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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 461439 matches for " Hazel A. Oxenford "
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Parrotfish Size: A Simple yet Useful Alternative Indicator of Fishing Effects on Caribbean Reefs?
Henri Vallès, Hazel A. Oxenford
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086291
Abstract: There is great need to identify simple yet reliable indicators of fishing effects within the multi-species, multi-gear, data-poor fisheries of the Caribbean. Here, we investigate links between fishing pressure and three simple fish metrics, i.e. average fish weight (an estimate of average individual fish size), fish density and fish biomass, derived from (1) the parrotfish family, a ubiquitous herbivore family across the Caribbean, and (2) three fish groups of “commercial” carnivores including snappers and groupers, which are widely-used as indicators of fishing effects. We hypothesize that, because most Caribbean reefs are being heavily fished, fish metrics derived from the less vulnerable parrotfish group would exhibit stronger relationships with fishing pressure on today’s Caribbean reefs than those derived from the highly vulnerable commercial fish groups. We used data from 348 Atlantic and Gulf Rapid Reef Assessment (AGRRA) reef-surveys across the Caribbean to assess relationships between two independent indices of fishing pressure (one derived from human population density data, the other from open to fishing versus protected status) and the three fish metrics derived from the four aforementioned fish groups. We found that, although two fish metrics, average parrotfish weight and combined biomass of selected commercial species, were consistently negatively linked to the indices of fishing pressure across the Caribbean, the parrotfish metric consistently outranked the latter in the strength of the relationship, thus supporting our hypothesis. Overall, our study highlights that (assemblage-level) average parrotfish size might be a useful alternative indicator of fishing effects over the typical conditions of most Caribbean shallow reefs: moderate-to-heavy levels of fishing and low abundance of highly valued commercial species.
Caribbean-Wide, Long-Term Study of Seagrass Beds Reveals Local Variations, Shifts in Community Structure and Occasional Collapse
Brigitta I. van Tussenbroek, Jorge Cortés, Rachel Collin, Ana C. Fonseca, Peter M. H. Gayle, Hector M. Guzmán, Gabriel E. Jácome, Rahanna Juman, Karen H. Koltes, Hazel A. Oxenford, Alberto Rodríguez-Ramirez, Jimena Samper-Villarreal, Struan R. Smith, John J. Tschirky, Ernesto Weil
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0090600
Abstract: The CARICOMP monitoring network gathered standardized data from 52 seagrass sampling stations at 22 sites (mostly Thalassia testudinum-dominated beds in reef systems) across the Wider Caribbean twice a year over the period 1993 to 2007 (and in some cases up to 2012). Wide variations in community total biomass (285 to >2000 g dry m?2) and annual foliar productivity of the dominant seagrass T. testudinum (<200 and >2000 g dry m?2) were found among sites. Solar-cycle related intra-annual variations in T. testudinum leaf productivity were detected at latitudes > 16°N. Hurricanes had little to no long-term effects on these well-developed seagrass communities, except for 1 station, where the vegetation was lost by burial below ~1 m sand. At two sites (5 stations), the seagrass beds collapsed due to excessive grazing by turtles or sea-urchins (the latter in combination with human impact and storms). The low-cost methods of this regional-scale monitoring program were sufficient to detect long-term shifts in the communities, and fifteen (43%) out of 35 long-term monitoring stations (at 17 sites) showed trends in seagrass communities consistent with expected changes under environmental deterioration.
