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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 40843 matches for " Health Behavior "
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Incorporating HPS Model into Lebanese Public Schools: Comparison of Adolescents’ Smoking, Alcohol and Drug Use Behavior in HPS versus Other Public and Private Schools in Lebanon  [PDF]
Sawsan El Halabi, Pascale Salameh
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2019, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2019.94038
Abstract: In 2010, the World Health Organization supported the Lebanese Ministry of Education and Higher Education to establish a network of 10 Health Promoting Schools (HPS). This study was undertaken to address the extent to which the HPS model was able to produce changes in the risk behaviors of adolescents (Smoking, Drinking, and Drug Use) and prepare them to respond to evolving health challenges. A cross-sectional survey was carried out during 2011-2012 and compared Grade 6 - 9 students in HPS, and 10 other public and private schools. The Youth Risk Behavior Survey [1], and Carbon Monoxide measurements in adolescent breaths were used for data collection. Findings revealed that the current School Health Program failed to address issues of concern to adolescents with no significant differences in risk behaviors: smoking, alcohol and drug use. The HPS network needs reassessment to upgrade the outcomes of health education curricula. Expected learning outcomes and healthy practices must be designed to match students’ age, grade level, and developmental milestones.
The effect of self-employment on health, access to care, and health behavior  [PDF]
Jangho Yoon, Stephanie L. Bernell
Health (Health) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/health.2013.512289

The focus of this paper is to investigate the role self-employment conceptualized as a lifestyle factor on health, access to health care, and health behaviors. We analyze rich data on 13,435 working adults in the US, who are either selfemployed or salaried workers. Outcomes include physical and mental health perception, validated indexes of physical and mental health, and medical conditions; access-to-care measures such as a barrier to obtaining necessary health care; and health behaviors such as smoking, physical activity and body mass index. Instrumental variables methods are used to correct for selection into self-employment. We find that self-employment is positively associated with perceived physical health, and is negatively associated with having diabetes, high blood pressure, high cholesterol and arthritis. No mental health outcome is significantly associated with self-employment. There is no significant difference between self-employed and wage-earning individuals with regard to access to care. Self-employed individuals are less likely to smoke, and are more likely to participate in physical activity and have normal-weight. We conclude that despite lack of health insurance, self-employed persons in the US are as healthy as wage-earners, do not experience a greater barrier to access to care, and are more likely to engage in healthy behavior.

Relationship between meeting the recommendations for physical activity and health-related quality of life in adult Chinese Internet users  [PDF]
Jia-Meng Ma, Ai Shibata, Isao Muraoka
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2011.13014
Abstract: Background: The benefits of a recommended level of physical activity on physiological health indicators such as morbidity and mortality are well-accepted, but few researches has addressed whether or not the association between the recommended level of physical activity and a health-related quality of life (HRQOL) exists in the Chinese adults. Purpose: The present study examined whether the recommended physical activity (PA) would be associated with HRQOL in the Chinese adults. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected through an internet-based survey. Total of 1394 Chinese adults responded the International Physical Activity Question- naire-Chinese version examining whether individuals met the recommended ACSM/AHA PA guideline. Demographic data were also obtained. HRQOL was assessed with the Medical Outcomes Survey Short Form-36 questionnaire (SF- 36). Multivariate analyses of covariance were utilized to examine differences in multidimensional scales of the SF-36. Results: In both genders, the recommended group had significantly higher physical functioning, vitality, and mental health scores than the inactive group. Significant differences in role physical, general health, social functioning scores were only found among the recommended and insufficient male groups. Conclusion: Individuals who attained the recommended level of PA had better scores on some dimensions of HRQOL than those who did not.
Identifying Treatment and Healthcare Seeking Behavior as a Means of Early HIV/AIDS Intervention in Africa  [PDF]
Henry Fomundam, Abraham Tesfay, Andrew Maranga, Lucia Chanetsa, Vieira Muzoola, Frederick Oyaro
World Journal of AIDS (WJA) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/wja.2012.23022
Abstract: Background: Late diagnosis of Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) infection and delayed commencement of antiretroviral therapy (ART) in sub-Saharan Africa is known to contribute to high morbidity and mortality. It is therefore, prudent to develop innovative approaches to ensure early HIV diagnosis because patients with low immunity will usually develop opportunistic infections and seek some remedial action. A treatment and health care seeking behavior survey was carried out in semi-urban communities in Malaba and Busia in Kenya and Uganda to evaluate the treatment and healthcare seeking behavior among patients visiting randomly selected drugstores. Methodology: Random sampling was applied and questionnaires were used to collect information from 165 interviewees who visited drugstores seeking health information, treatment and other health related services. Results: The results indicated that among this group of people, 67% visited drugstores before any other health facility. 72.2% sought treatment for various illnesses and services ranging from headaches, body fever, gastro-intestinal disturbances, family planning pills, sexually transmitted infections and chronic medications. Among the patients interviewed, there were a number of factors that affected treatment choice. These included the distance to the facility as well as the absence of a consultation fee or fee for service. Conclusion: With proper support, drugstores can play a major role in the implementation of health interventions that seek to promote early diagnosis and treatment as well as play a pivotal role in educating the population on disease prevention and management. In Sub-Saharan Africa, drugstores can play a major role in HIV and AIDS interventions where most patients seek medical intervention for opportunistic infection.
Gender differences of health behaviors and quality of life of Koreans with asthma  [PDF]
Yeonsoo Jang, Hyera Yoo
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2013.36057

