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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 405468 matches for " Helen M Oh "
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Confirmed adult dengue deaths in Singapore: 5-year multi-center retrospective study
Yee-Sin Leo, Tun L Thein, Dale A Fisher, Jenny G Low, Helen M Oh, Rajmohan L Narayanan, Victor C Gan, Vernon J Lee, David C Lye
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-123
Abstract: We conducted a multi-center retrospective chart review of all confirmed adult dengue deaths in Singapore from 1 January 2004 to 31 December 2008.Of 28 adult dengue deaths, median age was 59 years. Male gender comprised 67.9% and co-morbidities existed in 75%. From illness onset, patients presented for admission at a median of 4 days and death occurred at a median of 12 days. Intensive care admission was required in 71.4%. Probable dengue was diagnosed in 32.1% by WHO 1997 criteria and 78.6% by WHO 2009. The earliest warning sign was persistent vomiting at a median of 1.5 days. Hematocrit change ≥20% concurrent with platelet count <20 × 10^9/L was associated with the shortest interval to death at a median of 3 days. Only 35.7% of death cases fulfilled DHF criteria by WHO 1997 versus severe dengue in 100.0% by WHO 2009 criteria. Deaths were due to shock and organ failure. Acute renal impairment occurred in 71.4%, impaired consciousness 57.1% and severe hepatitis 53.6%.In our adult fatal dengue cohort, WHO 2009 criteria had higher sensitivity in diagnosing probable dengue and severe dengue compared with WHO 1997. As warning signs, persistent vomiting occurred early and hematocrit change ≥20% concurrent with platelet count <20 × 10^9/L preceded death most closely.Dengue is the most important arthropod-borne viral disease in humans. The World Health Organization (WHO) has estimated that 1.8 billion people, or more than 70% of the global at-risk population, live in the WHO Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific regions which account for nearly 75% of current global disease burden from dengue [1]. Singapore, a developed island city-state in Southeast Asia has experienced resurgent dengue epidemics since the 1990s after previous decades of vector control effectively reduced the Aedes house index [2]. In addition, dengue infections in Singapore in recent years have shifted from primarily a childhood disease to that of adults [2]. With this resurgence, the classification of d
Risk Factors for Fatality among Confirmed Adult Dengue Inpatients in Singapore: A Matched Case-Control Study
Tun-Linn Thein, Yee-Sin Leo, Dale A. Fisher, Jenny G. Low, Helen M. L. Oh, Victor C. Gan, Joshua G. X. Wong, David C. Lye
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0081060
Abstract: Objectives To identify demographic, clinical and laboratory risk factors for death due to dengue fever in adult patients in Singapore. Methods Multi-center retrospective study of hospitalized adult patients with confirmed dengue fever in Singapore between 1 January 2004 and 31 December 2008. Non-fatal controls were selected by matching age and year of infection with fatal cases. World Health Organization 1997, 2009 criteria were applied to define dengue hemorrhagic fever (DHF), warning signs and severe dengue. Statistical significance was assessed by conditional logistic regression modeling. Results Significantly more fatal cases than matched controls had pre-existing co-morbid conditions, and presented with abdominal pain/tenderness. Median pulse rates were significantly higher while myalgia was significantly less frequent in cases. . Fatal cases also had higher leucocyte counts, platelet counts, serum sodium, potassium, urea, creatine and bilirubin levels on admission compared to controls. There was no statistical significant difference between the prevalence of DHF and hematocrit level among cases and controls. Multivariate analysis showed myalgia and leucocyte count at presentation were independent predictors of fatality (adjusted odds ratios 0.09 and 2.94 respectively). None of the controls was admitted to intensive care unit (ICU) or given blood transfusion, while 71.4% and 28.6% of fatal cases received ICU admission and blood transfusion. Conclusions Absence of myalgia and leucocytosis on admission were independently associated with fatality in our matched case-control study. Fatalities were also commonly associated with co-morbidities and clinicians should be alarmed if dengue patients fulfilled severe dengue case definition on admission.
