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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 169089 matches for " Heather E. Cunliffe "
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In Vitro Assessment of the Inflammatory Breast Cancer Cell Line SUM 149: Discovery of 2 Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms in the RNase L Gene
Brandon T. Nokes, Heather E. Cunliffe, Bonnie LaFleur, David W. Mount, Robert B. Livingston, Bernard W. Futscher, Julie E. Lang
Journal of Cancer , 2013,
Abstract: Background: Inflammatory breast cancer (IBC) is a rare, highly aggressive form of breast cancer. The mechanism of IBC carcinogenesis remains unknown. We sought to evaluate potential genetic risk factors for IBC and whether or not the IBC cell lines SUM149 and SUM190 demonstrated evidence of viral infection. Methods: We performed single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) genotyping for 2 variants of the ribonuclease (RNase) L gene that have been correlated with the risk of prostate cancer due to a possible viral etiology. We evaluated dose-response to treatment with interferon-alpha (IFN-α); and assayed for evidence of the putative human mammary tumor virus (HMTV, which has been implicated in IBC) in SUM149 cells. A bioinformatic analysis was performed to evaluate expression of RNase L in IBC and non-IBC. Results: 2 of 2 IBC cell lines were homozygous for RNase L common missense variants 462 and 541; whereas 2 of 10 non-IBC cell lines were homozygous positive for the 462 variant (p= 0.09) and 0 of 10 non-IBC cell lines were homozygous positive for the 541 variant (p = 0.015). Our real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and Southern blot analysis for sequences of HMTV revealed no evidence of the putative viral genome. Conclusion: We discovered 2 SNPs in the RNase L gene that were homozygously present in IBC cell lines. The 462 variant was absent in non-IBC lines. Our discovery of these SNPs present in IBC cell lines suggests a possible biomarker for risk of IBC. We found no evidence of HMTV in SUM149 cells. A query of a panel of human IBC and non-IBC samples showed no difference in RNase L expression. Further studies of the RNase L 462 and 541 variants in IBC tissues are warranted to validate our in vitro findings.
Deep Clonal Profiling of Formalin Fixed Paraffin Embedded Clinical Samples
Tara Holley, Elizabeth Lenkiewicz, Lisa Evers, Waibhav Tembe, Christian Ruiz, Joel R. Gsponer, Cyrill A. Rentsch, Lukas Bubendorf, Mark Stapleton, Doug Amorese, Christophe Legendre, Heather E. Cunliffe, Ann E. McCullough, Barbara Pockaj, David Craig, John Carpten, Daniel Von Hoff, Christine Iacobuzio-Donahue, Michael T. Barrett
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0050586
Abstract: Formalin fixed paraffin embedded (FFPE) tissues are a vast resource of annotated clinical samples. As such, they represent highly desirable and informative materials for the application of high definition genomics for improved patient management and to advance the development of personalized therapeutics. However, a limitation of FFPE tissues is the variable quality of DNA extracted for analyses. Furthermore, admixtures of non-tumor and polyclonal neoplastic cell populations limit the number of biopsies that can be studied and make it difficult to define cancer genomes in patient samples. To exploit these valuable tissues we applied flow cytometry-based methods to isolate pure populations of tumor cell nuclei from FFPE tissues and developed a methodology compatible with oligonucleotide array CGH and whole exome sequencing analyses. These were used to profile a variety of tumors (breast, brain, bladder, ovarian and pancreas) including the genomes and exomes of matching fresh frozen and FFPE pancreatic adenocarcinoma samples.
Performance and Optimization of a Small Hybrid Solar-Thermal Collector  [PDF]
Amy Lebar, Heather E. Dillon
Smart Grid and Renewable Energy (SGRE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/sgre.2018.912016
Abstract: A hybrid solar collector was designed to investigate the effects of combining two different solar collector techniques on the overall collector’s effectiveness. While most solar collectors focus only on one solar collection method, the small hybrid system uses a flat plate collector in conjunction with five evacuated tubes to absorb the most energy possible from both direct and diffuse solar radiation. Data was collected over four months while the system operated at different flow rates and with various levels of available insolation from the sun to evaluate the performance of the solar collector. To understand the relative contribution of the flat plate collector and the evacuated tubes, temperature differences across each part of the system were measured. The results indicate the average first law efficiency of the hybrid system is 43.3%, significantly higher than the performance of the flat plate alone. An exergy analysis was performed for this system to assess the performance of the flat plate system by itself. Results of the second law analysis were comparable to the exergetic efficiencies of other experimental collectors, around 4%. Though the efficiencies were in the expected range, they reveal that further improvements to the system are possible.