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to explore gender differences in health-behaviors and quality of life (QOL) in Koreans with asthma. Methods: Participants, selected from the 2009 Korean National Health and Nutritional Examination Survey VI, included 305 individuals (men = 128, women = 177) with asthma and over 19 years old. Health behaviors were measured by questions about disease management, health choices, and functional and psychological status. QOL was measured with the European Quality of Life-5D (EQ-5D). Results: In health behaviors, 51.3% of women and 37.7% of men suffered from wheezing at rest. About 41% of men and 10% of women were smokers. One half of the participants were not taking medication and this was not significantly different by gender. The number of women with symptoms of depression was significantly higher than men. The EQ-5D index score of women was significantly lower than that of men. Conclusion: Women with asthma were more likely to have psychological problems and discomfort than men. Understanding gender differences in asthma is important to the development of effective, tailored asthma management strategies to cope with symptoms and improve health behaviors and QOL for people with asthma.

A Study on Consumer Behavior of Commercial Health and Fitness Club—A Case of Consumers in Liverpool  [PDF]
Wen Zhang, Yuhong Li
American Journal of Industrial and Business Management (AJIBM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajibm.2014.41010

Commercial health & fitness clubs are providing an important kind of sporting service. On the basis of questionnaires and interviews with relevant research results, consumers of health & fitness clubs in Liverpool area are studied about their structures including ages, genders, etc., motivation of consumption, and consumption level as well as demand characteristics. Through impressing on the wheel of consumer behavior model, the factors affecting consumer behavior are also analyzed. The most predictable and accessible segments like young adult, affluent, health or appearance conscious consumers are concluded; their lifestyles easily integrate to leisure activities, and time pressure or financial costs are their key concerns. Targeting marketing strategies of the clubs are suggested accordingly in order to design service channel, price reasonably, communicate with consumers and provide satisfying environment.

