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Variability of Deltamethrin-Resistant Metarhizium anisopliae Aggressive Strains Group to a Population of the Cossid Moth from Eucalyptus nitens  [PDF]
Pedro Romón, Hardus Hatting, Arturo Goldarazena, Juan Carlos Iturrondobeitia
Open Journal of Forestry (OJF) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/ojf.2018.82014
Abstract: Random amplified polymorphic DNA-polymerase chain reaction (RAPD-PCR) was used to examine the genetic variability among Metarhizium anisopliae isolates tested to the cossid moth, Coryphodema tristis. All the isolates tightly clustered into one or the other of two groups that diverged at 12%. Results suggested that certain genotypes of the fungus, that grouped together, were able to infect moth larvae while others did not. A fragment of 760 bp, which presents high homology with a host-adaptation related protein coding gene, distinguished between aggressive and non-aggressive isolates. Neither mycelial growth nor sporulation rate or presence of known virulence genes was correlated with mortality values. Some isolates, including the most aggressive isolate ARSEF2518, were compatible with deltamethrin. Deltamethrin treatment killed all the larvae after seven days whereas fungal and mixed treatments respectively reached the same mortality after 28 and 21 days.
Medication between technology, clinicians and patients—How is medication safety done, with which possibilities and problems—a refiguration of problem spaces for quality improvement
Anne Hatting
International Journal of Integrated Care , 2010,
Contribución al estudio del tratamiento del raquitismo por el golpe vitamínico
Revista chilena de pediatría , 1941,
Population-Specific Use of the Same Tool-Assisted Alarm Call between Two Wild Orangutan Populations (Pongopygmaeus wurmbii) Indicates Functional Arbitrariness
Adriano R. Lameira, Madeleine E. Hardus, Kim J. J. M. Nouwen, Eva Topelberg, Roberto A. Delgado, Berry M. Spruijt, Elisabeth H. M. Sterck, Cheryl D. Knott, Serge A. Wich
PLOS ONE , 2013, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0069749
Abstract: Arbitrariness is an elementary feature of human language, yet seldom an object of comparative inquiry. While arbitrary signals for the same function are relatively frequent between animal populations across taxa, the same signal with arbitrary functions is rare and it remains unknown whether, in parallel with human speech, it may involve call production in animals. To investigate this question, we examined a particular orangutan alarm call – the kiss-squeak – and two variants – hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. In Tuanan (Central Kalimantan, Indonesia), the acoustic frequency of unaided kiss-squeaks is negatively related to body size. The modified variants are correlated with perceived threat and are hypothesized to increase the perceived body size of the sender, as the use of a hand or leaves lowers the kiss-squeak’s acoustic frequency. We examined the use of these variants in the same context in another orangutan population of the same sub-species and with partially similar habitat at Cabang Panti (West Kalimantan, Indonesia). Identical analyses of data from this site provided similar results for unaided kiss-squeaks but dissimilar results for hand and leaf kiss-squeaks. Unaided kiss-squeaks at Cabang Panti were emitted as commonly and showed the same relationship to body size as in Tuanan. However, at Cabang Panti, hand kiss-squeaks were extremely rare, while leaf-use neither conveyed larger body size nor was related to perceived threat. These findings indicate functional discontinuity between the two sites and therefore imply functional arbitrariness of leaf kiss-squeaks. These results show for the first time the existence of animal signals involving call production with arbitrary function. Our findings are consistent with previous studies arguing that these orangutan call variants are socially learned and reconcile the role of gestures and calls within evolutionary theories based on common ancestry for speech and music.
Call Cultures in Orang-Utans?
Serge A. Wich, Michael Krützen, Adriano R. Lameira, Alexander Nater, Natasha Arora, Meredith L. Bastian, Ellen Meulman, Helen C. Morrogh-Bernard, S. Suci Utami Atmoko, Joko Pamungkas, Dyah Perwitasari-Farajallah, Madeleine E. Hardus, Maria van Noordwijk, Carel P. van Schaik
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0036180
Abstract: Background Several studies suggested great ape cultures, arguing that human cumulative culture presumably evolved from such a foundation. These focused on conspicuous behaviours, and showed rich geographic variation, which could not be attributed to known ecological or genetic differences. Although geographic variation within call types (accents) has previously been reported for orang-utans and other primate species, we examine geographic variation in the presence/absence of discrete call types (dialects). Because orang-utans have been shown to have geographic variation that is not completely explicable by genetic or ecological factors we hypothesized that this will be similar in the call domain and predict that discrete call type variation between populations will be found. Methodology/Principal Findings We examined long-term behavioural data from five orang-utan populations and collected fecal samples for genetic analyses. We show that there is geographic variation in the presence of discrete types of calls. In exactly the same behavioural context (nest building and infant retrieval), individuals in different wild populations customarily emit either qualitatively different calls or calls in some but not in others. By comparing patterns in call-type and genetic similarity, we suggest that the observed variation is not likely to be explained by genetic or ecological differences. Conclusion/Significance These results are consistent with the potential presence of ‘call cultures’ and suggest that wild orang-utans possess the ability to invent arbitrary calls, which spread through social learning. These findings differ substantially from those that have been reported for primates before. First, the results reported here are on dialect and not on accent. Second, this study presents cases of production learning whereas most primate studies on vocal learning were cases of contextual learning. We conclude with speculating on how these findings might assist in bridging the gap between vocal communication in non-human primates and human speech.
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