Abstract:
The aim of this article was to assess the influence of long-term application of compost on the physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as the fertility, of soil in a field subjected to double cropping (paddy rice and barley), mainly by integrating previous studies of the effects of compost and manure on soil qualities. Continuous compost application, especially at a high level (30 Mg·ha^{-1}·y^{-1}), into the double cropping soils increased the activities of organic C-, N-, and P-decomposing enzymes and the contents of organic C, total N, and microbial biomass N, as well as the cation exchange capacity, thereby contributing to the enhancement of soil fertility. Also, the compost application increased the degree of water-stable soil macroaggregation (>0.25 mm), which was correlated significantly (r > 0.950, p < 0.05) with the contents of hydrolyzable carbohydrates (with negative charge) and active Al (with positive charge), and resulted in the modification of soil physical properties. Furthermore, the application increased the amount of soil organic matter, including humic acid with a low degree of darkening and fulvic acid, and contributed to C sequestration and storage. Physical fractionation of soil indicated that about 60% of soil organic C was distributed in the silt-sized (2 - 20 μm) aggregate and clay-sized (<2 μm) aggregate fractions, while about 30% existed in the decayed plant fractions (53 - 2000 μm). The results obtained unambiguously indicate that long-term application of compost can improve soil qualities in the field subjected to double cropping, depending on the amount applied.

Abstract:
Effect of long-term application (ca. 30 years) of compost at different levels on humus composi-tion of whole soils and their particle size frac-tions in a field subjected mainly to double cropping (barley and paddy rice) was investi-gated. Soil samples were collected from three plots of different types of management: (a) F plot, only chemical fertilizers containing N, P and K were applied; (b) F+LC plot, both chemi-cal fertilizers and a low level of compost were applied; (c) F+HC plot, both chemical fertilizers and a high level of compost were applied (the amount of compost applied in the F+HC plot was three times larger than that applied in the F+LC plot). Each soil sample was divided into coarse sand- (CSA), medium sand-(MSA) and fine sand-(FSA) sized aggregate, silt-sized ag-gregate (SIA) and clay-sized aggregate (CLA) fractions by wet-sieving and sedimentation. In addition, the CSA and MSA fractions were sub-divided into “mineral particles” (MP) and “de-cayed plants” (DP) by a density fractionation. Humus composition was influenced depending upon the level of compost applied. The applica-tion induced an increase in the amounts of total humus (TH), humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in the whole soil and many size fractions, par-ticularly, SIA fraction. The increase was re-markable in the F+HC plot. In the CSA and MSA fractions, the amounts of TH, HA and FA were much larger in the CSA- and MSA-DP fractions than in the CSA- and MSA-MP fractions. The amounts of TH, HA and FA in the SIA fraction were larger than those in the CLA fraction for the F+HC and F+LC plots, and the reverse was true for the F plot. On the other hand, the de-grees of humification of humic acids in whole soils and many size fractions, particularly SIA fraction, decreased by compost application. The decrease was markedly in the F+HC plot. These findings suggest that the SIA fraction play an important role in the quantitative and qualitative changes of humus, including HA and FA, as in-fluenced by a long-term compost application.

Abstract:
Effects of different levels of compost application on the amounts and percentage distribution of organic N forms in whole soils and particle size fractions were investigated. Soil samples were collected from three plots: (a) F, only chemical fertilizers; (b) F+LC, chemical fertilizers plus low level of compost; (c) F+HC, chemical fertilizers plus high level of compost. Each soil sample was divided into five fractions: coarse sand-sized aggregate (CSA), medium sand-sized aggregate (MSA), fine sand-sized aggregate (FSA), silt-sized aggregate (SIA) and clay-sized aggregate (CLA) fractions. The sand fractions were subdivided into decayed plants (DP) and mineral particles (MP). The amounts of total N and different organic N forms in the whole soils as well as size fractions generally increased with increasing the amount of compost. In the whole soils, percentage distribution of non-hydrolysable-N and amino sugar-N increased by compost application while the distribution values of the hydrolysable ammonium- N and unidentified-N decreased. The application did not affect the distribution degree of amino acid-N. In the size fractions, the distribution values of most organic N forms increased in the CSA-DP, MSA-DP and FSA-DP fractions by compost application. In the CLA fractions, the amounts and percentage distribution of organic N forms were the highest, although the application caused decreases in their distribution values. These findings indicate that the CLA fraction merit close attention as an important reservoir of various organic N.

The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) can be
linked to game theory. This article shows that payoffs, or resources, in a
game with alleles as players, determine the frequency of homozygotes. The
frequency of aa homozygotes in the
HWE is an increasing function of the multiplicative difference in own payoffs
for each allele. Thus, Mendelian proportions are variable rather than fixed
depending on the resources for the alleles. Whereas the concept of
evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) is based on non-cooperative competitive
settings such as a competition between doves and hawks, this article explores a
game theoretic situation where the mating of two alleles is presupposed.

Abstract:
We investigate the scattering of plane harmonic compression and shear waves by a Griffith crack in an infinite isotropic dielectric polymer. The dielectric polymer is permeated by a uniform electric field normal to the crack face, and the incoming wave is applied in an arbitrary direction. By the use of Fourier transforms, we reduce the problem to that of solving two simultaneous dual integral equations. The solution of the dual integral equations is then expressed in terms of a pair of coupled Fredholm integral equations of the second kind having the kernel that is a finite integral. The dynamic stress intensity factor and energy release rate for mode I and mode II are computed for different wave frequencies and angles of incidence, and the influence of the electric field on the normalized values is displayed graphically.

