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Ohmic Contact Formation for n+4H-SiC Substrate by Selective Heating Method Using Hydrogen Radical Irradiation  [PDF]
Tetsuji Arai, Kazuki Kamimura, Chiaya Yamamoto, Mai Shirakura, Keisuke Arimoto, Junji Yamanaka, Kiyokazu Nakagawa, Toshiyuki Takamatsu, Masaaki Ogino, Masaaki Tachioka, Haruo Nakazawa
Journal of Materials Science and Chemical Engineering (MSCE) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/msce.2017.51005
We developed an apparatus for producing high-density hydrogen plasma. We confirmed that the temperatures of transition-metal films increased to above 800?C within 5 s when they were exposed to hydrogen plasma formed using the apparatus. We applied this phenomenon to the selective heat treatment of W/Ni films deposited on n+4H-SiC wafers and formed nickel silicide electrodes. To utilize this method, we can perform the nickel silicidation process without heating the other areas such as channel regions and improve the reliability.
Does the Method of Amalgamation Affect Cost Inefficiency of the New Municipalities?  [PDF]
Katsuyoshi Nakazawa
Open Journal of Applied Sciences (OJAppS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojapps.2014.44015
Abstract: Municipal amalgamation has been done in many countries in recent years as the result of a push to enlarge the size and coverage of local government units, which in turn is driven mainly by the prospect of economies of scale. However, while municipality amalgamation or boundary reform raises population size, it introduces organizational changes in the local government that might increase administrative inefficiency. The choice for the method of integration of administrative functions before amalgamation might affect to public expenditure after amalgamation. This study uses Japanese municipal-level data and argues for a relation between the choice for the method of integration of administrative functions and cost inefficiency after amalgamation. The results show that the fully distributed facility method is more likely to be adopted in a larger administrative jurisdiction and in one with large differences in finances or political structures between amalgamated sub-regions. Moreover, the results of stochastic frontier regression show that new municipality adopting fully distributed facility method can possibly increase inefficiency by expanding organizational slack because the new administration system will be insufficient integration of administrative functions.
Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium and Mixed Strategy Equilibrium in Game Theory  [PDF]
Haruo H. Horaguchi
Theoretical Economics Letters (TEL) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/tel.2013.32014

The Hardy-Weinberg Equilibrium (HWE) can be linked to game theory. This article shows that payoffs, or resources, in a game with alleles as players, determine the frequency of homozygotes. The frequency of aa homozygotes in the HWE is an increasing function of the multiplicative difference in own payoffs for each allele. Thus, Mendelian proportions are variable rather than fixed depending on the resources for the alleles. Whereas the concept of evolutionary stable strategy (ESS) is based on non-cooperative competitive settings such as a competition between doves and hawks, this article explores a game theoretic situation where the mating of two alleles is presupposed.

Assessment of Long-Term Compost Application on Physical, Chemical, and Biological Properties, as Well as Fertility, of Soil in a Field Subjected to Double Cropping  [PDF]
Yukiko Yanagi, Haruo Shindo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.71004
Abstract: The aim of this article was to assess the influence of long-term application of compost on the physical, chemical, and biological properties, as well as the fertility, of soil in a field subjected to double cropping (paddy rice and barley), mainly by integrating previous studies of the effects of compost and manure on soil qualities. Continuous compost application, especially at a high level (30 Mg·ha-1·y-1), into the double cropping soils increased the activities of organic C-, N-, and P-decomposing enzymes and the contents of organic C, total N, and microbial biomass N, as well as the cation exchange capacity, thereby contributing to the enhancement of soil fertility. Also, the compost application increased the degree of water-stable soil macroaggregation (>0.25 mm), which was correlated significantly (r > 0.950, p < 0.05) with the contents of hydrolyzable carbohydrates (with negative charge) and active Al (with positive charge), and resulted in the modification of soil physical properties. Furthermore, the application increased the amount of soil organic matter, including humic acid with a low degree of darkening and fulvic acid, and contributed to C sequestration and storage. Physical fractionation of soil indicated that about 60% of soil organic C was distributed in the silt-sized (2 - 20 μm) aggregate and clay-sized (<2 μm) aggregate fractions, while about 30% existed in the decayed plant fractions (53 - 2000 μm). The results obtained unambiguously indicate that long-term application of compost can improve soil qualities in the field subjected to double cropping, depending on the amount applied.
