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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 8025 matches for " Helena;Kergoat "
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Novas configura??es da divis?o sexual do trabalho
Hirata, Helena;Kergoat, Danièle;
Cadernos de Pesquisa , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0100-15742007000300005
Abstract: the concept of the sexual division of labor has a long history. first of all, we will outline the origin of the concept in the french context, quoting some research studies that claim it. we will also suggest our own definition of the concept, which will help us analyze the present characteristics of the sexual division of labor. next, in a more precise way, we will bring the discussion back to the models that organize the relations between the domestic and professional spheres. we will point to the emergence of a new model, the so-called "delegation" model, in order to conclude with a critical analysis of "conciliation" of tasks.
Les paradigmes sociologiques à l’épreuve des catégories de sexe / Los paradigmas sociológicos ante las categorías de sexo
Helena Hirata,Danièle Kergoat
Papeles del CEIC , 2005,
Abstract: Dans ce texte, il sera fait état des ruptures théoriques avec une tradition de la sociologie du travail fran aise centrée sur la figure archétypique de l’ouvrier male de la grande entreprise industrielle. Il s’agira ici d’analyser deux types de ruptures : celle induite par l’introduction des catégories de sexe et celle induite par l’introduction théorique des rapports sociaux de sexe, ou du genre ou, encore, du rapport social (de sexe). Une périodisation et une analyse des conséquences épistémologiques de ces ruptures feront appara tre : la place réelle et la portée de cette sexuation des objets de la sociologie du travail; sa valeur heuristique dans l’analyse du travail; son r le dans le renouvellement des paradigmes dominant le champ du travail et les constructions alternatives à l’oeuvre. Ce texte mo ntrera à partir d’un certain nombre d’exemples concrets les apports des recherches introduisant une perspective de genre pour, enfin, pointer quelques différences nationales entre les sociologies du travail, dans leur manière d’intégrer les rapports sociaux de sexe. En este texto se realiza el balance de las rupturas teóricas con la tradición de la sociología del trabajo francesa centrada en la figura del obrero varón de empresa industrial. Se tratará de analizar dos tipos de rupturas: la provocada por la introducción de las categorías de sexo y la provocada por la introducción teórica de las relaciones sociales de sexo, o de género o, incluso, de relación social (de sexo). La periodización y el análisis de las consecuencias epistemológicas de estas rupturas permitirán que aparezcan: el lugar real y el alcance de esta sexuación de los objetos de la sociología del trabajo; su valor heurístico en el análisis del trabajo; su papel en la renovación de los paradigmas que dominan el campo del trabajo y sus elaboraciones alternativas. A partir de cierta cantidad de ejemplos concretos, el texto mostrará las aportaciones de las investigaciones que introducen una perspectiva de género para, finalmente, apuntar algunas diferencias nacionales entre las sociologías del trabajo en su manera de integrar las relaciones sociales de sexo.
An Academic Educational Program for Providing Eye Care to Older Individuals  [PDF]
Hélène Kergoat, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.76083
Abstract: The literature indicates that the prevalence of oculovisual problems increases with age and that it is higher in older individuals residing in long-term care facilities (LTCF) compared to those living in the community. It further indicates that eye care services in LTCF are sub-optimal. The objective of this article is to describe the university-based educational program we have developed and implemented to train optometry students in the eye care of older individuals, including those among the most vulnerable, i.e. those residing in LTCF. Our two university-based institutions, the Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal and the école d’Optométrie de l’Université de Montréal, collaborated to implement this program. The program has three main components: formal didactic courses, clinical rotations and in situ clinical research. It allows the students to learn how to adapt their clinical interventions to a variety of older patients, taking into account their specific needs, potential complex health conditions, behavior, socio-economic and socio-cultural context, as well as their capacity to understand and collaborate to the oculovisual exam. The program further follows recommendations by leaders in public health, geriatrics and optometry in offering a discipline-specific program in geriatrics.
Pensar a cultura operária para desconstruir a hierarquiza??o dos saberes
Kergoat, Prisca;
Educa??o & Sociedade , 2012, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-73302012000100004
Abstract: how to account for working-class knowledge disqualification in a context of strong valorization of training by apprenticeship in companies? implementing a sociology of relations allows not only to enlighten the mechanisms that organize the denial of working-class and women's qualification, but also to highlight that the analysis cannot disregard the issue of workingclass culture, too ofen underestimated by the french sociology.
