suffices to uniquely determine the nonlinear convective derivative, an ongoing point of contention in the rheology literature.
Derivation of a three-dimensional phase-field-crystal model for liquid crystals from density functional theory
Raphael Wittkowski,Hartmut L?wen,Helmut R. Brand
Physics , 2010, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.82.031708
Abstract: Using a generalized order parameter gradient expansion within density functional theory, we derive a phase-field-crystal model for liquid crystals composed by apolar particles in three spatial dimensions. Both the translational density and the orientational direction and ordering are included as order parameters. Different terms involving gradients in the order parameters in the resulting free energy functional are compared to the macroscopic Ginzburg-Landau approach as well as to the hydrodynamic description for liquid crystals. Our approach provides microscopic expressions for all prefactors in terms of the particle interactions. Our phase-field-crystal model generalizes the conventional phase-field-crystal model of spherical particles to orientational degrees of freedom and can be used as a starting point to explore phase transitions and interfaces for various liquid-crystalline phases.
Polar liquid crystals in two spatial dimensions: the bridge from microscopic to macroscopic modeling
Raphael Wittkowski,Hartmut L?wen,Helmut R. Brand
Physics , 2011, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevE.83.061706
Abstract: Two-dimensional polar liquid crystals have been discovered recently in monolayers of anisotropic molecules. Here, we provide a systematic theoretical description of liquid-crystalline phases for polar particles in two spatial dimensions. Starting from microscopic density functional theory, we derive a phase-field-crystal expression for the free-energy density which involves three local order-parameter fields, namely the translational density, the polarization, and the nematic order parameter. Various coupling terms between the order-parameter fields are obtained which are in line with macroscopic considerations. Since the coupling constants are brought into connection with the molecular correlations, we establish a bridge from microscopic to macroscopic modeling. Our theory provides a starting point for further numerical calculations of the stability of polar liquid-crystalline phases and is also relevant for modeling of microswimmers which are intrinsically polar.
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