Germline transformation of the stalk-eyed fly, Teleopsis dalmanni
Ian A Warren, Kevin Fowler, Hazel Smith
BMC Molecular Biology , 2010, DOI: 10.1186/1471-2199-11-86
Abstract: We used in vivo excision assays to identify transposon vector systems with the activity required to mediate transgenesis in T. dalmanni. Mariner based vectors showed no detectable excision while both Minos and piggyBac were active in stalk-eyed fly embryos. Germline transformation with an overall efficiency of 4% was achieved using a Minos based vector and the 3xP3-EGFP marker construct. Chromosomal insertion of constructs was confirmed by Southern blot analysis. Both autosomal and X-linked inserts were recovered. A homozygous stock, established from one of the X-linked inserts, has maintained stable expression for eight generations.We have performed stable germline transformation of a stalk-eyed fly, T. dalmanni. This is the first transgenic protocol to be developed in an insect species that exhibits an exaggerated male sexual trait. Transgenesis will enable the development of a range of techniques for analysing gene function in this species and so provide insight into the mechanisms underlying the development of a morphological trait subject to sexual selection. Our X-linked insertion line will permit the sex of live larvae to be determined. This will greatly facilitate the identification of genes which are differentially expressed during eye-stalk development in males and females.In many species, sexual selection, the varying competitive success of individuals for access to mates [1,2], drives the evolution of exaggerated male displays or ornamental traits and female preference for such traits. The diopsid family of stalk-eyed flies exhibits a well documented and experimentally tractable example of an ornamental sexual trait [3-5]. Males and females have eyes laterally displaced from the head capsule on 'eye-stalks' [6] and the exaggeration of eye-stalks can be extreme with males having eyespans up to twice that of their body length [7,8]. Sexual dimorphism for eyespan, with males having much greater eyespan than females, has evolved several times within the Diop
Scaffolder - software for manual genome scaffolding
Michael D Barton, Hazel A Barton
Source Code for Biology and Medicine , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1751-0473-7-4
Abstract: The software outlined here, “Scaffolder,” is implemented in the Ruby programming language and can be installed via the RubyGems software management system. Genome scaffolds are defined using YAML - a data format which is both human and machine-readable. Command line binaries and extensive documentation are available.This software allows a genome build to be defined in terms of the constituent sequences using a relatively simple syntax. This syntax further allows unknown regions to be specified and additional sequence to be used to fill known gaps in the scaffold. Defining the genome construction in a file makes the scaffolding process reproducible and easier to edit compared with large FASTA nucleotide sequences.Scaffolder is easy-to-use genome scaffolding software which promotes reproducibility and continuous development in a genome project. Scaffolder can be found at http://next.gs webcite.
Comparison of the White-Nose Syndrome Agent Pseudogymnoascus destructans to Cave-Dwelling Relatives Suggests Reduced Saprotrophic Enzyme Activity
Hannah T. Reynolds, Hazel A. Barton
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0086437
Abstract: White-nose Syndrome (WNS) is an emerging infectious mycosis that has impacted multiple species of North American bats since its initial discovery in 2006, yet the physiology of the causal agent, the psychrophilic fungus Pseudogymnoascus destructans ( = Geomyces destructans), is not well understood. We investigated the ability of P. destructans to secrete enzymes that could permit environmental growth or affect pathogenesis and compared enzyme activity across several Pseudogymnoascus species isolated from both hibernating bats and cave sediments. We found that P. destructans produced enzymes that could be beneficial in either a pathogenic or saprotrophic context, such as lipases, hemolysins, and urease, as well as chitinase and cellulases, which could aid in saprotrophic growth. The WNS pathogen showed significantly lower activity for urease and endoglucanase compared to con-generic species (Pseudogymnoascus), which may indicate a shift in selective pressure to the detriment of P. destructans’ saprotrophic ability. Based on the positive function of multiple saprotrophic enzymes, the causal agent of White-nose Syndrome shows potential for environmental growth on a variety of substrates found in caves, albeit at a reduced level compared to environmental strains. Our data suggest that if P. destructans emerged as an opportunistic infection from an environmental source, co-evolution with its host may have led to a reduced capacity for saprotrophic growth.
Genomer — A Swiss Army Knife for Genome Scaffolding
Michael D. Barton, Hazel A. Barton
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066922
Abstract: The increasing accessibility and reduced costs of sequencing has made genome analysis accessible to more and more researchers. Yet there remains a steep learning curve in the subsequent computational steps required to process raw reads into a database-deposited genome sequence. Here we describe “Genomer,” a tool to simplify the manual tasks of finishing and uploading a genome sequence to a database. Genomer can format a genome scaffold into the common files required for submission to GenBank. This software also simplifies updating a genome scaffold by allowing a human-readable YAML format file to be edited instead of large sequence files. Genomer is written as a command line tool and is an effort to make the manual process of genome scaffolding more robust and reproducible. Extensive documentation and video tutorials are available at http://next.gs.