Importance of Gradients in Membrane Properties and Electrical Coupling in Sinoatrial Node Pacing
Shin Inada, Henggui Zhang, James O. Tellez, Nitaro Shibata, Kazuo Nakazawa, Kaichiro Kamiya, Itsuo Kodama, Kazuyuki Mitsui, Halina Dobrzynski, Mark R. Boyett, Haruo Honjo
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0094565
Abstract: The sinoatrial node (SAN) is heterogeneous in terms of cell size, ion channels, current densities, connexins and electrical coupling. For example, Nav1.5 (responsible for INa) and Cx43 (responsible for electrical coupling) are absent from the centre of the SAN (normally the leading pacemaker site), but present in the periphery (at SAN-atrial muscle junction). To test whether the heterogeneity is important for the functioning of the SAN, one- and two-dimensional models of the SAN and surrounding atrial muscle were created. Normal functioning of the SAN (in terms of cycle length, position of leading pacemaker site, conduction times, activation and repolarization sequences and space constants) was observed when, from the centre to the periphery, (i) cell characteristics (cell size and ionic current densities) were changed in a gradient fashion from a central-type (lacking INa) to a peripheral-type (possessing INa) and (ii) coupling conductance was increased in a gradient fashion. We conclude that the heterogeneous nature of the node is important for its normal functioning. The presence of Nav1.5 and Cx43 in the periphery may be essential for the node to be able to drive the atrial muscle: Nav1.5 provides the necessary depolarizing current and Cx43 delivers it to the atrial muscle.
Quantitative and qualitative changes of humus in whole soils and their particle size fractions as influenced by different levels of compost application  [PDF]
Thu Ha Nguyen, Haruo Shindo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.21001
Abstract: Effect of long-term application (ca. 30 years) of compost at different levels on humus composi-tion of whole soils and their particle size frac-tions in a field subjected mainly to double cropping (barley and paddy rice) was investi-gated. Soil samples were collected from three plots of different types of management: (a) F plot, only chemical fertilizers containing N, P and K were applied; (b) F+LC plot, both chemi-cal fertilizers and a low level of compost were applied; (c) F+HC plot, both chemical fertilizers and a high level of compost were applied (the amount of compost applied in the F+HC plot was three times larger than that applied in the F+LC plot). Each soil sample was divided into coarse sand- (CSA), medium sand-(MSA) and fine sand-(FSA) sized aggregate, silt-sized ag-gregate (SIA) and clay-sized aggregate (CLA) fractions by wet-sieving and sedimentation. In addition, the CSA and MSA fractions were sub-divided into “mineral particles” (MP) and “de-cayed plants” (DP) by a density fractionation. Humus composition was influenced depending upon the level of compost applied. The applica-tion induced an increase in the amounts of total humus (TH), humic acid (HA) and fulvic acid (FA) in the whole soil and many size fractions, par-ticularly, SIA fraction. The increase was re-markable in the F+HC plot. In the CSA and MSA fractions, the amounts of TH, HA and FA were much larger in the CSA- and MSA-DP fractions than in the CSA- and MSA-MP fractions. The amounts of TH, HA and FA in the SIA fraction were larger than those in the CLA fraction for the F+HC and F+LC plots, and the reverse was true for the F plot. On the other hand, the de-grees of humification of humic acids in whole soils and many size fractions, particularly SIA fraction, decreased by compost application. The decrease was markedly in the F+HC plot. These findings suggest that the SIA fraction play an important role in the quantitative and qualitative changes of humus, including HA and FA, as in-fluenced by a long-term compost application.
