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Chemical Composition and Antibacterial Activity of the Essential Oils from Different Parts of Eugenia caryophylata, Thunb Grown in Amboina Island  [PDF]
Hanoch Julianus Sohilait, Healthy Kainama, Maria Nindatu
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2018.82017
Abstract: This study aims to investigate the antibacterial activities of essential oils isolated from various parts (buds, leaves and stems) of Eugenia caryophylata. The essentials oils were distillated by steam distillation, and the isolated was analyzed by GC and GC-MS. Five components of each sample of oils (buds, leaves and stems) were identified. Main component in the bud are eugenol (75.30%), eugenyl acetate (20.93%) and β-caryophyllene (3.00%) and eugenol (82.97%), β-caryophyllene (12.84%) in leaf oil, while in stem oil eugenol (97.75%). The oils were tested for in vitro antimicrobial activities against Gram-positive bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Bacillus subtilis), the Gram-negative bacteria (Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhimurium). The essential oils of bud, leaf and stem oil show that antibacterial activity against Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria.
Straight from the Heart: Mississippi Tobacco Control Program
The Partnership for a Healthy Mississippi
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2004,
The Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network
The Healthy Aging Research Network Writing Group
Preventing Chronic Disease , 2005,
Abstract: BackgroundThe Prevention Research Centers Healthy Aging Research Network (PRC–HAN), funded by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) Healthy Aging program, was created in 2001 to help develop partnerships and create a research agenda that promotes healthy aging. The nine universities that participate in the network use their expertise in aging research to collaborate with their communities and other partners to develop and implement health promotion interventions for older adults at the individual, organizational, environmental, and policy levels.ContextThe population of older adults in the United States is growing rapidly; approximately 20% of Americans will be aged 65 years or older by 2030. The health and economic impact of an aging society compel the CDC and the public health community to place increased emphasis on preventing unnecessary disease, disability, and injury among older Americans.MethodsThe PRC–HAN has a broad research agenda that addresses health-promoting skills and behaviors, disease and syndrome topics, and knowledge domains. The network chose physical activity for older adults as its initial focus for research and has initiated two networkwide projects: a comprehensive, multisite survey that collected information on the capacity, content, and accessibility of physical activity programs for older adults and a peer-reviewed publication that describes the role of public health in promoting physical activity among older adults. In addition to participating in the core research area, each network member works independently with its community committee on PRC–HAN activities.ConsequencesAs a result, the network is 1) expanding prevention research for older adults and their communities; 2) promoting the translation and dissemination of findings to key stakeholders; 3) strengthening PRC–HAN capacity through partnerships and expanded funding; and 4) stimulating the adoption of policies and programs by engaging policymakers, planners, and practitioners. In 2003, the PRC–HAN initiated an internal evaluation to better define the network’s contributions to healthy aging, formalize internal processes, and better equip itself to serve as a model for other PRC thematic networks. The PRC–HAN is conducting a pilot evaluation for eventual inclusion in the PRC national evaluation.InterpretationThe PRC–HAN has established itself as an effective research network to promote healthy aging. It has developed trust and mutual respect among participants, forged strong ties to local communities, and shown the ability to combine its expertise in
The effects of the HEALTHY study intervention on middle school student dietary intakes
Anna Siega-Riz, Laurie El Ghormli, Connie Mobley, Bonnie Gillis, Diane Stadler, Jill Hartstein, Stella L Volpe, Amy Virus, Jessica Bridgman, the HEALTHY Study Group
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-7
Abstract: HEALTHY was a cluster-randomized study in 42 public middle schools. Students, n = 3908, self-reported dietary intake using the Block Kids Questionnaire. General linear mixed models were used to analyze differences in dietary intake at the end of the study between intervention and control schools.The reported average daily fruit consumption was 10% higher at the end of the study in the intervention schools than in the control schools (138 g or approximately 2 servings versus 122 g, respectively, p = 0.0016). The reported water intake was approximately 2 fluid ounces higher in the intervention schools than in the control (483 g versus 429 g respectively; p = 0.008). There were no significant differences between intervention and control for mean intakes of energy, macronutrients, fiber, grains, vegetables, legumes, sweets, sweetened beverages, and higher- or lower-fat milk consumption.The HEALTHY study, a five-semester middle school-based intervention program that integrated multiple components in nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based communications, resulted in significant changes to student's reported fruit and water intake. Subsequent interventions need to go beyond the school environment to change diet behaviors that may affect weight status of children.NCT00458029Rates of overweight, obesity, and type 2 diabetes mellitus in youth have increased dramatically during the last three decades[1-3]. The HEALTHY study was designed to respond to these alarming trends. HEALTHY was a randomized, multicenter, middle school-based primary prevention trial designed to moderate risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus[4]. Modifiable risk factors measured were indicators of adiposity and glycemic dysregulation: body mass index (BMI), fasting glucose concentrations, and fasting insulin concentrations. The intervention program integrated multiple components in four areas: nutrition, physical education, behavior change, and social marketing-based
A framework for developing an evidence-based, comprehensive tobacco control program
Laura Rosen, Elliot Rosenberg, Martin McKee, Shosh Gan-Noy, Diane Levin, Elana Mayshar, Galia Shacham, John Borowski, Gabi Nun, Boaz Lev, the Healthy Israel 2020 Tobacco Control Subcommittee
Health Research Policy and Systems , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1478-4505-8-17
