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Thermodinamic Interpretaion of the Morphology Individuality of Natural and Synthesized Apatite Single Crystals  [PDF]
Takaomi Suzuki, Haruka Takemae, Mika Yoshida
Journal of Crystallization Process and Technology (JCPT) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jcpt.2013.34019

Specific surface free energy (SSFE) of natural calcium fluorapatite from the same mother rock and synthesized barium chlorapatite from the same lot was determined using contact angle of water and formamide droplets, compared with grown length of crystal face (h). The experimentally obtained SSFEs have different values even for the same index faces of the different crystals. The SSFEs also have wide distribution for each face of crystals. Observed SSFE is considered to be not only the SSFE of ideally flat terrace face, but also includes the contribution of strep free energy. Though the crystals we experimentally obtained were growth form, the relationship between SSFE and h was almost proportional, which looks like satisfying Wulff’s relationship qualitatively. The slope of SSFE versus h line shows the driving force of crystal growth, and the line for larger crystal has less steep slope. The driving force of crystal growth for larger crystal is smaller, which also means that the chemical potential is larger for larger crystal. The individuality of crystals for the same lot can be explained by the difference of the chemical potential of each crystal.

Unitary Supermultiplets of OSp(8^*|4) and the AdS_7/CFT_6 Duality
Murat Gunaydin,Seiji Takemae
Physics , 1999, DOI: 10.1016/j.nuclphysb.2004.07.022
Abstract: We study the unitary supermultiplets of the N=4 d=7 anti-de Sitter (AdS_7) superalgebra OSp(8^*|4), with the even subalgebra SO(6,2) X USp(4), which is the symmetry superalgebra of M-theory on AdS_7 X S^4. We give a complete classification of the positive energy doubleton and massless supermultiplets of OSp(8^*|4) . The ultra-short doubleton supermultiplets do not have a Poincar\'{e} limit in AdS_7 and correspond to superconformal field theories on the boundary of AdS_7 which can be identified with d=6 Minkowski space. We show that the six dimensional Poincare mass operator vanishes identically for the doubleton representations. By going from the compact U(4) basis of SO^*(8)=SO(6,2) to the noncompact basis SU^*(4)XD (d=6 Lorentz group times dilatations) one can associate the positive (conformal) energy representations of SO^*(8) with conformal fields transforming covariantly under the Lorentz group in d=6. The oscillator method used for the construction of the unitary supermultiplets of OSp(8^*|4) can be given a dynamical realization in terms of chiral super-twistor fields.
An Implementation of the Japanese Autobiographical Method Seikatsu Tsuzurikata—“Life Writing”—In a US Elementary School  [PDF]
Scott Richardson, Haruka Konishi
Creative Education (CE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2013.49080

This article explores the historical, philosophical, curricular, and practical methods of the Japanese auto-biographical method, “seikatusu tsuzurikata” and its implementation in a US elementary school. Seikatsu tsuzurikata is a progressive form of journaling that “provokes students to ‘objectively’ observe the reality surrounding them in terms of their own senses without any intervention of anyone else’s authority”, by writing essays “reflecting on their social situation” (Asanuma, 1986: pp. 153, 155). Part of life writing’s central philosophy is that students are not required to participate. For students who engaged in life writing, several benefits resulted, according to their teachers. However, we found that students had great difficulty articulating their social and emotional worlds because this kind of reflective work was uncomfortable and foreign to students who were subjected to teacher-driven, “content”, and “standards based” instruction. This article concludes by exploring the possibility of connecting life writing with social-emotional learning (SEL).