Dinamica e consubstancialidade das rela??es sociais
Kergoat, Danièle;
Novos Estudos - CEBRAP , 2010, DOI: 10.1590/S0101-33002010000100005
Abstract: class, gender and racial conflicts are often thought of, interpreted and handled as isolated. the author presents developments in feminist and labor studies which suggest the interdependency of these social categories, theoretically and in the political practices of women's and worker's social movements.
Asymmetry Indices for Analysis and Prediction of Replication Origins in Eukaryotic Genomes
Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045050
Abstract: DNA replication was recently shown to induce the formation of compositional skews in the genomes of the yeasts Saccharomyces cerevisiae and Kluyveromyces lactis. In this work, I have characterized further GC and TA skew variations in the vicinity of S. cerevisiae replication origins and termination sites, and defined asymmetry indices for origin analysis and prediction. The presence of skew jumps at some termination sites in the S. cerevisiae genome was established. The majority of S. cerevisiae replication origins are marked by an oriented consensus sequence called ACS, but no evidence could be found for asymmetric origin firing that would be linked to ACS orientation. Asymmetry indices related to GC and TA skews were defined, and a global asymmetry index IGC,TA was described. IGC,TA was found to strongly correlate with origin efficiency in S. cerevisiae and to allow the determination of sets of intergenes significantly enriched in origin loci. The generalized use of asymmetry indices for origin prediction in naive genomes implies the determination of the direction of the skews, i.e. the identification of which strand, leading or lagging, is enriched in G and which one is enriched in T. Recent work indicates that in Candida albicans and in several related species, centromeres contain early and efficient replication origins. It has been proposed that the skew jumps observed at these positions would reflect the activity of these origins, thus allowing to determine the direction of the skews in these genomes. However, I show here that the skew jumps at C. albicans centromeres are not related to replication and that replication-associated GC and TA skews in C. albicans have in fact the opposite directions of what was proposed.
A Simple Model for the Influence of Meiotic Conversion Tracts on GC Content
Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0016109
Abstract: A strong correlation between GC content and recombination rate is observed in many eukaryotes, which is thought to be due to conversion events linked to the repair of meiotic double-strand breaks. In several organisms, the length of conversion tracts has been shown to decrease exponentially with increasing distance from the sites of meiotic double-strand breaks. I show here that this behavior leads to a simple analytical model for the evolution and the equilibrium state of the GC content of sequences devoid of meiotic double-strand break sites. In the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae, meiotic double-strand breaks are practically excluded from protein-coding sequences. A good fit was observed between the predictions of the model and the variations of the average GC content of the third codon position (GC3) of S. cerevisiae genes. Moreover, recombination parameters that can be extracted by fitting the data to the model coincide with experimentally determined values. These results thus indicate that meiotic recombination plays an important part in determining the fluctuations of GC content in yeast coding sequences. The model also accounted for the different patterns of GC variations observed in the genes of Candida species that exhibit a variety of sexual lifestyles, and hence a wide range of meiotic recombination rates. Finally, the variations of the average GC3 content of human and chicken coding sequences could also be fitted by the model. These results suggest the existence of a widespread pattern of GC variation in eukaryotic genes due to meiotic recombination, which would imply the generality of two features of meiotic recombination: its association with GC-biased gene conversion and the quasi-exclusion of meiotic double-strand breaks from coding sequences. Moreover, the model points out to specific constraints on protein fragments encoded by exon terminal sequences, which are the most affected by the GC bias.
Caring for Individuals with Early-Onset Dementia and Their Family Caregivers: The Perspective of Health Care Professionals  [PDF]
Francine Ducharme, Marie-Jeanne Kergoat, Pascal Antoine, Florence Pasquier, Renée Coulombe
Advances in Alzheimer's Disease (AAD) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aad.2014.31005
Abstract: The phenomenon of early-onset dementia remains an under-researched subject from the perspective of health care professionals. The aim of this qualitative study was to document the experiences and service needs of patients and their family caregivers for optimal clinical management of early-onset dementia from the perspective of health care professionals. A sample of 13 health care professionals from various disciplines, who worked with individuals who suffered from Alzheimer’s disease or related disorders and their family caregivers, took part in focus groups or semi-structured individual interviews, based on a life course perspective. Three recurrent themes emerged from the data collected from health care professionals and are related to: 1) identification with the difficult experiences of caregivers and powerlessness in view of the lack of services; 2) gaps in the care and services offered, including the lack of clinical tools to ensure that patients under age 65 were diagnosed and received follow-up care, and 3) solutions for care and services that were tailored to the needs of the caregiver-patient dyads and health care professionals, the most important being that the residual abilities of younger patients be taken into account, that flexible forms of respite be offered to family caregivers and that training be provided to health care professionals. The results of this study provided some innovative guidelines for optimal clinical management of early-onset dementia in terms of the caregiver-patient dyad.