Health, lifestyle and health care utilization among health professionals  [PDF]
Paul A. Bourne, Lilleth V. Glen, Hazel Laws, Maureen D. Kerr-Campbell
Health (Health) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/health.2010.26083
Abstract: Health care workers are responsible for the execution of the health policy of a nation, yet little if any empirical evidence is there on health, lifestyle, health choices, and health conditions of health care workers in the rural parish of Hanover, Jamaica. The current study examines health, lifestyle and health behaviour among health professional in Hanover. The current study has a sample of 212 respondents. A 26- item questionnaire was used to collect the data. Data from the questionnaires were coded and entered into a micro-computer and analysis done using SPSS for Widows Version 15.0 soft- ware. The Chi-square test was used to test association between non-metric variables. A p-value &amp;amp;lt; 0.05 (two-tailed) was selected to indicate statistical significance. It was found that 16.0% of respondents had diabetes mellitus (2.8% of males compared to 19.8% females); 22.6% had hypertension (25.5% of female and 12.8% of males); 0.5% breast cancer; 0.5% stomach cancer; 1.9% enlarged heart; and 0.5% ischemic heart disease. Forty-three percentage points of the sample was overweight, 33.5% obese and 24.1% had a normal weight. Over 15% of nurses and doctors were obese compared to 38% of ancillary staffers. Twenty percentage points of respondents consume alcohol on a regular basis; 15.6% do no regular physical exercise, 42.4% add sweetening to their hot beverages, and 4.7% were smokers. There is a need for public health practitioners to formulate a health intervention programme that will target people in Hanover, but also specific groups such as doctors, nurses, administrative, ancillary staffers and technical staffers.
Caribbean Corals in Crisis: Record Thermal Stress, Bleaching, and Mortality in 2005
C. Mark Eakin,Jessica A. Morgan,Scott F. Heron,Tyler B. Smith,Gang Liu,Lorenzo Alvarez-Filip,Bart Baca,Erich Bartels,Carolina Bastidas,Claude Bouchon,Marilyn Brandt,Andrew W. Bruckner,Lucy Bunkley-Williams,Andrew Cameron,Billy D. Causey,Mark Chiappone,Tyler R. L. Christensen,M. James C. Crabbe,Owen Day,Elena de la Guardia,Guillermo Díaz-Pulido,Daniel DiResta,Diego L. Gil-Agudelo,David S. Gilliam,Robert N. Ginsburg,Shannon Gore,Héctor M. Guzmán,James C. Hendee,Edwin A. Hernández-Delgado,Ellen Husain,Christopher F. G. Jeffrey,Ross J. Jones,Eric Jordán-Dahlgren,Les S. Kaufman,David I. Kline,Philip A. Kramer,Judith C. Lang,Diego Lirman,Jennie Mallela,Carrie Manfrino,Jean-Philippe Maréchal,Ken Marks,Jennifer Mihaly,W. Jeff Miller,Erich M. Mueller,Erinn M. Muller,Carlos A. Orozco Toro,Hazel A. Oxenford,Daniel Ponce-Taylor,Norman Quinn,Kim B. Ritchie,Sebastián Rodríguez,Alberto Rodríguez Ramírez,Sandra Romano,Jameal F. Samhouri,Juan A. Sánchez,George P. Schmahl,Burton V. Shank,William J. Skirving,Sascha C. C. Steiner,Estrella Villamizar,Sheila M. Walsh,Cory Walter,Ernesto Weil,Ernest H. Williams,Kimberly Woody Roberson,Yusri Yusuf
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0013969
Abstract: The rising temperature of the world's oceans has become a major threat to coral reefs globally as the severity and frequency of mass coral bleaching and mortality events increase. In 2005, high ocean temperatures in the tropical Atlantic and Caribbean resulted in the most severe bleaching event ever recorded in the basin.
