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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 299562 matches for " Heather J Zar "
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Incorrect use of a homemade spacer for treatment of recurrent wheezing in children – a cause for concern
Heather J Zar, Cas Motala, Eugene Weinberg
South African Medical Journal , 2005,
Abstract: No South African Medical Journal Vol. 95(6) 2005: 388-390
Childhood pneumonia - progress and challenges
Heather J Zar, Shabir A Madhi
South African Medical Journal , 2006,
Human rhinovirus infection in young African children with acute wheezing
Heidi E Smuts, Lesley J Workman, Heather J Zar
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-65
Abstract: Two hundred and twenty children presenting consecutively at a tertiary children's hospital with a wheezing illness from May 2004 to November 2005 were prospectively enrolled. A nasal swab was taken and reverse transcription PCR used to screen the samples for HRV. The presence of human metapneumovirus, human bocavirus and human coronavirus-NL63 was assessed in all samples using PCR-based assays. A general shell vial culture using a pool of monoclonal antibodies was used to detect other common respiratory viruses on 26% of samples. Phylogenetic analysis to determine circulating HRV species was performed on a portion of HRV-positive samples. Categorical characteristics were analysed using Fisher's Exact test.HRV was detected in 128 (58.2%) of children, most (72%) of whom were under 2 years of age. Presenting symptoms between the HRV-positive and negative groups were similar. Most illness was managed with ambulatory therapy, but 45 (35%) were hospitalized for treatment and 3 (2%) were admitted to intensive care. There were no in-hospital deaths. All 3 species of HRV were detected with HRV-C being the most common (52%) followed by HRV-A (37%) and HRV-B (11%). Infection with other respiratory viruses occurred in 20/128 (16%) of HRV-positive children and in 26/92 (28%) of HRV-negative samples.HRV may be the commonest viral infection in young South African children with acute wheezing. Infection is associated with mild or moderate clinical disease.Wheezing is a frequent manifestation of lower respiratory tract infection (LRTI) in infants and young children. Viral infections are the commonest cause of acute wheezing. Several respiratory viruses, including respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), influenza viruses, parainfluenza viruses, enteroviruses, human coronaviruses, human metapneumovirus and human bocavirus have been associated with wheezy illness [1-5].With the improvement of molecular techniques the frequency of HRV detection in clinical samples has increased dramatically
Outcome of HIV-exposed uninfected children undergoing surgery
Jonathan S Karpelowsky, Alastair JW Millar, Nelleke van der Graaf, Guido van Bogerijen, Heather J Zar
BMC Pediatrics , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2431-11-69
Abstract: A prospective study of children less than 60 months of age undergoing general surgery at a paediatric referral hospital from July 2004 to July 2008 inclusive. Children underwent age-definitive HIV testing and were followed up post operatively for the development of complications, length of stay and mortality.Three hundred and eighty children were enrolled; 4 died and 11 were lost to follow up prior to HIV testing, thus 365 children were included. Of these, 38(10.4%) were HIVe, 245(67.1%) were HIVn and 82(22.5%) were HIVi children.The overall mortality was low, with 2(5.2%) deaths in the HIVe group, 0 in the HIVn group and 6(7.3%) in the HIVi group (p = 0.0003). HIVe had a longer stay than HIVn children (3 (2-7) vs. 2 (1-4) days p = 0.02). There was no significant difference in length of stay between the HIVe and HIVi groups. HIVe children had a higher rate of complications compared to HIVn children, (9 (23.7%) vs. 14(5.7%) (RR 3.8(2.1-7) p < 0.0001) but a similar rate of complications compared to HIVi children 34 (41.5%) (RR = 0.6 (0.3-1.1) p = 0.06).HIVe children have a higher risk of developing complications and mortality after surgery compared to HIVn children. However, the risk of complications is lower than that of HIVi children.HIV-exposed uninfected (HIVe) children are a rapidly growing population. Programs for the prevention of mother to child transmission (PMTCT) have reduced the transmission rate of perinatal HIV infection to approximately 2% to 5% [1-3]. Such programs have therefore effectively reduced the number of HIV infected (HIVi)children but identified an increasing population of HIVe children [4].HIVe children have been overlooked as a group of children who may be at an increased risk of illness compared to HIV-unexposed (HIVn) children. Recently, increased morbidity and mortality in HIVe children compared to HIVn children has been reported [4-10]. Many factors may account for this including innate deficiencies in immunity [11-13], feeding practice