36-Month Follow-Up Study of Post-Intervention Chronic Heart Failure Patients  [PDF]
Haruka Otsu, Michiko Moriyama
Health (Health) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/health.2014.67075
Abstract: Aim: Although numerous studies of disease management and case management of chronic heart failure (CHF) have been carried out, length of effectiveness after program commencement has not been examined, so we examined a follow-up study at 36 months after program commencement. Methods: Participants went for follow-up visits to one Japanese clinic which specializes in internal cardiovascular medicine and they were given diagnoses of CHF. 104 outpatients participated in this study and randomized control trial was implemented. An educational program was implemented for 6 months. The data were collected at baseline, 3, 6, 9, 12 months from both intervention and control groups and at 24 and 36 months from the intervention group. Results: There was significant improvement in New York Heart Association (NYHA) in the intervention group between baseline and 36 months. Improvement in weight monitoring and activities or exercise in the intervention group continued up to 36 months. Meanwhile, sodium restricted diets and quitting smoking and/or drinking depended on individual preference and it was difficult to make improvements in these areas. Conclusions: The educational program showed promise in preventing CHF outpatients from deteriorating significantly on a long-term basis as self-monitoring of activity and weight continued significantly and there were no participants with CHF who deteriorated in the intervention group at 36 months after program commencement, although the program aimed only to provide illness and self-management knowledge. On the other hand, future work will need to compare participants in this program to a control group over an extended period of time with consideration for relieving the burden of the control group.
The Organization of the Senses of Polysemy in Japanese EFL Learners’ Mental Lexicon  [PDF]
Yuko Hoshino, Haruka Shimizu
Creative Education (CE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2018.93025
Abstract: The structure of the mental lexicon has been widely researched, but few studies focusing on polysemy have been conducted, even in an L1 (a learner’s first language) context, and almost no research has been conducted in an L2 (a learner’s second language) context. The current study aims to scrutinize how the different vocabulary size groups of Japanese EFL learners classify the various senses of basic polysemous words and to compare their categorization with sense classification based on a linguistic dictionary. The results indicated that those with an estimated vocabulary size consisting of 5500 words or over (hereafter, the upper group) classified senses in a more similar way to the dictionary than those whose vocabulary size comprised 5000 or fewer words (hereafter, the lower group). This was despite the fact that they both understood the target context well and the number of categorizations created was almost the same between the two groups. Moreover, the upper group tended to classify the senses of polysemy in a more similar way to the other participants in the same vocabulary group, while the lower group’s categorization was more divergent and less well-organized. These findings indicated that even though the participants understood each sense, the difference appeared in the ability to categorize the senses, suggesting that grouping the senses needs knowledge different from simply understanding them, and this knowledge is not yet fully developed even for basic words.
The Decline of Village Common Lands and Changes in Village Society: South India, c. 1850-2000
Yanagisawa Haruka
Conservation & Society , 2008,
Abstract: The widely accepted view that emphasises the negative impact of the decline in common property re-sources on the village poor generally presumes that village common lands would have been used by all villagers inclusive of the poor without serious differences in the right to access them. Mainly based on historical documents for Tamil Nadu from the nineteenth century, this paper argues that influential vil-lagers controlled ′waste lands′ (village common land) and that this elite-dominant system of controlling natural resources declined with the gradual emancipation of the subordinate section of villagers. The ac-quisition of small bits of cultivated land and the encroachment on waste lands by the landless not only mirrored their empowerment and strengthened their bargaining position but also implies, under some cir-cumstances, the creation of possible pre-conditions for an egalitarian type of resource-controlling system. This paper also suggests that, as witnessed in Tamil Nadu in the last two decades, the growth of non-agricultural job opportunities could possibly weaken the pressure on lands and also induce farmers to change cropping patterns of their farms, sometimes leading to an expansion of farm forestry. The acquisi-tion of landholding by the landless and their emancipation could also possibly contribute in this direction.
Supercoherent States of OSp(8*|2N), Conformal Superfields and the AdS_7/CFT_6 Duality
Sudarshan Fernando,Murat Gunaydin,Seiji Takemae
Physics , 2001, DOI: 10.1016/S0550-3213(02)00076-7
Abstract: We study the positive energy unitary representations of 2N extended superconformal algebras OSp(8*|2N) in six dimensions. These representations can be formulated in a particle basis or a supercoherent state basis, which are labeled by the superspace coordinates in d=6. We show that the supercoherent states that form the bases of positive energy representations of OSp(8*|2N) can be identified with conformal superfields in six dimensions. The massless conformal superfields correspond precisely to the ultra short doubleton supermultiplets of OSp(8*|2N). The other positive energy unitary representations correspond to massive conformal superfields in six dimensions and they can be obtained by tensoring an arbitrary number of doubleton supermultiplets with each other. The supermultiplets obtained by tensoring two copies of the doubletons correspond to massless anti-de Sitter supermultiplets in d = 7.