Injury-Related Profiles among School-Aged Children in Cameroon: Analysis Based on the “First Survey—Health Young People”  [PDF]
Christelle Senterre, Alain Levêque, Danielle Piette, Michèle Dramaix
Open Journal of Epidemiology (OJEpi) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojepi.2014.42015
Abstract: Aims: Establish profiles of young “at risk” of injuries, first, on an overall point of view and, secondly, for some types of injuries (sport, home, road traffic, school and work injuries). Methods: We have taken nearly 50 variables into consideration: 17 variables for construction of the socioeconomic status, 9 variables for the investigation of symptoms, 11 concerning drugs, 5 for healthy habits, 3 for investigating the violence behavior, 4 concerning the school, 3 for subjective health and finally 3 for social network. We have used the principal component analysis, the multiple correspondence analysis and the weighted-frequency score for reducing the number of them. After these reductions, 15 variables were available for analyses. The relationship between injuries and investigated factors was assessed using the Pearson’s chi-square test. We also calculated odds ratio (OR) with their 95% confidence intervals (95%CI) to estimate the strengths of the associations. To further assess these relationships but also for taking into account the potentials confounding effects of some variables, logistic regression model and multinomial logistic regression model were applied. Results: The whole injury prevalence was equal to 45.6% and among the injured, the proportion of the several types was equal to 33.8% for sport injuries, 32.2% for home injuries, 16.6% for traffic injuries, 11.6% for school injuries and 5.7% for work injuries. We can say that, in light of the variables studied, the “at risk” profile for having reported an injury is being a boy, being younger, having drug experiences, with the violent profile, and declaring several symptoms. There are no consistent and marked deviations in this study from the findings obtained in previous studies. Conclusion: Analyzing injuries in general is interesting but for preventing them it is important to know in which activities children and students are engaged when they are injured.
Use of Alternative and Complementary Medicine by Old Italians Adults: The Determinant of Choice  [PDF]
Silvia Platania, Giuseppe Santisi
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2015.37042
Abstract: Complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) is the term for medical products and practices that aren’t part of standard care. Although using complementary and alternative medicines (CAM) is becoming increasingly prevalent in Italy, research in complementary and alternative therapy in older adults is limited. This study investigates the predictors and the determinant of choice of using complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) in older adult consumers [1]-[3]. The sample consisted of 150 Italian older consumers who used alternative medicine in the last year. The older adults interviewed were 52 males (34.7%) and 98 females (65.3%) and the average age was 65.4 (SD = 0.76). The results of this study showed a strong dissatisfaction of respondents with the tra-ditional medical treatments because the alternative’s medicine treatments are considered more invasive.
Integrating Health Theories in Health and Fitness Applications for Sustained Behavior Change: Current State of the Art  [PDF]
Angela Brunstein, Joerg Brunstein, Selma Limam Mansar
Creative Education (CE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2012.38B001
Abstract: Two hundred million people in the US are overweight or obese mirroring a worldwide trend that is associated with high morbidity and mortality rates. Health and fitness mobile technology applications have great capacities for supporting dieters’ life-style changes and could profit from and provide input of health behavior theories. Those theories have been demonstrated with massive clinical evidence to be efficient for fostering healthy lifestyle changes and weight loss. This research reviewed the 100 most popular mobile technology applications from iTunes App Store’s Health and Fitness category in respect coverage of health behavior theories’ concepts und chose 14 of those for a complete analysis. Applications provide good support for athletes’ workouts and have great potential to be extended to serve overweight users as well. Missing features could be easily implemented given the current state of technology. These developments look promising for tackling sustained weight loss in many mobile technology users.
Rural High School Students’ Sexual Behavior and Self-Esteem  [PDF]
Brian Unis, Inger Johansson, Christina S?llstr?m
Open Journal of Nursing (OJN) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojn.2015.51004
Abstract: Background: Negative consequences for sexual health may be caused by risky sexual behavior related to attitudes, norms and self-efficacy regarding sexuality. Research has not resulted in a consensus on the associations between self-esteem and adolescents’ sexual behavior. Aims and Objectives: The aim of the study was to describe high school students’ sexual behavior and self-esteem, along with investigating the relationship of attitudes, norms, self-efficacy, and self-esteem to sexual risk behavior. Another aim was to describe and compare gender differences in self-esteem and sexual risk behavior in high school students in a rural context. Methodological Design: A cross-sectional design was used. The participants were 139 high school students, 16 to 18 years of age, sample size was decided by power calculation, and systematic randomized sampling was used. The students replied to a questionnaire about self-esteem, factors affecting sexual risk behavior, and sexual behavior. Results: Swedish high school students reported having few sexual partners, a low use of alcohol along with sex, yet a low consistency in condom use. The students reported both high basic self-esteem as well as earned self-esteem. Basic self-esteem was higher for male students while earned self-esteem was higher for female students. Significant correlations were found between self-esteem and some factors affecting sexual risk behavior related to condom use. Conclusion: High school students exhibited positive sexual behaviors and high levels of self-esteem, yet they put themselves at risk by inconsistent use of condoms. Our findings can contribute the need of to an awareness of the role self-esteem, attitudes, norms and self-efficacy plays in adolescents’ sexual behavior. Nurses working at the youth clinics are in a key position to discuss sexual health issues with adolescents to promote healthy outcomes in sexual health.
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