High incidence of antimicrobial resistant organisms including extended spectrum beta-lactamase producing Enterobacteriaceae and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus in nasopharyngeal and blood isolates of HIV-infected children from Cape Town, South Africa
Mark F Cotton, Elizabeth Wasserman, Juanita Smit, Andrew Whitelaw, Heather J Zar
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2008, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-8-40
Abstract: NP swabs were taken at baseline from HIV-infected children enrolled in the study. Standard microbiological techniques were used. Children were grouped according to previous or current exposure to TMP-SMX and whether enrolled to the study during a period of hospitalization. Blood culture results were also recorded within 12 months of baseline.Two hundred and three children, median age 1.8 (Interquartile [IQ]: 0.7–4) years had NP swabs submitted for culture. One hundred and eighty-four (90.7%) had either stage B or C HIV disease. One hundred and forty-one (69.8%) were receiving TMP-SMX and 19 (9.4%) were on antiretroviral therapy. The majority, 168 (82%) had a history of hospitalization and 91 (44.8%) were enrolled during a period of hospitalization. Thirty-two subjects (16.2%) died within 12 months of study entry.One hundred and eighty-one potential pathogens were found in 167 children. The most commonly isolated organisms were Streptococcus pneumoniae (48: 22.2%), Gram-negative respiratory organisms (Haemophilus influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis) (47: 21.8%), Staphylococcus aureus (44: 20.4%), Enterobacteriaceae 32 (14.8%) and Pseudomonas 5 (2.3%).Resistance to TMP-SMX occurred in > 80% of pathogens except for M. catarrhalis (2: 18.2% of tested organisms). TMP-SMX resistance tended to be higher in those receiving it at baseline (p = 0.065). Carriage of Methicillin resistant S. aureus (MRSA) was significantly associated with being on TMP-SMX at baseline (p = 0.002). Minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC) to penicillin were determined for 18 S. pneumoniae isolates: 7 (38.9%) were fully sensitive (MIC ≤ 0.06 μg/ml), 9 (50%) had intermediate resistance (MIC 0.12 – 1 μg/ml) and 2 (11.1%) had high level resistance (MIC ≥2 μg/ml). Fifty percent of Enterobacteriaceae produced extended spectrum beta-lactamases (ESBL) (resistant to third generation cephalosporins) and 56% were resistant to gentamicin. Seventy-seven percent of S. aureus were MRSA. Carriage of resistant org
Melhoras na fun??o pulmonar de uma popula??o com fibrose cística em um país em desenvolvimento
Morrow, Brenda M.;Argent, Andrew C.;Zar, Heather J.;Westwood, Anthony T. R.;
Jornal de Pediatria , 2008, DOI: 10.2223/JPED.1829
Abstract: objective: to document the change in pulmonary function of a pediatric cystic fibrosis population managed at the red cross war memorial children's hospital, cape town, south africa, between january 1999 and december 2006. methods: retrospective review of the medical records and best spirometry results within 3-monthly intervals. results: a total of 1,139 pulmonary function tests from 79 patients showed a significant improvement over the 8 years studied. when comparing the first quarter of 1999 with the last quarter of 2006, 78 pulmonary function tests were performed on 65 patients with equal patient numbers in both groups and similar in terms of gender, age, age at diagnosis, ethnicity, cystic fibrosis genotype and number of patients colonized with either staphylococcus aureus or pseudomonas aeruginosa. in 2006, 15 patients (38.5%) were on azithromycin treatment compared to one (2.6%) patient in 1999 (p = 0.0003). median (interquartile range) forced expiratory volume in 1 second, forced vital capacity, and average expiratory flow between 25 and 75% of forced vital capacity increased from 61% (51-73), 63% (52-89), and 40% (27-57), predicted in the first quarter of 1999, to 81% (69-100, p = 0.004), 82% (70-98, p = 0.007), and 62% (41-87, p = 0.01), predicted during the last quarter of 2006, respectively. conclusions: pulmonary function tests increased by 20% over 8 years in comparable patient groups. this likely reflects improved care of south african children with cystic fibrosis.