Universal Temporal Profile of Replication Origin Activation in Eukaryotes
Arach Goldar, Marie-Claude Marsolier-Kergoat, Olivier Hyrien
PLOS ONE , 2009, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0005899
Abstract: Although replication proteins are conserved among eukaryotes, the sequence requirements for replication initiation differ between species. In all species, however, replication origins fire asynchronously throughout S phase. The temporal program of origin firing is reproducible in cell populations but largely probabilistic at the single-cell level. The mechanisms and the significance of this program are unclear. Replication timing has been correlated with gene activity in metazoans but not in yeast. One potential role for a temporal regulation of origin firing is to minimize fluctuations in replication end time and avoid persistence of unreplicated DNA in mitosis. Here, we have extracted the population-averaged temporal profiles of replication initiation rates for S. cerevisiae, S. pombe, D. melanogaster, X. laevis and H. sapiens from genome-wide replication timing and DNA combing data. All the profiles have a strikingly similar shape, increasing during the first half of S phase then decreasing before its end. A previously proposed minimal model of stochastic initiation modulated by accumulation of a recyclable, limiting replication-fork factor and fork-promoted initiation of new origins, quantitatively described the observed profiles without requiring new implementations. The selective pressure for timely completion of genome replication and optimal usage of replication proteins that must be imported into the cell nucleus can explain the generic shape of the profiles. We have identified a universal behavior of eukaryotic replication initiation that transcends the mechanisms of origin specification. The population-averaged efficiency of replication origin usage changes during S phase in a strikingly similar manner in a highly diverse set of eukaryotes. The quantitative model previously proposed for origin activation in X. laevis can be generalized to explain this evolutionary conservation.
Less rain, more water in ponds: a remote sensing study of the dynamics of surface waters from 1950 to present in pastoral Sahel (Gourma region, Mali)
J. Gardelle, P. Hiernaux, L. Kergoat,M. Grippa
Hydrology and Earth System Sciences (HESS) & Discussions (HESSD) , 2010,
Abstract: Changes in the flooded area of ponds in the Gourma region from 1950 to present are studied by remote sensing, in the general context of the current multi-decennial Sahel drought. The seasonal and interannual variations of the areas covered by surface water are assessed using multi-date and multi-sensor satellite images (SPOT, FORMOSAT, LANDSAT-MSS, –TM, and -ETM, CORONA, and MODIS) and aerial photographs (IGN). Water body classification is adapted to each type of spectral resolution, with or without a middle-infrared band, and each spatial resolution, using linear unmixing for mixed pixels of MODIS data. The high-frequency MODIS data document the seasonal cycle of flooded areas, with an abrupt rise early in wet season and a progressive decrease in the dry season. They also provide a base to study the inter-annual variability of the flooded areas, with sharp contrasts between dry years such as 2004 (low and early maximal area) and wetter years such as 2001 and 2002 (respectively high and late maximal area).The highest flooded area reached annually greatly depends on the volume, intensity and timing of rain events. However, the overall reduction by 20% of annual rains during the last 40 years is concomitant with an apparently paradoxical large increase in the area of surface water, starting from the 1970's and accelerating in the mid 1980's. Spectacular for the two study cases of Agoufou and Ebang Mallam, for which time series covering the 1954 to present period exist, this increase is also diagnosed at the regional scale from LANDSAT data spanning 1972–2007. It reaches 108% between September 1975 and 2002 for 91 ponds identified in central Gourma. Ponds with turbid waters and no aquatic vegetation are mostly responsible for this increase, more pronounced in the centre and north of the study zone. Possible causes of the differential changes in flooded areas are discussed in relation with the specifics in topography, soil texture and vegetation cover over the watersheds that feed each of the ponds. Changes in rain pattern and in ponds sedimentation are ruled out, and the impact of changes in land use, limited in the area, is found secondary, as opposed to what has often been advocated for in southern Sahel. Instead, major responsibility is attributed to increased runoff triggered by the lasting impact of the 1970–1980's droughts on the vegetation and on the runoff system over the shallow soils prevailing over a third of the landscape.
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