The Effect of Food Images on Mood and Arousal Depends on Dietary Histories and the Fat and Sugar Content of Foods Depicted  [PDF]
Gregory J. Privitera, Danielle E. Antonelli, Heather E. Creary
Journal of Behavioral and Brain Science (JBBS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jbbs.2013.31001
Abstract:

Background: While brain imaging studies show that reward regions in the human brain that regulate reward-guided behavior and integrate sensory modalities of smell, taste, and texture respond preferentially to high calorie foods, few studies account for dietary histories or account for recent behavioral evidence showing preferential responding for fruits (a low calorie food that tastes sweet). To address these concerns, the present study tested the hypothesis that images of high/low fat and sugar foods, even sugary foods that are low calorie (i.e., fruits), will enhance emotional responsiveness and that these changes may be related to dietary histories with fat and sugar intake. Method: Participants were shown 4 sets of 15 food images with each food image automatically timed every 9 s to transition to a new food image; participant pre-post mood and arousal was measured. The 4 sets of food images were high fat-high sugar (HFHS; desserts), high fat-low sugar (HFLS; fried foods), low fat-high sugar (LFHS; fruits), or low fat-low sugar (LFLS; vegetables) foods. To account for dietary histories, participants also completed estimated daily intake scales (EDIS) for sugar and fat. Results: Mood and arousal significantly increased in all groups, except Group LFLS, and even in a group that was low calorie but shown foods that taste sweet, i.e., Group LFHS. Interestingly, changes in arousal, but not mood, were dependent on participant histories with sugar and fat intake. Conclusion: Changes in emotional responsiveness to food images were nutrient-specific, which can be a more detailed level of analysis for assessing responsiveness to food images. Also, participant histories with sugar and fat should be taken into account as these histories can explain the changes in arousal observed here.

Epileptic Seizures: Do They Cause Reproductive Dysfunction?
Heather E. Edwards
University of Toronto Medical Journal , 2000, DOI: 10.5015/utmj.v77i2.1105
Abstract:
Hiding a Higgs width enhancement from off-shell gg (--> h*) --> ZZ measurements
Heather E. Logan
Physics , 2014, DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevD.92.075038
Abstract: Measurements of the off-shell Higgs boson production cross section in gg (--> h*) --> ZZ have recently been used by the CMS and ATLAS collaborations to indirectly constrain the total width of the Higgs boson. I point out that the interpretation of these measurements as a Higgs width constraint can be invalidated if additional neutral Higgs boson(s) are present with masses below about 350 GeV.
TASI 2013 lectures on Higgs physics within and beyond the Standard Model
Heather E. Logan
Physics , 2014,
Abstract: These lectures start with a detailed pedagogical introduction to electroweak symmetry breaking in the Standard Model, including gauge boson and fermion mass generation and the resulting predictions for Higgs boson interactions. I then survey Higgs boson decays and production mechanisms at hadron and e+e- colliders. I finish with two case studies of Higgs physics beyond the Standard Model: two-Higgs-doublet models, which I use to illustrate the concept of minimal flavor violation, and models with isospin-triplet scalar(s), which I use to illustrate the concept of custodial symmetry.
Radiative corrections to the Z b b-bar vertex and constraints on extended Higgs sectors
Heather E. Logan
Physics , 1999,
Abstract: We explore the radiative corrections to the process Z --> b b-bar in models with extended Higgs sectors. The observables R_b (the Z hadronic branching fraction to b b-bar) and the b-quark asymmetry A_b = (g_L^2 - g_R^2)/(g_L^2 + g_R^2) are sensitive to these corrections. We find that in models containing only Higgs doublets, singlets, or larger multiplets constrained by a custodial SU(2) symmetry, the radiative corrections to R_b involving charged Higgs bosons always worsen the Standard Model fit to electroweak data. Thus, the present R_b data can be used to set lower bounds on the charged Higgs masses in such models. Radiative corrections to R_b involving light neutral Higgs bosons in models with enhanced couplings to b b-bar can improve the Standard Model fit to present data. The Higgs sector alone cannot explain a significant deviation of A_b from its Standard Model prediction. We present general formulas for the corrections to R_b and A_b in an SU(2)xU(1) electroweak model with an arbitrary extended Higgs sector, and derive explicit results for a number of specific models.
Can we distinguish an MSSM Higgs from a SM Higgs at a Linear Collider?
Heather E. Logan
Physics , 2000, DOI: 10.1063/1.1394323
Abstract: We study the prospects for distinguishing the CP-even Higgs boson of the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM) from the Standard Model (SM) Higgs boson by measuring its branching ratios at an e+e- linear collider. The regions of the M_A - tan beta plane in which an MSSM Higgs boson can be distinguished from the SM Higgs boson depend strongly upon the supersymmetric parameters that enter the radiative corrections to the Higgs mass matrix and the Higgs couplings to fermions. In some regions of parameter space it is possible to extract the supersymmetric correction to the relation between the b quark mass and its Yukawa coupling from Higgs branching ratio measurements.
Supersymmetric radiative corrections at large tan beta
Heather E. Logan
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0920-5632(01)01512-2
Abstract: In the minimal supersymmetric extension of the Standard Model (MSSM), fermion masses and Yukawa couplings receive radiative corrections at one loop from diagrams involving the supersymmetric particles. The corrections to the relation between down-type fermion masses and Yukawa couplings are enhanced by tan beta, which makes them potentially very significant at large tan beta. These corrections affect a wide range of processes in the MSSM, including neutral and charged Higgs phenomenology, rare B meson decays, and renormalization of the CKM matrix. We give a pedagogical review of the sources and phenomenological effects of these corrections.
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