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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 3550 matches for " Helen Hayes "
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Cell Cycle Regulation and Cytoskeletal Remodelling Are Critical Processes in the Nutritional Programming of Embryonic Development
Angelina Swali, Sarah McMullen, Helen Hayes, Lorraine Gambling, Harry J. McArdle, Simon C. Langley-Evans
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0023189
Abstract: Many mechanisms purport to explain how nutritional signals during early development are manifested as disease in the adult offspring. While these describe processes leading from nutritional insult to development of the actual pathology, the initial underlying cause of the programming effect remains elusive. To establish the primary drivers of programming, this study aimed to capture embryonic gene and protein changes in the whole embryo at the time of nutritional insult rather than downstream phenotypic effects. By using a cross-over design of two well established models of maternal protein and iron restriction we aimed to identify putative common “gatekeepers” which may drive nutritional programming. Both protein and iron deficiency in utero reduced the nephron complement in adult male Wistar and Rowett Hooded Lister rats (P<0.05). This occurred in the absence of damage to the glomerular ultrastructure. Microarray, proteomic and pathway analyses identified diet-specific and strain-specific gatekeeper genes, proteins and processes which shared a common association with the regulation of the cell cycle, especially the G1/S and G2/M checkpoints, and cytoskeletal remodelling. A cell cycle-specific PCR array confirmed the down-regulation of cyclins with protein restriction and the up-regulation of apoptotic genes with iron deficiency. The timing and experimental design of this study have been carefully controlled to isolate the common molecular mechanisms which may initiate the sequelae of events involved in nutritional programming of embryonic development. We propose that despite differences in the individual genes and proteins affected in each strain and with each diet, the general response to nutrient deficiency in utero is perturbation of the cell cycle, at the level of interaction with the cytoskeleton and the mitotic checkpoints, thereby diminishing control over the integrity of DNA which is allowed to replicate. These findings offer novel insight into the primary causes and mechanisms leading to the pathologies which have been identified by previous programming studies.
Processes Underlying the Nutritional Programming of Embryonic Development by Iron Deficiency in the Rat
Angelina Swali, Sarah McMullen, Helen Hayes, Lorraine Gambling, Harry J. McArdle, Simon C. Langley-Evans
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0048133
Abstract: Poor iron status is a global health issue, affecting two thirds of the world population to some degree. It is a particular problem among pregnant women, in both developed and developing countries. Feeding pregnant rats a diet deficient in iron is associated with both hypertension and reduced nephron endowment in adult male offspring. However, the mechanistic pathway leading from iron deficiency to fetal kidney development remains elusive. This study aimed to establish the underlying processes associated with iron deficiency by assessing gene and protein expression changes in the rat embryo, focussing on the responses occurring at the time of the nutritional insult. Analysis of microarray data showed that iron deficiency in utero resulted in the significant up-regulation of 979 genes and down-regulation of 1545 genes in male rat embryos (d13). Affected processes associated with these genes included the initiation of mitosis, BAD-mediated apoptosis, the assembly of RNA polymerase II preinitiation complexes and WNT signalling. Proteomic analyses highlighted 7 proteins demonstrating significant up-regulation with iron deficiency and the down-regulation of 11 proteins. The main functions of these key proteins included cell proliferation, protein transport and folding, cytoskeletal remodelling and the proteasome complex. In line with our recent work, which identified the perturbation of the proteasome complex as a generalised response to in utero malnutrition, we propose that iron deficiency alone leads to a more specific failure in correct protein folding and transport. Such an imbalance in this delicate quality-control system can lead to cellular dysfunction and apoptosis. Therefore these findings offer an insight into the underlying mechanisms associated with the development of the embryo during conditions of poor iron status, and its health in adult life.
ZAMSTAR, The Zambia South Africa TB and HIV Reduction study: Design of a 2 × 2 factorial community randomized trial
Helen M Ayles, Charalambos Sismanidis, Nulda Beyers, Richard J Hayes, Peter Godfrey-Faussett
Trials , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1745-6215-9-63
Abstract: The interaction between TB and HIV is reviewed and possible interventions that could reduce the prevalence of TB in HIV-endemic populations are discussed. Two of these interventions are described in detail and the design of a 2 × 2 factorial community randomised trial to test these interventions is presented. The limitations and challenges of the design are identified and discussed.There is an urgent need to reduce the prevalence of TB in communities highly affected by HIV. Potential interventions are complex and require innovative trial designs to provide the rigorous evidence needed to inform health policy makers and to ensure that resources are used optimally.Number: ISRCTN36729271Tuberculosis (TB) incidence is increasing in much of sub-Saharan Africa, largely due to the high prevalence of HIV infection. International TB control strategies rely on self-presentation of cases to the health services, diagnosis by sputum smear microscopy and the use of a 6–8 month course of multi-drug therapy to cure the disease[1]. However these strategies are currently failing to control TB in high HIV prevalence settings, due both to the massive burden of disease and the inadequacy of existing health systems to find and cure infectious cases coupled with the continuing stigma and denial that surround HIV and TB[2].The Zambia/South Africa TB and AIDS Reduction (ZAMSTAR) study aims to use existing tools for diagnosis and treatment but to test new approaches to the delivery of TB control strategies to determine whether these can reduce the prevalence of TB and HIV at community level.The first mechanism by which prevalence of TB could be reduced is through more efficient detection and treatment of infectious cases of TB. Prior to the HIV epidemic, a large body of work provided the backbone for the DOTS strategy, which uses passive case-finding to detect TB cases[3]. Recent work highlights the importance of case-finding and the need to adapt the existing approach to incorporate a more
Rapid Increase in Prevalence of Male Circumcision in Rural Tanzania in the Absence of a Promotional Campaign
Harriet J. Forbes, Aoife M. Doyle, Kaballa Maganja, John Changalucha, Helen A. Weiss, David A. Ross, Richard J. Hayes
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0040507
Abstract: Objectives To estimate the prevalence of circumcision among young men in rural Mwanza, North-Western Tanzania, and document trends in circumcision prevalence over time. To investigate associations of circumcision with socio-demographic characteristics, reported sexual behaviours and sexually transmitted infections (STIs). Design A cross-sectional survey in communities which had previously participated in a cluster-randomized trial of an adolescent sexual health intervention that did not include male circumcision in 20 rural communities. Methods In 2007/08, 7300 young men (age 16–23 years) were interviewed and examined by a clinician. The prevalence of circumcision by age was compared with data collected during the trial in 1998–2002. Odds ratios (OR) and 95% confidence intervals (CI) for the association of circumcision with socio-demographic characteristics, reported sexual behaviours and with HIV and other STIs were estimated using multivariable conditional logistic regression. Results The prevalence of male circumcision was 40.6%, and age-specific prevalence had more than doubled since 2001/2002. Circumcised men reported less risky sexual behaviours, being more likely to report having ever used a condom (adjusted OR = 2.62, 95%CI:2.32–2.95). Men circumcised before sexual debut were at reduced risk of being HIV seropositive compared with non-circumcised men (adjusted OR = 0.50, 95%CI:0.25–0.97), and also had reduced risks of HSV-2 infection and genital ulcer syndrome in the past 12 months compared with non-circumcised men. Conclusions There was a steep increase in circumcision prevalence between 2001/02 and 2007/08 in the absence of a promotional campaign. Circumcised men reported safer sexual practices than non-circumcised men and had lower prevalence of HIV and HSV-2 infection.
Persisting with prevention: The importance of adherence for HIV prevention
Helen A Weiss, Judith N Wasserheit, Ruanne V Barnabas, Richard J Hayes, Laith J Abu-Raddad
Emerging Themes in Epidemiology , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1742-7622-5-8
Abstract: We used simple quantitative methods to illustrate the impact of various levels of adherence on measured efficacy by assuming a uniform population in terms of sexual behavior and the binomial model for the transmission probability per partnership.At 100% adherence the measured efficacy within an RCT is a reasonable approximation of the true biological efficacy. However, as adherence levels fall, the efficacy measured within a trial substantially under-estimates the true biological efficacy. For example, at 60% adherence, the measured efficacy can be less than half of the true biological efficacy.Poor adherence during a trial can substantially reduce the power to detect an effect, and improved methods of achieving and maintaining high adherence within trials are needed. There are currently 12 ongoing HIV prevention trials, all but one of which require ongoing user-adherence. Attention must be given to methods of maximizing adherence when piloting and designing RCTs and HIV prevention programmes.Recent randomized controlled trials (RCT) of herpes suppressive therapy [1,2], female diaphragms and gel in addition to male condoms (the Methods for Improving Reproductive Health in Africa, or MIRA trial) [3], and an adenovirus-vectored HIV vaccine [4] have failed to show an impact on HIV acquisition. These disappointing findings contribute to a total of 31 completed RCTs with HIV incidence as a primary outcome for sexual transmission (Table 1), of which only four have shown a statistically significant reduction in new HIV infections [5-8].Multiple factors are likely to be responsible for the failure of the trials to see a protective effect, including interventions which are truly non-efficacious, trials which were under-powered to detect an effect, and poor adherence to the intervention under study. It is striking that the only intervention for which multiple trials have shown efficacy in preventing HIV is male circumcision [5-7], a non-reversible surgical procedure for which
Stroke and Constipation
—Coincidence or Interrelated?
 [PDF]

