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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 2577 matches for " Harry Coleman "
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Post Mid-Staffordshire Inquiries Reaction, in and about the National Health Service (NHS), England. The Missing Pieces: Organizational, Care and Virtue Ethics Perspectives  [PDF]
Albert Coleman
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2014.516131

The release of the Mid Staffordshire hospital report otherwise called the Francis report once again ignited the debate about the issue of abuse of especially vulnerable patients, while navigating the care pathway as inpatients in hospitals; within the National health service (NHS), England. Once more the official reaction from the NHS directorate is more “standards” to monitor failed standards in patient care. Of interest in the official responses so far, are the unheard voices addressing the issue of healthcare and organizational ethics concerns that need revisiting. This article seeks to revisit practice, systems and care issues leading to incidents of the type of the Staffordshire abuses, and the important but yet unheralded place of organizational and care ethics in helping to curb such abuses from re-occurring.

Road Traffic Accidents in Ghana: A Public Health Concern, and a Call for Action in Ghana, (and the Sub-Region)  [PDF]
Albert Coleman
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.411092
Abstract: This paper highlights the increasing problem of road traffic accident (RTA) related morbidity and mortality in Ghana, and the public health measures needed to control the problem. Descriptive data in the public domain from statutory bodies and media houses reports on country RTA information, as well as academic papers on the problem, were used as source of information about the problem. The observed trend in Ghana indicates that RTA related fatalities and injuries continue to be increasing, as morbidity and mortality factors since the year 2000. Most of the remedial measures suggested in academic papers, and state agencies measures to curb the RTA trend in Ghana to date, have discussed the problem in terms of injury and safety issues/measures. This paper suggests that the increasing RTAs with associated morbidity and mortality in Ghana need to be looked at more as a public health problem and priority that requires prompt tackling using a public health problem orientated approach and measures, than just as a safety problem due to RTAs’, as is currently done.
Intelligent Biometric Information Management  [PDF]
Harry Wechsler
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2010.29060
Abstract: We advance here a novel methodology for robust intelligent biometric information management with inferences and predictions made using randomness and complexity concepts. Intelligence refers to learning, adap- tation, and functionality, and robustness refers to the ability to handle incomplete and/or corrupt adversarial information, on one side, and image and or device variability, on the other side. The proposed methodology is model-free and non-parametric. It draws support from discriminative methods using likelihood ratios to link at the conceptual level biometrics and forensics. It further links, at the modeling and implementation level, the Bayesian framework, statistical learning theory (SLT) using transduction and semi-supervised lea- rning, and Information Theory (IY) using mutual information. The key concepts supporting the proposed methodology are a) local estimation to facilitate learning and prediction using both labeled and unlabeled data; b) similarity metrics using regularity of patterns, randomness deficiency, and Kolmogorov complexity (similar to MDL) using strangeness/typicality and ranking p-values; and c) the Cover – Hart theorem on the asymptotical performance of k-nearest neighbors approaching the optimal Bayes error. Several topics on biometric inference and prediction related to 1) multi-level and multi-layer data fusion including quality and multi-modal biometrics; 2) score normalization and revision theory; 3) face selection and tracking; and 4) identity management, are described here using an integrated approach that includes transduction and boosting for ranking and sequential fusion/aggregation, respectively, on one side, and active learning and change/ outlier/intrusion detection realized using information gain and martingale, respectively, on the other side. The methodology proposed can be mapped to additional types of information beyond biometrics.
Cyberspace Security Using Adversarial Learning and Conformal Prediction  [PDF]
Harry Wechsler
Intelligent Information Management (IIM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/iim.2015.74016
Abstract: This paper advances new directions for cyber security using adversarial learning and conformal prediction in order to enhance network and computing services defenses against adaptive, malicious, persistent, and tactical offensive threats. Conformal prediction is the principled and unified adaptive and learning framework used to design, develop, and deploy a multi-faceted?self-managing defensive shield to detect, disrupt, and deny intrusive attacks, hostile and malicious behavior, and subterfuge. Conformal prediction leverages apparent relationships between immunity and intrusion detection using non-conformity measures characteristic of affinity, a typicality, and surprise, to recognize patterns and messages as friend or foe and to respond to them accordingly. The solutions proffered throughout are built around active learning, meta-reasoning, randomness, distributed semantics and stratification, and most important and above all around adaptive Oracles. The motivation for using conformal prediction and its immediate off-spring, those of semi-supervised learning and transduction, comes from them first and foremost supporting discriminative and non-parametric methods characteristic of principled demarcation using cohorts and sensitivity analysis to hedge on the prediction outcomes including negative selection, on one side, and providing credibility and confidence indices that assist meta-reasoning and information fusion.
