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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 627893 matches for " Helena H?m?l?inen "
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Exercise training with dietary counselling increases mitochondrial chaperone expression in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance
Mika Venoj?rvi, Sirkka Aunola, Raivo Puhke, Jukka Marniemi, Helena Hmlinen, Jukka-Pekka Halonen, Jaana Lindstr?m, Merja Rastas, Kirsti H?llsten, Pirjo Nuutila, Osmo H?nninen, Mustafa Atalay
BMC Endocrine Disorders , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6823-8-3
Abstract: Exercise training, combined with dietary counselling, increased the expression of mitochondrial chaperones HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) in the vastus lateralis muscle in the IGTslow group and that of HSP60 in the IGTfast group. In cytoplasmic chaperones HSP72 or HSP90 no changes took place. In the IGTslow group, a significant positive correlation between the increased muscle content of HSP60 and the oxygen radical absorbing capacity values and, in the IGTfast group, between the improved VO2max value and the increased protein expression of GRP75 were found. Serum uric acid concentrations decreased in both sub-groups and serum protein carbonyl concentrations decreased in the IGTfast group.The 2-year intervention up-regulated mitochondrial HSP expressions in middle-aged subjects with impaired glucose tolerance. These improvements, however, were not correlated directly with enhanced glucose tolerance.Diabetes and its complications are increasing as major causes of mortality and morbidity in the developed countries [1]. Insulin resistance and diabetes are associated with increased oxidative stresmpaired cellular defence systems [2-4]. We have recently shown in rats that streptozotocin-induced diabetes (SID) increase oxidative stress and resulted in impaired heat shock protein (HSP) responses in liver and skeletal muscle tissue [2]. HSPs are a family of proteins that promote cell survival after a wide variety of environmental stresses. The most widely studied HSP family is the 70-kDA family, which contains the constitutive HSP73 and inducible HSP72 forms. HSP72 plays a central role in protein synthesis, translocation, folding and assembly/disassembly of multimetric protein complexes as molecular chaperones [5]. In type 2 diabetic subjects, insulin resistance correlates with decreased expression of HSP72 in skeletal muscle [6]. HSP60 and glucose-regulated protein 75 (GRP75) are located in the mitochondria, where they are involved in the trafficking and pr
Economic geographic characteristics in the Finnish paper industry - a case study
Esa Hmlinen
Fennia : International Journal of Geography , 2011,
Abstract: The main purpose of this paper is to reveal the Finnish paper industry from the economic geographic perspectives. There have been many mill and machine line closures especially in Finland after 2001. Therefore, it is interesting to research the development of manufacturing and transportation costs and paper prices during 2001 2008 in a large case mill. The research tradition of economic geography concerning the paper industry is scanty in the Nordic countries, and not many discussions have been published. This paper attempts to narrow the gap between theoretical and empirical discussions concerning the paper industry. The empirical data is obtained from one large integrated mill, and the research data covers cost components from the years 2001–2008. The results show that the economic performance has lowered clearly in the case mill. An interesting finding was that in overseas distant deliveries, transit costs can even decrease due to inexpensive sea transportation and paper prices slightly increase, probably due to lowered competition in the exported paper qualities.Although the mill data has been examined in detail, it only covers one large paper mill with several machine lines. Therefore, the results can only be generalized to some extent to other export-dependent paper industries operating in peripheral areas with minimal local demand. Our study shows that the empiric methods of economic geography offer interesting views highlighting such spatial heterogeneities in the paper industry. The industry’s location affects competition through transit costs, and this topic should be included more in location and economic studies.
