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The focus of this paper is to investigate the role self-employment conceptualized as a lifestyle factor on health, access to health care, and health behaviors. We analyze rich data on 13,435 working adults in the US, who are either selfemployed or salaried workers. Outcomes include physical and mental health perception, validated indexes of physical and mental health, and medical conditions; access-to-care measures such as a barrier to obtaining necessary health care; and health behaviors such as smoking, physical activity and body mass index. Instrumental variables methods are used to correct for selection into self-employment. We find that self-employment is positively associated with perceived physical health, and is negatively associated with having diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and arthritis. No mental health outcome is significantly associated with self-employment. There is no significant difference between self-employed and wage-earning individuals with regard to access to care. Self-employed individuals are less likely to smoke, and are more likely to participate in physical activity and have normal-weight. We conclude that despite lack of health insurance, self-employed persons in the US are as healthy as wage-earners, do not experience a greater barrier to access to care, and are more likely to engage in healthy behavior.
The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in health-behaviors
and quality of life (QOL) in Koreans with asthma. Methods: Participants,
selected from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination
Survey VI, included 305 individuals (men = 128, women = 177) with asthma and
over 19 years old. Health behaviors were measured by questions about disease management, health choices, and functional and psychological status. QOL was
measured with the European Quality of Life-5D (EQ-5D). Results: In health behaviors,
51.3% of women and 37.7% of men suffered from wheezing at rest. About 41% of
men and 10% of women were smokers. One half of the participants were not taking
medication and this was not significantly different by gender. The number of
women with symptoms of depression was significantly higher than men. The EQ-5D
index score of women was significantly lower
than that of men. Conclusion: Women with asthma were more likely to have
psychological problems and discomfort than men. Understanding gender
differences in asthma is important to the development of effective, tailored
asthma management strategies to cope with symptoms and improve health behaviors
and QOL for people with asthma.
health & fitness clubs are providing an important kind of sporting service.
On the basis of questionnaires and interviews with relevant research results,
consumers of health & fitness clubs in Liverpool area are studied about
their structures including ages, genders, etc., motivation of consumption, and consumption
level as well as demand characteristics. Through impressing on the wheel of
consumer behavior model, the factors affecting consumer behavior are also
analyzed. The most predictable and accessible segments like young adult,
affluent, health or appearance conscious consumers are concluded; their lifestyles easily integrate to leisure activities,
and time pressure or financial costs are their key concerns. Targeting marketing
strategies of the clubs are suggested accordingly in order to design service channel, price reasonably, communicate
with consumers and provide satisfying environment.