Endothelial Depletion of Acvrl1 in Mice Leads to Arteriovenous Malformations Associated with Reduced Endoglin Expression
Simon Tual-Chalot, Marwa Mahmoud, Kathleen R. Allinson, Rachael E. Redgrave, Zhenhua Zhai, S. Paul Oh, Marcus Fruttiger, Helen M. Arthur
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0098646
Abstract: Rare inherited cardiovascular diseases are frequently caused by mutations in genes that are essential for the formation and/or function of the cardiovasculature. Hereditary Haemorrhagic Telangiectasia is a familial disease of this type. The majority of patients carry mutations in either Endoglin (ENG) or ACVRL1 (also known as ALK1) genes, and the disease is characterized by arteriovenous malformations and persistent haemorrhage. ENG and ACVRL1 encode receptors for the TGFβ superfamily of ligands, that are essential for angiogenesis in early development but their roles are not fully understood. Our goal was to examine the role of Acvrl1 in vascular endothelial cells during vascular development and to determine whether loss of endothelial Acvrl1 leads to arteriovenous malformations. Acvrl1 was depleted in endothelial cells either in early postnatal life or in adult mice. Using the neonatal retinal plexus to examine angiogenesis, we observed that loss of endothelial Acvrl1 led to venous enlargement, vascular hyperbranching and arteriovenous malformations. These phenotypes were associated with loss of arterial Jag1 expression, decreased pSmad1/5/8 activity and increased endothelial cell proliferation. We found that Endoglin was markedly down-regulated in Acvrl1-depleted ECs showing endoglin expression to be downstream of Acvrl1 signalling in vivo. Endothelial-specific depletion of Acvrl1 in pups also led to pulmonary haemorrhage, but in adult mice resulted in caecal haemorrhage and fatal anaemia. We conclude that during development, endothelial Acvrl1 plays an essential role to regulate endothelial cell proliferation and arterial identity during angiogenesis, whilst in adult life endothelial Acvrl1 is required to maintain vascular integrity.
Potential Range Expansion of the Invasive Red Shiner, Cyprinella lutrensis (Teleostei: Cyprinidae), under Future Climatic Change  [PDF]
Helen M. Poulos, Barry Chernoff
Open Journal of Ecology (OJE) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/oje.2014.49045
Abstract:

We built climate envelope models under contemporary and future climates to explore potential range shifts of the invasive Red Shiner-Cyprinella lutrensis. Our objective was to estimate aquatic habitat vulnerability to Red Shiner invasion in North America under future climatic change. We used presence records from within the species’ native and invaded distributions, a suite of bioclimatic predictor variables from three climate models (CCCma, CSIRO, and HadCM3), and maximum entropy modeling to generate potential distribution maps for the year 2080. Our model predicted major range expansion by Red Shiner under both low and high carbon emissions scenarios. The models exceeded average area under the receiver operator characteristic curve values of 0.92, indicating good overall model performance. The model predictions fell largely outside of areas of climatic extrapolation (i.e. regions predicted into environments different from training the region) indicating good model performance. The results from this study highlight the large potential range expansion across North America of Red Shiner under future warmer climates.

Intrauterine Infection and Spontaneous Midgestation Abortion: Is the Spectrum of Microorganisms Similar to That in Preterm Labor?
Helen M. McDonald,Helen M. Chambers
Infectious Diseases in Obstetrics and Gynecology , 2000, DOI: 10.1155/s1064744900000314
Abstract: Objective: To determine whether microorganisms associated with intrauterine infection and preterm labor play a contributing role in midgestation abortion.
Phytate degradation by Leuconostoc mesenteroides KC51 cultivation in soymilk
N Oh, M In
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2009,
Abstract: The phytate-degrading activity of Leuconostoc mesenteroides KC51 isolated from Kimchi was evaluated. When the phytase activity was measured in cultured broth on Lactobacilli MRS medium, the activity was detected in harvested cell suspension but not in the extracellular medium. The optimum pH was determined to be pH 5.5. L. mesenteroides KC51 cultivation in autoclaved soymilk resulted in a significant reduction of phytate content. After 9 h, around 47% of phytate had disappeared, and phytate content tended to stabilize around 50% of its initial value at the end of the 18 h fermentation. And decrease of phytate content was associated with L. mesenteroides KC51 cell growth during fermentation.
