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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4668 matches for " Hayley Shin "
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The theory of Realistic Mathematics Education as a theoretical framework for teaching low attainers in mathematics
Hayley Barnes
Pythagoras , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/pythagoras.v33i3.120
Abstract: This article recounts the process embarked on and reasons for selecting the theory of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) as the theoretical framework in a study carried out with low attaining learners. In the study an intervention for low attaining grade 8 mathematics learners was implemented in an attempt to improve the understanding of the participants with regard to place value, fractions and decimals, and to identify characteristics of this type of intervention and potential design principles that could be applied in similar interventions. In this article, the theoretical framework for the intervention is discussed and theoretical (rather than empirical) reasons for selecting the theory of Realistic Mathematics Education (RME) for use with low attainers are put forward. From a literature review that looked at the teaching and learning of mathematics to learners who fall into the category of performing below the required standard, five common aspects emerged. Once these aspects had been identified, a theory in mathematics education was sought that encompassed these five aspects. The theory of RME was subsequently selected as the theoretical framework to drive the design and implementation of the intervention and is being suggested as a possible way forward for working with low attaining learners.
Self-Starvation as Performance
Hayley Rudkin
Cultural Studies Review , 2012,
Abstract: A review of Patrick Anderson, So Much Wasted: Hunger, Performance, and the Morbidity of Resistance (Duke, 2010).
Toward an Anti-Inflammatory Strategy for Depression
Shawn Hayley
Frontiers in Behavioral Neuroscience , 2011, DOI: 10.3389/fnbeh.2011.00019
Abstract: It has become clear that the inflammatory immune system is altered during the course of clinical depression. In particular, studies on human patients have found depression to be associated with disturbances in the trafficking of cells of the adaptive immune system, coupled with elevations of innate immune messengers and pro-inflammatory cytokines. Paralleling these findings, stressor-based animal models of depression have implicated several cytokines, most notably interleukin-1β (IL-1β), IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α. Elevations of these cytokines and general inflammatory indicators, such as C-reactive protein, together with reductions of specific immune cells (e.g., T lymphocytes) might serve as useful biomarkers of depression or at least, certain subtypes of the disorder. Recent reports also suggest the possibility that anti-inflammatory agents could have therapeutic value in acting as adjunct treatments with traditional anti-depressants. Along these lines, we presently discuss the evidence for pro-inflammatory cytokine involvement in depression, as well as the possibility that anti-inflammatory agents and trophic cytokines themselves might have important anti-depressant properties.
Android Fat Depot Is More Closely Associated with Metabolic Syndrome than Abdominal Visceral Fat in Elderly People
Seon Mee Kang, Ji Won Yoon, Hwa Young Ahn, So Yeon Kim, Kyoung Ho Lee, Hayley Shin, Sung Hee Choi, Kyong Soo Park, Hak Chul Jang, Soo Lim
PLOS ONE , 2011, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0027694
Abstract: Background Fat accumulation in android compartments may confer increased metabolic risk. The incremental utility of measuring regional fat deposition in association with metabolic syndrome (MS) has not been well described particularly in an elderly population. Methods and Findings As part of the Korean Longitudinal Study on Health and Aging, which is a community-based cohort study of people aged more than 65 years, subjects (287 male, 75.9±8.6 years and 278 female, 76.0±8.8 years) with regional body composition data using Dual energy X-ray absorptiometry for android/gynoid area, computed tomography for visceral/subcutaneous adipose tissue (VAT/SAT), and cardiometabolic markers including adiponectin and high-sensitivity CRP were enrolled. We investigated the relationship between regional body composition and MS in multivariate regression models. Mean VAT and SAT area was 131.4±65.5 cm2 and 126.9±55.2 cm2 in men (P = 0.045) and 120.0±46.7 cm2 and 211.8±65.9 cm2 in women (P<0.01). Mean android and gynoid fat amount was 1.8±0.8 kg and 2.5±0.8 kg in men and 2.0±0.6 kg and 3.3±0.8 kg in women, respectively (both P<0.01). VAT area and android fat amount was strongly correlated with most metabolic risk factors compared to SAT or gynoid fat. Furthermore, android fat amount was significantly associated with clustering of MS components after adjustment for multiple parameters including age, gender, adiponectin, hsCRP, a surrogate marker of insulin resistance, whole body fat mass and VAT area. Conclusions Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of android fat as a pathogenic fat depot in the MS. Measurement of android fat may provide a more complete understanding of metabolic risk associated with variations in fat distribution.