Stress repair mechanism activity explains inflammation and apoptosis  [PDF]
Lewis S. Coleman
Advances in Bioscience and Biotechnology (ABB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/abb.2012.324065
Abstract: A review of modern evidence using Internet resources has identified the Stress Repair Mechanism (SRM) postulated by Hans Selye in 1951. SRM activity regulates thrombin generation to govern tissue maintenance, tissue repair, hemodynamic physiology, inflammation, and apoptosis. Thrombin utilizes ATP to energize coagulation, capillary hemostasis, chemotaxis, immune activity, mitosis, metabolism, angiogenesis, and the release of chemokines, cytokines, bradykinins, and prostaglandins that enable cell-to-cell communications, promote perfusion, loosen cell connections, and sensitize nociceptors during tissue repair. The orchestration of these diverse activities by the SRM explains the disparate elements of the inflammation syndrome, including dolor (pain), rubor (redness), calor (heat), tumor (swelling), and Functio laesa (loss of function). Inflammation resolves as tissue repair nears completion and declining SRM activity restores thrombin to maintenance levels. As thrombin levels decline below a critical threshold, repair cells undergo apoptosis and clots disintegrate. Apoptosis shrinks granulation tissues to enable wound closure. Apoptosis also facilitates embryological development. Occult systemic SRM hyperactivity due to sepsis, surgery, trauma, chemicals, pain, fear, and emotional memories causes inflammatory effects that manifest as the fever, edema, malignancy, organ disruption, eclampsia, Multi-System Organ Failure (MS-OF), Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome (SI-RS), Adult Respiratory Distress Syndrome (ARDS), Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation (DIC) and other pathologies.
What Is “African Bioethics” as Used by Sub-Saharan African Authors: An Argumentative Literature Review of Articles on African Bioethics  [PDF]
Albert Mark E. Coleman
Open Journal of Philosophy (OJPP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/ojpp.2017.71003
The term “African bioethics” is more often used by some Sub-Saharan African (SSA) authors to denote an African framework of resolving pertinent moral dilemmas arising in the interface of human persons with biomedical sciences, as juxtaposed against what is deemed “Western bioethics paradigms/theories, considered otherwise as a form of “moral/ethical imperialism”; and considered foreign to SSA tradition(s). This article is a literature review of articles on African bioethics to clarify what actually is meant epistemologically by African bioethics vis a vis, Western bioethics, as well as ascertain whether African bioethics as used by SSA authors is wishful thinking, yet to be realised in actuality.
Scottish Primary School Children Who Consume Greater Levels of Fruit and Vegetables Have Improved Health Markers  [PDF]
Heba Althubaiti, Madeline Coleman
Food and Nutrition Sciences (FNS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/fns.2017.85034
Abstract: Background: There is conflicting information about whether Scottish children follow the UK government recommendation of consuming 5 portions of fruit and vegetable (F & V) a day, or whether increased intake of F & V promotes improved health. Objective: This study aimed to 1) perform a cross-sectional study of the number of F & V portions that primary school children consume in relation to age (4 - 13 years old) and sex, 2) establish the relationship between F & V intake and health parameters. Methods: Data were collected from 466 children using a specific F & V intake questionnaire. Health parameters (weight, height, blood pressure, waist circumference, hip circumference and lung function) were measured from all of the children. Results: Children consumed on average a total of 4.50 (SD 1.86) portions of F & V per day. F
Palliative Care, Suffering, Death Trajectory: A View of End-of-Life Care (EOL) Related Issues in Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA)  [PDF]
Albert M. E. Coleman
International Journal of Clinical Medicine (IJCM) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ijcm.2018.93015
Abstract: Palliative care in the sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) region despite some progress made since the first hospice was opened in Zimbabwe in 1979, still lags far behind that of countries with developed economies, and relatively suffers from not being wholly included into mainstream public health service delivery in SSA. The situation is made worse due to relatively poor and pervasive socio-politico-economic factors and the challenge of the changing and increasing non-communicable disease epidemiology in SSA countries. This situation results in a tension between scarce resources and service needs/provision which prevails in a good number of SSA countries. In large part the situation where palliative care, end of life and the death trajectory converge in SSA countries currently portrays one of scarcity of resources and suffering for those ill SSA patients who need the services. This article is an overview of the current situation as pertains to palliative care services in the SSA region and some of the factors that contribute to or perpetuate the current state of palliative care delivery in SSA countries.