Abstract:
In Japan, it has increased the opportunity for young children to experience the personal computer in elementary schools. However, in order to use computer, many domestic barriers have confronted young children (Kids) because they cannot read difficult Kanji characters and had not learnt Roman alphabet yet. As a result, they cannot input text strings by JIS Kana keyboard. In this research, we developed Kana-Input NaVigation System for kids (KINVS) based on the Cyber Assistant System (CAS). CAS is a Human-Style Software Robot based on the 3D-CG real-time animation and voice synthesis technology. KINVS enables to input Hiragana/Katakana characters by mouse operation only (without keyboard operation) and CAS supports them by using speaking, facial expression, body action and sound effects. KINVS displays the 3D-Stage like a classroom. In this room, Blackboard, Interactive parts to input Kana-characters, and CAS are placed. As some results of preliminary experiments, it is definitely unfit for Kids to double-click objects quickly or to move the Scrollbar by mouse dragging. So, mouse input method of KINVS are designed to use only single click and wheeler rotation. To input characters, Kids clicks or rotates the Interactive Parts. KINVS reports all information by voice speaking and Kana subtitles instead of Kanji text. Furthermore, to verify the functional feature of KINVS, we measured how long Kids had taken to input long text by using KINVS.

Abstract:
In Japan, most of children haven't read the Fairy Tales or tales of old Japan because the high technology video games are more exciting than most of picture books. But they must be effective to bring up the children's cultivation of aesthetic sensitivity. And we have heard from teachers of elementary schools that most of themes of computer education in school are the operation of Painting Tool or Game Software. To improve these problems and to aid the courses of computer-based education in elementary school, we developed new educational support tool named Cyber Theater. Cyber Theater provides the capability of easy making the 3D-CG animation of children's story by using Script language named CTSL (Cyber Theater Scenario Language). We hope schoolteachers will be able to use Cyber Tales as teaching materials in elementary schools. We also hope that upper-aged students (including junior high school students) are able to make their original CG-animation stories as the Creative Lesson.

Abstract:
We investigate the scattering of plane harmonic compression and shear waves by a Griffith crack in an infinite isotropic dielectric polymer. The dielectric polymer is permeated by a uniform electric field normal to the crack face, and the incoming wave is applied in an arbitrary direction. By the use of Fourier transforms, we reduce the problem to that of solving two simultaneous dual integral equations. The solution of the dual integral equations is then expressed in terms of a pair of coupled Fredholm integral equations of the second kind having the kernel that is a finite integral. The dynamic stress intensity factor and energy release rate for mode I and mode II are computed for different wave frequencies and angles of incidence, and the influence of the electric field on the normalized values is displayed graphically.

Abstract:
The effect of randomness on field-induced magnetic ordering was investigated through specific heat measurements in Tl$_{1-x}$K$_x$CuCl$_3$ with $x\leq 0.22$. The isostructural parent compounds TlCuCl$_3$ and KCuCl$_3$ are coupled spin dimer systems with a gapped ground state and their field-induced antiferromagnetic ordering is described by the Bose condensation of spin triplets (triplons). Well-defined field-induced phase transitions were observed in Tl$_{1-x}$K$_x$CuCl$_3$. The critical exponent $\phi$ of the phase boundary defined by $T(H) \propto (H-H_{\rm c})^{1/\phi}$ is reevaluated in TlCuCl$_3$ as $\phi=1.67 \pm 0.07$, which is close to $\phi_{\rm BEC} =3/2$ derived from the triplon BEC theory. For $x \neq 0$, the exponent $\phi$ decreases systematically with $x$. The phase boundary observed at low temperatures for $x>0.1$ is almost a linear function of temperature $T$. In the low-field region for $H

Abstract:
Japanese Angelica Root prepared from Angelica acutiloba var. acutiloba and A. acutiloba var. sugiyamae, known in Japan as “Toki” and “Hokkai Toki”, is an important crude drug used in Kampo medicine (traditional Japanese medicine). However, since these Angelica varieties have recently outcrossed with each other, it is unclear whether Japanese Angelica Root sold for use in Kampo medicine is a pure variety. Here, we describe DNA sequence polymorphisms that can be used to distinguish between A. acutiloba var. acutiloba and A. acutiloba var. sugiyamae. In our analyses, differences in the trnK region of chloroplast DNA distinguished among some A. acutiloba varieties and related species, but not between A. acutiloba var. acutiloba and A. acutiloba var. iwatensis. One geographical strain of A. acutiloba var. acutiloba and A. acutiloba var. sugiyamae showed identical sequences in three regions of chloroplast DNA, but differences in the internal transcribed spacer region of nuclear ribosomal DNA. One strain of A. acutiloba var. iwatensis and A. acutiloba var. sugiyamae had identical sequences in all of the chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA regions examined. These findings show that A. acutiloba var. acutiloba has hybridized with A. acutiloba var. sugiyamae and that the “Hokkai Toki” variety resulted from outcrossing with A. acutiloba var. iwatensis. Molecular authentication based on analyses of chloroplast and nuclear ribosomal DNA sequences of A. acutiloba and related species is an efficient method to authenticate Japanese Angelica Root at the variety level. Therefore, these analyses can determine whether a product is derived from A. acutiloba var. acutiloba or A. acutiloba var. sugiyamae.