Effects of different levels of compost application on amounts and distribution of organic nitrogen forms in soil particle size fractions subjected mainly to double cropping  [PDF]
Thu Ha Nguyen, Haruo Shindo
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/as.2011.23030
Abstract: Effects of different levels of compost application on the amounts and percentage distribution of organic N forms in whole soils and particle size fractions were investigated. Soil samples were collected from three plots: (a) F, only chemical fertilizers; (b) F+LC, chemical fertilizers plus low level of compost; (c) F+HC, chemical fertilizers plus high level of compost. Each soil sample was divided into five fractions: coarse sand-sized aggregate (CSA), medium sand-sized aggregate (MSA), fine sand-sized aggregate (FSA), silt-sized aggregate (SIA) and clay-sized aggregate (CLA) fractions. The sand fractions were subdivided into decayed plants (DP) and mineral particles (MP). The amounts of total N and different organic N forms in the whole soils as well as size fractions generally increased with increasing the amount of compost. In the whole soils, percentage distribution of non-hydrolysable-N and amino sugar-N increased by compost application while the distribution values of the hydrolysable ammonium- N and unidentified-N decreased. The application did not affect the distribution degree of amino acid-N. In the size fractions, the distribution values of most organic N forms increased in the CSA-DP, MSA-DP and FSA-DP fractions by compost application. In the CLA fractions, the amounts and percentage distribution of organic N forms were the highest, although the application caused decreases in their distribution values. These findings indicate that the CLA fraction merit close attention as an important reservoir of various organic N.
Effects of Calcium Ion, Calpains, and Calcium Channel Blockers on Retinitis Pigmentosa
Mitsuru Nakazawa
Journal of Ophthalmology , 2011, DOI: 10.1155/2011/292040
Abstract: Recent advances in molecular genetic studies have revealed many of the causative genes of retinitis pigmentosa (RP). These achievements have provided clues to the mechanisms of photoreceptor degeneration in RP. Apoptosis is known to be a final common pathway in RP and, therefore, a possible therapeutic target for photoreceptor rescue. However, apoptosis is not a single molecular cascade, but consists of many different reactions such as caspase-dependent and caspase-independent pathways commonly leading to DNA fractionation and cell death. The intracellular concentration of calcium ions is also known to increase in apoptosis. These findings suggest that calpains, one of the calcium-dependent proteinases, play some roles in the process of photoreceptor apoptosis and that calcium channel antagonists may potentially inhibit photoreceptor apoptosis. Herein, the effects of calpains and calcium channel antagonists on photoreceptor degeneration are reviewed.
Alternative Stable States Generated by Ontogenetic Niche Shift in the Presence of Multiple Resource Use
Takefumi Nakazawa
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0014667
Abstract: It has been suggested that when juveniles and adults use different resources or habitats, alternative stable states (ASS) may exist in systems coupled by an ontogenetic niche shift. However, mainly the simplest system, i.e., the one-consumer–two-resource system, has been studied previously, and little is known about the development of ASS existing in more complex systems. Here, I theoretically investigated the development of ASS caused by an ontogenetic niche shift in the presence of multiple resource use. I considered three independent scenarios; (i) additional resources, (ii) multiple habitats, and (iii) interstage resource sharing. The model analyses illustrate that relative balance between the total resource availability in the juvenile and adult habitats is crucial for the development of ASS. This balance is determined by factors such as local habitat productivity, subsidy inputs, colonization area, and foraging mobility. Furthermore, it is also shown that interstage resource sharing generally suppresses ASS. These results suggest that the anthropogenic impacts of habitat modifications (e.g., fragmentation and destruction) or interaction modifications (e.g., changes in ontogeny and foraging behavior) propagate through space and may cause or prevent regime shifts in the regional community structure.
Reatividade do soro de indivíduos chagásicos cr nicos contra antígenos excretórios-secretórios de diferentes cepas de Trypanosoma cruzi
Nakazawa Mineo
Revista da Sociedade Brasileira de Medicina Tropical , 1999,
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