TRPM8 and Nav1.8 sodium channels are required for transthyretin-induced calcium influx in growth cones of small-diameter TrkA-positive sensory neurons
Robert J Gasperini, Xu Hou, Helena Parkington, Harry Coleman, David W Klaver, Adele J Vincent, Lisa C Foa, David H Small
Molecular Neurodegeneration , 2011, DOI: 10.1186/1750-1326-6-19
Abstract: Levels of intracellular cytosolic calcium were monitored in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons isolated from embryonic rats using the calcium-sensitive fluorescent indicator Fluo4. An amyloidogenic mutant form of TTR, L55P, induced calcium influx into the growth cones of DRG neurons, whereas wild-type TTR had no significant effect. Atomic force microscopy and dynamic light scattering studies confirmed that the L55P TTR contained oligomeric species of TTR. The effect of L55P TTR was decreased by blockers of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCC), as well as by blockers of Nav1.8 voltage-gated sodium channels and transient receptor potential M8 (TRPM8) channels. siRNA knockdown of TRPM8 channels using three different TRPM8 siRNAs strongly inhibited calcium influx in DRG growth cones.These data suggest that activation of TRPM8 channels triggers the activation of Nav1.8 channels which leads to calcium influx through VGCC. We suggest that TTR-induced calcium influx into DRG neurons may contribute to the pathophysiology of FAP. Furthermore, we speculate that similar mechanisms may mediate the toxic effects of other amyloidogenic proteins such as the β-amyloid protein of Alzheimer's disease.Protein misfolding is a common feature of many neurodegenerative diseases. In some of these diseases, such as the synucleinopathies and the tauopathies, cytoplasmic proteins aggregate to form intracellular deposits. However, in the amyloidoses, which include Alzheimer's disease (AD), prion diseases and the British and Danish familial dementias, proteinaceous aggregates are observed extracellularly [1-4]. There is increasing evidence that the mechanism of neurotoxicity in these amyloidoses is similar and that it is the conformation of the aggregated protein, rather than its specific amino acid sequence which results in altered membrane permeability to calcium [5]. Therefore, studies on the mechanism of neurotoxicity in one disease may provide insights into the mechanisms involved in other
“Wrap It Up!” Discourse on Condom Use among African American College-Attending Men in the Southern US  [PDF]
Taylor Coleman, Kenneth Gabriel, Nicole Coleman, Chakema Carmack
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2018.612011
Abstract: Historically Black colleges and universities (HBCUs) are in a unique position to impact the incidence and awareness of sexually transmitted infections (STIs) and prevention on campus. HBCUs, particularly in the South, have been associated with disproportionately high rates of STIs. In light of sexual activity, condom use remains the most effective prevention strategy. We sought to explore the facilitators of male condom use among college-attending African American men in the South. Six focus groups (N = 36) were conducted and analyzed. Thematic analysis resulted in eight emergent themes: Condom Use Avoids Pregnancy, STIs as Undesirable, Assertive Pro-Condom Partners, Condom Use Endorsements, Condom Non-use: Feelings and Timing, Condom Availability, Condom Use versus PrEP and Curability, and HIV Promotion on Campus. Recommendations include: gaining college leadership for STI and condom use awareness, incorporating peer education in prevention efforts, and capitalizing upon the intrapersonal benefits of condom use.
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