Humoral Immune Responses to Pneumocystis jirovecii Antigens in HIV-Infected and Uninfected Young Children with Pneumocystis Pneumonia
Kpandja Djawe, Kieran R. Daly, Linda Levin, Heather J. Zar, Peter D. Walzer
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0082783
Abstract: Background Humoral immune responses in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected and uninfected children with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) are poorly understood. Methods Consecutive children hospitalized with acute pneumonia, tachypnea, and hypoxia in South Africa were investigated for PcP, which was diagnosed by real-time polymerase chain reaction on lower respiratory tract specimens. Serum antibody responses to recombinant fragments of the carboxyl terminus of Pneumocystis jirovecii major surface glycoprotein (MsgC) were analyzed. Results 149 children were enrolled of whom 96 (64%) were HIV-infected. PcP occurred in 69 (72%) of HIV-infected and 14 (26%) of HIV-uninfected children. HIV-infected children with PcP had significantly decreased IgG antibodies to MsgC compared to HIV-infected patients without PcP, but had similar IgM antibodies. In contrast, HIV-uninfected children with PcP showed no change in IgG antibodies to MsgC, but had significantly increased IgM antibodies compared to HIV-uninfected children without PCP. Age was an independent predictor of high IgG antibodies, whereas PcP was a predictor of low IgG antibodies and high IgM antibodies. IgG and IgM antibody levels to the most closely related MsgC fragments were predictors of survival from PcP. Conclusions Young HIV-infected children with PcP have significantly impaired humoral immune responses to MsgC, whereas HIV-uninfected children with PcP can develop active humoral immune responses. The children also exhibit a complex relationship between specific host factors and antibody levels to MsgC fragments that may be related to survival from PcP.
Detection of Streptococcus pneumoniae from Different Types of Nasopharyngeal Swabs in Children
Felix S. Dube, Mamadou Kaba, Elizabeth Whittaker, Heather J. Zar, Mark P. Nicol
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0068097
Abstract: Background A better understanding of the epidemiology of nasopharyngeal carriage of Streptococcus pneumoniae is important to assess the impact of vaccination and the pathogenesis of pneumococcal disease. We compared the recovery of S. pneumoniae from nylon flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs. Methods The recovery of S. pneumoniae from mocked specimens using flocked, Dacron and rayon swabs were compared by culture. The yield from paired nasopharyngeal (NP) samples obtained from healthy children sampled with flocked and Dacron swabs was also determined using culture and lytA-targeted real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). Results Using mock specimen, the percentage recovery of S. pneumoniae ATCC 49619 (serotype 19F) strain from the flocked swabs was 100%, while it was 41% from Dacron swabs and 7% from rayon swabs. Similar results were observed for S. pneumoniae serotypes 1 and 5. S. pneumoniae was cultured from 18 of 42 (43%) paired NP samples from the healthy children (median age 8 [interquartile range (IQR) 5–16] months). The median number of colony-forming units (CFU) recovered from flocked swabs was two-fold higher (8.8×104 CFU/mL [IQR, 2.0×102 – 4.0×105 CFU/mL]) than Dacron swabs (3.7×104 CFU/mL [IQR, 4.0×102–3.2×105 CFU/mL], p = 0.17). Using lytA-targeted qPCR from paired NP samples, the median copy number of S. pneumoniae detected from flocked swabs was significantly higher than from Dacron swabs (3.0×105 genome copies/mL [IQR, 1.3×102?1.8×106] vs. 9.3×104 genome copies/mL [IQR, 7.0×101?1.1×106]; p = 0.005). Conclusion Flocked swabs released more S. pneumoniae compared to both Dacron and rayon swabs from mock specimens. Similarly, higher bacterial loads were detected by qPCR from flocked swabs compared with Dacron swabs from healthy children.