A model of gene-gene and gene-environment interactions and its implications for targeting environmental interventions by genotype
Helen M Wallace
Theoretical Biology and Medical Modelling , 2006, DOI: 10.1186/1742-4682-3-35
Abstract: A new model for gene-gene and gene-environment interactions is developed that abandons the assumptions of the classical twin study, including Fisher's (1918) assumption that genes act as risk factors for common traits in a manner necessarily dominated by an additive polygenic term. Provided there are no confounders, the model can be used to implement a top-down approach to quantifying the potential utility of genetic prediction and prevention, using twin, family and environmental data. The results describe a solution space for each disease or trait, which may or may not include the classical twin study result. Each point in the solution space corresponds to a different model of genotypic risk and gene-environment interaction.The results show that the potential for reducing the incidence of common diseases using environmental interventions targeted by genotype may be limited, except in special cases. The model also confirms that the importance of an individual's genotype in determining their risk of complex diseases tends to be exaggerated by the classical twin studies method, owing to the 'equal environments' assumption and the assumption of no gene-environment interaction. In addition, if phenotypes are genetically robust, because of epistasis, a largely environmental explanation for shared sibling risk is plausible, even if the classical heritability is high. The results therefore highlight the possibility – previously rejected on the basis of twin study results – that inherited genetic variants are important in determining risk only for the relatively rare familial forms of diseases such as breast cancer. If so, genetic models of familial aggregation may be incorrect and the hunt for additional susceptibility genes could be largely fruitless.Some geneticists have predicted a genetic revolution in healthcare: involving a future in which individuals take a battery of genetic tests, at birth or later in life, to determine their individual 'genetic susceptibility' to
Anti-inflammatory activity of Ruta graveolens Linn on carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats
M Ratheesh, A Helen
African Journal of Biotechnology , 2007,
Abstract: Aqueous, ethanolic and methanolic extracts of Ruta graveolens were investigated for anti-inflammatory activity in carrageenan induced paw edema in wistar male rats, and compared to a positive control drug, Voveran. These extracts were given (ip) in a concentration of 20 and 50 mg/kg b.w. before carrageenan injection. Methanolic extracts of R. graveolens with a concentration of 20 mg/kg b.w. and ethanolic extract with a concentration of 50 mg/kg b.w. showed maximum (90.9%) inhibition on carrageenan induced rat paw edema. The effect was significantly (P< 0.05) higher than that of the standard drug Voveran (72.72%). Methanol extract with a concentration of 50 mg/kg b.w. produced 81.81% inhibition, which was also high as compared to the standard drug. Ethanolic extract with a dose of 20 mg/kg b.w and the two doses of aqueous extract produce less percentage of inhibition as compared to the standard drug voveran.
EU Enlargement and Latvian Citizenship Policy
Helen M. Morris
Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe , 2003,
Abstract: This article examines whether its desire to join the European Union exerted any influence upon Latvian nationality policy. The author concludes that external pressure upon Latvian policymakers during the accession process led to a significantly more liberal and inclusive citizenship law than might have otherwise been adopted. The analysis includes an assessment of current concerns in nationality and minority policy in Latvia including the large number and status of non-citizens, the application of language legislation, and the reform of the education system. EU membership is expected to make Latvian citizenship more attractive for non-citizens and the country will continue to be required to meet its international obligations regarding treatment of the non-citizen population and minorities. However, there is a risk that the completion of accession negotiations and accompanying reduction in European Commission influence coupled with intense pressure on limited economic and administrative resources in the new member states will sideline respect for and protection of minority rights.
Designation of Russel Marker′s and the mexican steroid industry′s work as an international historic chemical landmark
Helen M. Free
Revista de la Sociedad Química de México , 1999,
Abstract:
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