Assessing the statistical significance of association rules
Wilhelmiina Hmlinen
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: An association rule is statistically significant, if it has a small probability to occur by chance. It is well-known that the traditional frequency-confidence framework does not produce statistically significant rules. It can both accept spurious rules (type 1 error) and reject significant rules (type 2 error). The same problem concerns other commonly used interestingness measures and pruning heuristics. In this paper, we inspect the most common measure functions - frequency, confidence, degree of dependence, $\chi^2$, correlation coefficient, and $J$-measure - and redundancy reduction techniques. For each technique, we analyze whether it can make type 1 or type 2 error and the conditions under which the error occurs. In addition, we give new theoretical results which can be use to guide the search for statistically significant association rules.
General upper bounds for well-behaving goodness measures on dependency rules
Wilhelmiina Hmlinen
Computer Science , 2014,
Abstract: In the search for statistical dependency rules, a crucial task is to restrict the search space by estimating upper bounds for the goodness of yet undiscovered rules. In this paper, we show that all well-behaving goodness measures achieve their maximal values in the same points. Therefore, the same generic search strategy can be applied with any of these measures. The notion of well-behaving measures is based on the classical axioms for any proper goodness measures, and extended to negative dependencies, as well. As an example, we show that several commonly used goodness measures are well-behaving.
New tight approximations for Fisher's exact test
Wilhelmiina Hmlinen
Statistics , 2014,
Abstract: Fisher's exact test is often a preferred method to estimate the significance of statistical dependence. However, in large data sets the test is usually too worksome to be applied, especially in an exhaustive search (data mining). The traditional solution is to approximate the significance with the $\chi^2$-measure, but the accuracy is often unacceptable. As a solution, we introduce a family of upper bounds, which are fast to calculate and approximate Fisher's $p$-value accurately. In addition, the new approximations are not sensitive to the data size, distribution, or smallest expected counts like the $\chi^2$-based approximation. According to both theoretical and experimental analysis, the new approximations produce accurate results for all sufficiently strong dependencies. The basic form of the approximation can fail with weak dependencies, but the general form of the upper bounds can be adjusted to be arbitrarily accurate.
Availability and End-to-end Reliability in Low Duty Cycle MultihopWireless Sensor Networks
Jukka Suhonen,Timo D. Hmlinen,Marko H?nnik?inen
Sensors , 2009, DOI: 10.3390/s90302088
Abstract: A wireless sensor network (WSN) is an ad-hoc technology that may even consist of thousands of nodes, which necessitates autonomic, self-organizing and multihop operations. A typical WSN node is battery powered, which makes the network lifetime the primary concern. The highest energy efficiency is achieved with low duty cycle operation, however, this alone is not enough. WSNs are deployed for different uses, each requiring acceptable Quality of Service (QoS). Due to the unique characteristics of WSNs, such as dynamic wireless multihop routing and resource constraints, the legacy QoS metrics are not feasible as such. We give a new definition to measure and implement QoS in low duty cycle WSNs, namely availability and reliability. Then, we analyze the effect of duty cycling for reaching the availability and reliability. The results are obtained by simulations with ZigBee and proprietary TUTWSN protocols. Based on the results, we also propose a data forwarding algorithm suitable for resource constrained WSNs that guarantees end-to-end reliability while adding a small overhead that is relative to the packet error rate (PER). The forwarding algorithm guarantees reliability up to 30% PER.
Energy-Efficient Reservation-Based Medium Access Control Protocol for Wireless Sensor Networks
Kohvakka Mikko,Suhonen Jukka,Hmlinen TimoD,H?nnik?inen Marko
EURASIP Journal on Wireless Communications and Networking , 2010,
Abstract: In Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs), a robust and energy-efficient Medium Access Control (MAC) protocol is required for high energy efficiency in harsh operating conditions, where node and link failures are common. This paper presents the design of a novel MAC protocol for low-power WSNs. The developed MAC protocol minimizes the energy overhead of idle time and collisions by strict frame synchronization and slot reservation. It combines a dynamic bandwidth adjustment mechanism, multi-cluster-tree network topology, and a network channel allowing rapid and low-energy neighbor discoveries. The protocol achieves high scalability by employing frequency and time division between clusters. Performance analysis shows that the MAC protocol outperforms current state-of-the-art protocols in energy efficiency, and the energy overhead compared to an ideal MAC protocol is only 2.85% to 27.1%. The high energy efficiency is achieved in both leaf and router nodes. The models and the feasibility of the protocol were verified by simulations and with a full-scale prototype implementation.