Improved detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii in upper and lower respiratory tract specimens from children with suspected pneumocystis pneumonia using real-time PCR: a prospective study
Catherine M Samuel, Andrew Whitelaw, Craig Corcoran, Brenda Morrow, Nei-Yuan Hsiao, Marco Zampoli, Heather J Zar
BMC Infectious Diseases , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2334-11-329
Abstract: Children hospitalised at an academic hospital with suspected PCP were prospectively enrolled. An upper respiratory sample (nasopharyngeal aspirate, NPA) and a lower respiratory sample (induced sputum, IS or bronchoalveolar lavage, BAL) were submitted for real-time PCR and direct IF for the detection of Pneumocystis jirovecii. A control group of children with viral lower respiratory tract infections were investigated with PCR for PCP.202 children (median age 3.3 [inter-quartile range, IQR 2.2 - 4.6] months) were enrolled. The overall detection rate by PCR was higher than by IF [180/349 (52%) vs. 26/349 (7%) respectively; p < 0.0001]. PCR detected more infections compared to IF in lower respiratory tract samples [93/166 (56%) vs. 22/166 (13%); p < 0.0001] and in NPAs [87/183 (48%) vs. 4/183 (2%); p < 0.0001]. Detection rates by PCR on upper (87/183; 48%) compared with lower respiratory tract samples (93/166; 56%) were similar (OR, 0.71; 95% CI, 0.46 - 1.11). Only 2/30 (6.6%) controls were PCR positive.Real-time PCR is more sensitive than IF for the detection of P. jirovecii in children with PCP. NPA samples may be used for diagnostic purposes when PCR is utilised. Wider implementation of PCR on NPA samples is warranted for diagnosing PCP in children.Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP), caused by Pneumocystis jirovecii, is an important opportunistic infection in HIV-infected children [1,2]. The incidence of PCP in developed countries has declined since the introduction of highly active anti-retroviral therapy and use of chemoprophylaxis. However, PCP remains a major cause of hospitalization and mortality in HIV-infected children in low or middle income countries, [1,3-5] with reported incidence rates of 10 - 49%, [1,3,6] and in-hospital case-fatality rates of 20 - 63% [1,3,4,6]. Apart from HIV infection, there are other factors that predispose children to developing PCP including malnutrition, other immune deficiencies or HIV exposure. Untreated, the case fatality rate in chi
Adherence to isoniazid prophylaxis among HIV-infected children: a randomized controlled trial comparing two dosing schedules
Stanzi M le Roux, Mark F Cotton, Jonathan E Golub, David M le Roux, Lesley Workman, Heather J Zar
BMC Medicine , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1741-7015-7-67
Abstract: We investigated adherence to study medication in a two centre, randomized trial comparing daily to three times a week dosing of isoniazid. The study was conducted at two tertiary paediatric care centres in Cape Town, South Africa. Over a 5 year period, we followed 324 HIV-infected children aged ≥ 8 weeks. Adherence information based on pill counts was available for 276 children. Percentage adherence was calculated by counting the number of pills returned. Adherence ≥ 90% was considered to be optimal. Analysis was done using summary and repeated measures, comparing adherence to the two dosing schedules. Mean percentage adherence (per child during follow-up time) was used to compare the mean of each group as well as the proportion of children achieving an adherence of ≥ 90% in each group. For repeated measures, percentage adherence (per child per visit) was dichotomized at 90%. A logistic regression model with generalized estimating equations, to account for within-individual correlation, was used to evaluate the impact of the dosing schedule. Adjustments were made for potential confounders and we assessed potential baseline and time-varying adherence determinants.The overall adherence to isoniazid was excellent, with a mean adherence of 94.7% (95% confidence interval [CI] 93.5-95.9); similar mean adherence was achieved by the group taking daily medication (93.8%; 95% CI 92.1-95.6) and by the three times a week group (95.5%; 95% CI 93.8-97.2). Two-hundred and seventeen (78.6%) children achieved a mean adherence of ≥ 90%. Adherence was similar for daily and three times a week dosing schedules in univariate (odds ratio [OR] 0.88; 95% CI 0.66-1.17; P = 0.38) and multivariate (adjusted OR 0.85; 95% CI 0.64-1.11; P = 0.23) models. Children from overcrowded homes were less adherent (adjusted OR 0.71; 95% CI 0.54-0.95; P = 0.02). Age at study visit was predictive of adherence, with better adherence achieved in children older than 4 years (adjusted OR 1.96; 95% CI 1.16-3.32;
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