Jayaprada Kasaraneni, Margaret Hayes
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.619313
Abstract: Emile Gautier once said, “Freedom of the bowels is the most precious, perhaps even the most essential, of all freedoms—one without which little can be accomplished.” This paper will explore the neuronal physiology, pathophysiology, theories regarding the correlation between stroke and constipation along with a few treatment options. Patients often recovering from stroke complain of constipation and it is most likely attributed to changes in diet, ambulation, or fluid balance. However, there are not many studies to reflect the correlation between other less significant symptoms and stroke presentation.
Osteoprotegerin Secretion by Mevastatin via p38MAPK and NF-kB  [PDF]
Helen Smith
Open Journal of Rheumatology and Autoimmune Diseases (OJRA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojra.2012.22006
Abstract: Osteoprotegerin (OPG) is a protein produced by many cell types that has the remarkable property of inhibiting bone loss. It does this by binding to the key bone resorptive cytokine, receptor activator of NF-kB ligand (RANKL). This cytokine is produced mainly by osteoblastic cells and is instrumental in osteoclast differentiation. If the ratio of RANKL:OPG increases, bone resorption increases and results in bone loss in diseases such osteoporosis, rheumatoid arthritis and hypercalcaemia of malignancy. Hence, if drugs can be found that increase OPG, this will decrease the activity of osteoclasts and therefore bone resorption. Statins are cholesterol lowering drugs that have recently been shown to increase bone formation in rodents. It was hypothesised from this finding that this could be due to an increase in OPG production. If these commonly prescribed drugs could be used to prevent bone loss or to increase bone formation then this may prove a useful means of reducing fracture risk in patients. Treating Saos-2 osteoblast-like cells in vitro with mevastatin increased OPG production and secretion through the mevalonate pathway. A failure of geranylgeranylation of Rho and/or farnesylation of Ras proteins leads to an increase in PI-3K activation then AKT activation leading to several different signaling pathways such as MAPK’s and NF-kB. NF-kB and p38MAPK inhibitors prevented the statin stimulation of OPG but not the decrease in cell number, suggesting that statins regulate OPG secretion via PI-3K, p38MAPK and NF-kB.
Religious Wear (Uniforms) in Psychiatry  [PDF]
Helen Bright
Open Journal of Psychiatry (OJPsych) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpsych.2014.42015
Abstract:

Uniforms represent more than just a body cover. There could be symbols of status, power, authority, values, beliefs, identity, wealth representation, self-protection, health and safety, suppression of individuality and identification on one hand by the wearer. The observers may perceive uniforms differently based on their experiences, expectations, education, perceptual ability, conformity, status, power, self-confidence, and need for trust and communication without barrier or judgment. Forty five adult mentally ill patients (21 female and 24 male) were administered questionnaires with Linkert Scale regarding how approachable or off-putting they find casual and religious wear in social worker. Significantly more patients preferred casual wear to religious. Chi squared test equals 28.689 with p value of less than 0.0001 for four degrees of freedom.

The Influence of L2 Transfer on L3 English Written Production in a Bilingual German/Italian Population: A Study of Syntactic Errors  [PDF]
Helen Forsyth
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.43036
Abstract:

This study attempts to examine and identify instances of negative “interlanguage transfer” (Sharwood Smith & Kellerman, 1986), which is a phenomenon belonging to the broader field of crosslinguistic influence, in written L3 English production in a bilingual Italian/German population. Transfer from learners’ L2 has attracted increasing attention over recent years (De Angelis & Selinker, 2001; Jessner, 2006) and research has suggested various potential triggers for facilitative and negative L2 transfer, as well as producing mixed results regarding the individual aspects of language that may be susceptible to transfer from a learner’s L2. Quantitative data were collected from 46 subjects in the form of questionnaires enquiring about language backgrounds and attitudes, and written summaries. The Statistical Package for Social Science was used to analyse specific instances of written syntactic errors resulting from both L1 and L2 transfer and these were then examined in the light of the questionnaire responses in order to identify possible determining factors behind any L2 transfer for both linguistic groups. Results provided evidence of negative syntactic L2 transfer from German and Italian in English L3, yet the possible determining factors were sometimes unexpected and not necessarily identical for both groups. This study suggests that L2 transfer in multilingual settings is a very real possibility which may be of future interest in terms of multilingual language processing and have consequences for the L3 classroom.

Designing Economics Electives with a Significant Writing Component  [PDF]
Helen Schneider
Creative Education (CE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2017.84040
Abstract: This paper presents a design for the structure and assessment of a research paper assignment in an upper level economics elective with a significant writing component. Writing component design focuses on what graduating economics majors should be able to do with the knowledge they acquire in the major and on their ability to create original analysis and empirical models in courses with and without an econometrics prerequisite. The author provides writing workshop and minimal marking approaches to improving the writing skills of undergraduates. Finally, the paper presents the link between main modules of the course and proficiencies we expect from graduating majors.
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