A New Slow Releasing, H2S Generating Compound, GYY4137 Relaxes Spontaneous and Oxytocin-Stimulated Contractions of Human and Rat Pregnant Myometrium
Hayley Robinson, Susan Wray
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0046278
Abstract: Better tocolytics are required to help prevent preterm labour. The gaseotransmitter Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) has been shown to reduce myometrial contractility and thus is of potential interest. However previous studies used NaHS, which is toxic and releases H2S as a non-physiological bolus and thus alternative H2S donors are sought. GYY4137 has been developed to slowly release H2S and hence better reflect endogenous physiological release. We have examined its effects on spontaneous and oxytocin-stimulated contractility and compared them to NaHS, in human and rat myometrium, throughout gestation. The effects on contractility in response to GYY4137 (1 nM–1 mM) and NaHS (1 mM) were examined on myometrial strips from, biopsies of women undergoing elective caesarean section or hysterectomy, and from non-pregnant, 14, 18, 22 day (term) gestation or labouring rats. In pregnant rat and human myometrium dose-dependent and significant decreases in spontaneous contractions were seen with increasing concentrations of GYY4137, which also reduced underlying Ca transients. GYY4137 and NaHS significantly reduced oxytocin-stimulated and high-K depolarised contractions as well as spontaneous activity. Their inhibitory effects increased as gestation advanced, but were abruptly reversed in labour. Glibenclamide, an inhibitor of ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channels, abolished the inhibitory effect of GYY4137. These data suggest (i) H2S contributes to uterine quiescence from mid-gestation until labor, (ii) that H2S affects L-type calcium channels and KATP channels reducing Ca entry and thereby myometrial contractions, (iii) add to the evidence that H2S plays a physiological role in relaxing myometrium, and thus (iv) H2S is an attractive target for therapeutic manipulation of human myometrial contractility.
Modern beachrock formation in Durban, KwaZulu-Natal
Hayley Cawthra,Ron Uken
South African Journal of Science , 2012,
Abstract: We explored the recent cementation of modern beachrock on the seaward margin of the Durban Bluff, central KwaZulu-Natal. The low latitude and subtropical climatic setting is a unique context compared to the more commonly documented contemporary beachrock formation in the tropics. Geological field mapping was carried out and here we present results based on sedimentary facies of a clastic shoreline and carbonate diagenesis of interstitial cements using transmitted light microscopy. The beachrock was cemented by micrite and aragonite, and iron oxide infilled voids. The presence of human artefacts within the deposit showed evidence for cementation within the last century. The elevation (at Mean Low Water) and correlation to rates of sea level change for the east coast of South Africa showed that the beachrock is less than 72 years in age. In contrast to older local Pleistocene deposits, beachrocks have cemented along this stretch of coast during successive sea level highstands with similar climatic regimes – the last Interglacial, the Holocene High and the present. Here we report the most southerly documentation of modern beachrock in KwaZulu-Natal, which, to our knowledge, represents the youngest deposit reported in southern Africa.
Multi-criteria Assessment of Innovative Technology in the Beef Industry
Hayley Moreland,Paul Hyland
Modern Applied Science , 2010, DOI: 10.5539/mas.v4n12p17
Abstract: In Australia rural research and development corporations and companies expended over $AUS500 million on agricultural research and development. A substantial proportion of this is invested in R&D in the beef industry. The Australian beef industry exports almost $AUS5billionof product annually and invest heavily in new product development to improve the beef quality and improve production efficiency. Review points are critical for effective new product development, yet many research and development bodies, particularly publicly funded ones, appear to ignore the importance of assessing products prior to their release. Significant sums of money are invested in developing technological innovations that have low levels and rates of adoption. The adoption rates could be improved if the developers were more focused on technology uptake and less focused on proving their technologies can be applied in practice. Several approaches have been put forward in an effort to improve rates of adoption into operational settings. This paper presents a study of key technological innovations in the Australian beef industry to assess the use of multiple criteria in evaluating the potential uptake of new technologies. Findings indicate that using multiple criteria to evaluate innovations before commercializing a technology enables researchers to better understand the issues that may inhibit adoption.