Scalable MPEG-4 Encoder on FPGA Multiprocessor SOC
Kulmala Ari,Lehtoranta Olli,Hmlinen TimoD,H?nnik?inen Marko
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems , 2006,
Abstract: High computational requirements combined with rapidly evolving video coding algorithms and standards are a great challenge for contemporary encoder implementations. Rapid specification changes prefer full programmability and configurability both for software and hardware. This paper presents a novel scalable MPEG-4 video encoder on an FPGA-based multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSOC). The MPSOC architecture is truly scalable and is based on a vendor-independent intellectual property (IP) block interconnection network. The scalability in video encoding is achieved by spatial parallelization where images are divided to horizontal slices. A case design is presented with up to four synthesized processors on an Altera Stratix 1S40 device. A truly portable ANSI-C implementation that supports an arbitrary number of processors gives 11 QCIF frames/s at 50 MHz without processor specific optimizations. The parallelization efficiency is 97% for two processors and 93% with three. The FPGA utilization is 70%, requiring 28 797 logic elements. The implementation effort is significantly lower compared to traditional multiprocessor implementations.
Scalable MPEG-4 Encoder on FPGA Multiprocessor SOC
Ari Kulmala,Olli Lehtoranta,Timo D. Hmlinen,Marko H?nnik?inen
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems , 2006, DOI: 10.1155/es/2006/38494
Abstract: High computational requirements combined with rapidly evolving video coding algorithms and standards are a great challenge for contemporary encoder implementations. Rapid specification changes prefer full programmability and configurability both for software and hardware. This paper presents a novel scalable MPEG-4 video encoder on an FPGA-based multiprocessor system-on-chip (MPSOC). The MPSOC architecture is truly scalable and is based on a vendor-independent intellectual property (IP) block interconnection network. The scalability in video encoding is achieved by spatial parallelization where images are divided to horizontal slices. A case design is presented with up to four synthesized processors on an Altera Stratix 1S40 device. A truly portable ANSI-C implementation that supports an arbitrary number of processors gives 11 QCIF frames/s at 50 MHz without processor specific optimizations. The parallelization efficiency is 97% for two processors and 93% with three. The FPGA utilization is 70%, requiring 28 797 logic elements. The implementation effort is significantly lower compared to traditional multiprocessor implementations.
Performance Evaluation of UML2-Modeled Embedded Streaming Applications with System-Level Simulation
Arpinen Tero,Salminen Erno,Hmlinen TimoD,H?nnik?inen Marko
EURASIP Journal on Embedded Systems , 2009,
Abstract: This article presents an efficient method to capture abstract performance model of streaming data real-time embedded systems (RTESs). Unified Modeling Language version 2 (UML2) is used for the performance modeling and as a front-end for a tool framework that enables simulation-based performance evaluation and design-space exploration. The adopted application meta-model in UML resembles the Kahn Process Network (KPN) model and it is targeted at simulation-based performance evaluation. The application workload modeling is done using UML2 activity diagrams, and platform is described with structural UML2 diagrams and model elements. These concepts are defined using a subset of the profile for Modeling and Analysis of Realtime and Embedded (MARTE) systems from OMG and custom stereotype extensions. The goal of the performance modeling and simulation is to achieve early estimates on task response times, processing element, memory, and on-chip network utilizations, among other information that is used for design-space exploration. As a case study, a video codec application on multiple processors is modeled, evaluated, and explored. In comparison to related work, this is the first proposal that defines transformation between UML activity diagrams and streaming data application workload meta models and successfully adopts it for RTES performance evaluation.
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