Reliability and Sex Differences in a Coordination Test of a Tracking moving target with the Center of Foot Pressure  [PDF]
Haruka Kawabata, Shinichi Demura, Masanobui Uchiyama
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2012.23014
Abstract: This electronic document is a “live” template. The various components of your paper [title, text, heads, etc.] are already defined on the style sheet, as illustrated by the portions given in this document.
Effects of Differences in Manipulation and Supporting Legs and Moving Target Speed on a Visual Tracking Test Using Center of Pressure  [PDF]
Haruka Kawabata, Shinichi Demura, Masanobu Uchiyama
Advances in Physical Education (APE) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ape.2013.34033
Abstract: The human limbs are paired organs, each capable of independent movement. Functional laterality is found in the upper limbs when writing letters or throwing a ball, etc. This study aimed to examine the effects of differences in manipulation leg (ML), defined as the leg used when kicking a ball and supporting leg (SL), as the contralateral leg, and moving target speed on a visual tracking test using center of pressure (COP). We included 20 healthy male students (age, 22.0 ± 4.9 years; height, 172.4 ± 3.2 cm, and weight, 66.2 ± 5.0 kg) without lower limb or eye disorders. During the tracking test, subjects pursued a target moving on the Y-axis by COP. We selected 0.083 and 0.050 Hz frequencies to examine the effect of different target speeds. An evaluation variable was defined as total errors between moving targets and COP over 30 s. It was assumed that individuals with smaller errors would be superior during tracking tests. A significant difference was found between means for bilateral and unilateral stance (ML or SL) at both frequencies but not between ML and SL, and in all standing conditions, 0.083 Hz showed a smaller error than 0.050 Hz. In conclusion, regardless of the speed of the moving target, performance of the visual tracking test was superior in bilateral than unilateral stance, and there was no difference between ML and SL. Regardless of stance, test performance reduced with faster target speed, particularly with unilateral stance (about 29%).
Evaluation of Epidermal Growth Factor-Incorporating Skin Care Product in Culture Experiment Using Human Fibroblasts  [PDF]
Akiko Yamamoto, Haruka Ohno, Yoshimitsu Kuroyanagi
Open Journal of Regenerative Medicine (OJRM) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ojrm.2016.52004
Abstract: This study aimed to investigate the potential of a skin care product composed of hyaluronic acid (HA) and collagen (Col) sponge containing epidermal growth factor (EGF), vitamin C derivative (VC), glucosylceramide (GC), poly(γ-glutamic acid) (PGA), and argentine (Arg). High-molecular weight HA aqueous solution, hydrolyzed low-molecular weight HA aqueous solution, and heat- denatured Col aqueous solution were mixed, into which each aqueous solution containing EGF, VC, GC, PGA, or Arg were added, followed by freeze-drying to obtain a spongy EGF-incorporating skin care product (EGF-skin care product). In order to evaluate the first efficacy of EGF, fibroblast proliferation was assessed after 6 days of cultivation in the conditioned medium prepared by dissolving EGF-skin care product in a conventional culture medium. The fibroblast densities increased more effectively in conditioned medium with EGF than in control medium without EGF. In order to evaluate the second efficacy of EGF, the amount of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) produced by fibroblasts were assessed in a wound surface model. A fibroblast-incorporating Col gel sheet (cultured dermal substitute: CDS) was elevated to the air- medium interface, onto which a spongy sheet of EGF-skin care product was placed and cultured for 7 days. The condition covered with or without EGF-skin care product is divided into (+) EGF or (-) EGF, respectively. Fibroblasts in the CDS released 3.7 times more VEGF and 25 times more HGF in (+) EGF compared with (-) EGF. In another experiment, an aqueous solution of EGF-skin care product was added onto CDS and cultured for 7 days. Aqueous solutions were prepared and stored at 4°C or 37°C for a different period of 1 day, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks, respectively. Fibroblasts in CDS under different condition released similar amount of VEGF and HGF. This result indicated that the efficacy of EGF was maintained even after preservation at 37°C for 4 weeks. These findings suggest that EGF-skin care product can be used on damaged skin surface by placing its spongy sheet or its solution.
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