Abstract: In the context of Israel's health targeting initiative, Healthy Israel 2020, we describe the steps taken to develop a comprehensive tobacco control strategy. We elaborate on the following: a) scientific issues influencing the choice of tobacco control strategies; b) organization of existing evidence of effectiveness of interventions into a manageable form, and c) consideration of relevant philosophical and political issues. We propose a framework for developing a plan and illustrate this process with a case study in Israel.Broad consensus exists regarding the effectiveness of most interventions, but current recommendations differ in the emphasis they place on different strategies. Scientific challenges include integration of complex and sometimes conflicting information from authoritative sources, and lack of estimates of population impact of interventions. Philosophical and political challenges include the use of evidence-based versus innovative policymaking, the importance of individual versus governmental responsibility, and whether and how interventions should be prioritized.The proposed framework includes: 1) compilation of a list of potential interventions 2) modification of that list based on local needs and political constraints; 3) streamlining the list by categorizing interventions into broad groupings of related interventions; together these groupings form the basis of a comprehensive plan; and 4) refinement of the plan by comparing it to existing comprehensive plans.Development of a comprehensive tobacco control plan is a complex endeavour, involving crucial decisions regarding intervention components. "Off the shelf" plans, which need to be adapted to local settings, are available from a variety of sources, and a multitude of individual recommendations are available. The proposed framework for adapting existing approaches to the local social and political climate may assist others planning for smoke-free societies. Additionally, this experience has impl
Student public commitment in a school-based diabetes prevention project: impact on physical health and health behavior
Lynn L DeBar, Margaret Schneider, Kimberly L Drews, Eileen G Ford, Diane D Stadler, Esther L Moe, Mamie White, Arthur E Hernandez, Sara Solomon, Ann Jessup, Elizabeth M Venditti, the HEALTHY study group
BMC Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2458-11-711
Abstract: Secondary analysis of data from a 3-year randomized controlled trial conducted in 42 middle schools examining the impact of a multi-component school-based program on body mass index (BMI) and student health behaviors. A total of 4603 students were assessed at the beginning of sixth grade and the end of eighth grade. Process evaluation data were collected throughout the course of the intervention. All analyses were adjusted for students' baseline values. For this paper, the students in the schools randomized to receive the intervention were further divided into two groups: those who participated in public commitment activities and those who did not. Students from comparable schools randomized to the assessment condition constituted the control group.We found a lower percentage of obesity (greater than or equal to the 95th percentile for BMI) at the end of the study among the group participating in public commitment activities compared to the control group (21.5% vs. 26.6%, p = 0.02). The difference in obesity rates at the end of the study was even greater among the subgroup of students who were overweight or obese at baseline; 44.6% for the "public commitment" group, versus 53.2% for the control group (p = 0.01). There was no difference in obesity rates between the group not participating in public commitment activities and the control group (26.4% vs. 26.6%).Participating in public commitment activities during the HEALTHY study may have potentiated the changes promoted by the behavioral, nutrition, and physical activity intervention components.ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00458029Epidemic rates of childhood and adolescent obesity represent a serious public health concern. Obesity prevalence among youth remains at historically high levels with 16.0% of 6 to 19 year olds overweight and 18.7% obese [1]. Higher rates are reported among economically disadvantaged and minority youth [1-3]. The health and economic burden of such morbidity is substantial [4], including, mo
Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: The HELENA study
Charlene Ottevaere, Inge Huybrechts, Laurent Béghin, Magdalena Cuenca-Garcia, Ilse De Bourdeaudhuij, Frederic Gottrand, Maria Hagstr?mer, Anthony Kafatos, Cinzia Le Donne, Luis A Moreno, Michael Sj?str?m, Kurt Widhalm, Stefaan De Henauw, HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study Group
International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1479-5868-8-8
Abstract: The study comprised a total of 2176 adolescents (46.2% male) from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Dietary intake and physical activity were assessed using validated 24-h dietary recalls and self-reported questionnaires respectively. Analyses of covariance (ANCOVA) were used to compare the energy and nutrient intake and the food consumption between groups of adolescents with different physical activity levels (1st to 3rd tertile).In both sexes no differences were found in energy intake between the levels of physical activity. The most active males showed a higher intake of polysaccharides, protein, water and vitamin C and a lower intake of saccharides compared to less active males. Females with the highest physical activity level consumed more polysaccharides compared to their least active peers. Male and female adolescents with the highest physical activity levels, consumed more fruit and milk products and less cheese compared to the least active adolescents. The most active males showed higher intakes of vegetables and meat, fish, eggs, meat substitutes and vegetarian products compared to the least active ones. The least active males reported the highest consumption of grain products and potatoes. Within the female group, significantly lower intakes of bread and cereal products and spreads were found for those reporting to spend most time in moderate to vigorous physical activity. The consumption of foods from the remaining food groups, did not differ between the physical activity levels in both sexes.It can be concluded that dietary habits diverge between adolescents with different self-reported physical activity levels. For some food groups a difference in intake could be found, which were reflected in differences in some nutrient intakes. It can also be concluded that physically active adolescents are not always inclined to eat healthier diets than their less active peers.Physical a
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