Resisting the Palimpsest: Reclamation of the Female Cultural Body  [PDF]
Jasmine Hazel Shadrack
Art and Design Review (ADR) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/adr.2013.12003
Abstract:

The implicit politics of female body performativity are played out constantly within the liminality of socio-cultural space. Women need to be able to renegotiate the complexity of constructed and encoded gender expectations and representation in order to expand the contemporary narrow vision of femininity that interpellates all of us in an advertorial way.The most visceral component of corporeal semiotics is the skin which can, certainly in Post-modern and Post-colonial terms be seen as a liminal space, which according to Homi Bhabha, is a space for cultural hybridity, performativity and minority diatribes to exist. In order to negotiate prescribed notions of physical aesthetics and ideas of femininity and beauty, the skin can be used to perform the renegotiation of this encoded, fixed tablet of gender traditions. How that skin exists culturally requires inspection. Space unfolds to interaction (Massey, D) and if, as McLuhan stated, the medium is the message, then the skin and the body are the medium. People, more predominantly women, who use their skins as semiotic canvasses by being tattooed, actively choose to perform subverted notions of beauty and performativity and challenge the dominant culture through the ritual of tattooing.The female body is perennially rewritten by the hegemony of each historical period. By using tattooing as a process of reclamation, one can refuse to let one’s body be inscribed by cultural hegemonic texts and practices. Through tattooing, bodily reclamation can resist the palimpsest by marking one’s journey, ideologies and artistic tastes on one’s skin. According to William Blake and Edward Said, ‘the foundation of empire is art and science; remove them or degrade them, and the empire is no more’ (4; 87). By tattooing the body, this process resists engendered codes of behaviour, constructed aesthetics of beauty and of the imposition of cultural imperialism because there is already a fixed, irremovable narrative in place that is autonomous and not state sanctioned.This paper will examine notions of female cultural space, encoded gender expectations, performativity and aesthetic constructs to demonstrate that through the process of tattooing, alternative ideological positions that are not represented by the hegemony exist in a liminal space and occupy a vital but subordinated (and therefore categorised female) position. As a result, revolution becomes embodied and performed on the skin.

An intercalated BSc degree is associated with higher marks in subsequent medical school examinations
Jennifer A Cleland, Andrew Milne, Hazel Sinclair, Amanda J Lee
BMC Medical Education , 2009, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6920-9-24
Abstract: This was a retrospective, observational study of anonymised databases of medical student assessment outcomes. Data were accessed for graduates, University of Aberdeen Medical School, Scotland, UK, from the years 2003 to 2007 (n = 861). The main outcome measure was marks for summative degree assessments taken after intercalating.Of 861 medical students, 154 (17.9%) students did an intercalated degree. After adjustment for cohort, maturity, gender and baseline (3rd year) performance in matching exam type, having done an IC degree was significantly associated with attaining high (18–20) common assessment scale (CAS) marks in three of the six degree assessments occurring after the IC students rejoined the course: the 4th year written exam (p < 0.001), 4th year OSCE (p = 0.001) and the 5th year Elective project (p = 0.010).Intercalating was associated with improved performance in Years 4 and 5 of the MBChB. This improved performance will further contribute to higher academic ranking for Foundation Year posts. Long-term follow-up is required to identify if doing an optional intercalated degree as part of a modern medical degree is associated with following a career in academic medicine.Traditionally, about one-third of UK medical students undertake a year additional to the basic five year undergraduate course to intercalate a degree. However, this figure varies widely across medical schools (with the exception of graduate entry courses where students already have equivalent qualifications), from 5% to 100% [1].There appear to be a number of benefits to doing an intercalated degree. A longitudinal study of all UK medical school graduates in 1996 and 1997 found students who had taken an intercalated degree had higher strategic and deep learning scores and lower surface learning scores than those who had not [2]. Intercalating is frequently suggested as one method of planning for a career in academic medicine [3] and there is evidence that doing an intercalated degree encour
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