Mathematics as a social construct: Teaching mathematics in context
Hayley Barnes,Elsie Venter
Pythagoras , 2011, DOI: 10.4102/pythagoras.v33i68.62
Abstract: Why is teaching in context an important option to consider in the teaching of mathematics? What does it mean to teach mathematics from and in contexts? And what are the possible challenges associated with this practice? The aim of this paper is not to provide a comprehensive answer or solution to these questions. We attempt rather to address these questions specifically with regard to South Africa and the theory of Realistic Mathematics Education. In this article we consider a vignette of a more formal and traditional mathematics lesson and then suggest possible reasons why we need to be teaching more in context. Furthermore we discuss the application of the theory of Realistic Mathematics Education as a potential approach to facilitate teaching in context. Finally we present some challenges associated with this practice.
Framing rights and responsibilities: accounts of women with a history of AIDS activism
MacGregor Hayley,Mills Elizabeth
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-11-s3-s7
Abstract: Background In South Africa, policy with respect to HIV/AIDS has had a strong rights-based framing in line with international trends and in keeping with the constitutional overhaul in the post-Apartheid era. There have also been considerable advances since 1994 towards legal enshrinement of sexual and reproductive health rights and in the provision of related services. Since HIV in this setting has heavily affected women of reproductive age, there has been discussion about the particular needs of this subgroup, especially in the context of service integration. This paper is concerned with the way in which HIV positive women conceptualise these rights and whether they wish and are able to actualise them in their daily lives. Methods In 2003 a group of women involved with the Treatment Action Campaign and Medicines Sans Frontières participated in an initiative to ‘map’ their bodies as affected by the virus. A book containing the maps and narratives was published and used as a political tool to pressure the government of the day to roll out antiretroviral therapy (ART) to the population. In 2008, the authors coordinated an initiative that involved conducting follow-up in-depth interviews in which five of these women reflected on those body maps and on how their lives had changed in the intervening five years since gaining the right to treatment through the public sector. Results Drawing upon this qualitative data and published sources, these new accounts are analysed in order to reflect the perspectives of these women living with chronic HIV with respect to their sexual relations and fertility desires. The paper reveals difficulties faced by these women in negotiating sexual relationships and disclosure of their HIV positive status. It focuses on how they perceive relative responsibilities in terms of taking preventative measures in sexual encounters. Women adopt tactics within a context characterised by various inequalities in order to ‘make do’, such as by remaining silent about their status. Concerns about childbearing can be addressed by information and support from a health care worker. Conclusions Women’s experience of HIV as a chronic illness and the need to adhere to ART, is linked to the way in which the language of responsibility can come to counter-balance a language of rights in treatment programmes.
“I Had To Make A Hero Of Myself”: Leonard Kriegel’s The Long Walk Home As Autopathographical Quest Narrative
Hayley Mitchell Haugen
The Brock Review , 2010,
Abstract: Leonard Kriegel’s autobiographical memoir, The Long Walk Home can be read as an autopathographical quest narrative, or hero’s journey. While the quest-like nature of Kriegel’s memoir grounds his work in the masculine tradition of American literature, and masculine autobiography in particular, Kriegel’s work also performs functions indicative of the historical emergence of the contemporary illness narrative, which Arthur Frank says in The Wounded Storyteller, “reclaims the author’s right to tell what is her own experience, it reclaims a voice over and against the medical voice, and it reclaims a life beyond illness, even if illness is the occasion of writing” (5). As a result of the tensions inherent in “reclaiming” voice, Kriegel’s work functions politically, offering a counter-voice to the dominant discourse of illness and disability in the modern era.
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