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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 7856 matches for " Hans Kromhout "
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Respiratory symptoms and occupation: a cross-sectional study of the general population
Roel Vermeulen, Dick Heederik, Hans Kromhout, Henri?tte A Smit
Environmental Health , 2002, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-1-5
Abstract: The study subjects (aged 20–59) were all inhabitants of Doetinchem, a small industrial town, and came from a survey of a random sample of 1104 persons conducted in 1993. A total of 274 cases with respiratory symptoms (subdivided in asthma and bronchitis symptoms) and 274 controls without symptoms were matched for age and sex. Relations between industry and occupation and respiratory symptoms were explored and adjusted for smoking habits and social economic status.Employment in the 'construction' (OR = 3.38; 95%CI 1.02 – 11.27), 'metal' (OR = 3.17; 95%CI 0. 98 – 10.28), 'rubber, plastics and synthetics' (OR = 6.52; 95%CI 1.26 – 53.80), and 'printing' industry (OR = 3.96; 95%CI 0.85 – 18.48) were positively associated with chronic bronchitis symptoms. In addition, the 'metal' industry was found to be weakly associated with asthma symptoms (OR = 2.59; 95%CI 0.87 – 7.69). Duration of employment within these industries was also positively associated with respiratory symptoms.Respiratory symptoms in the general population are traceable to employment in particular industries even in a contemporary cohort with relatively young individuals.Respiratory diseases such as asthma, bronchitis and emphysema form a major health problem in the general population in many western countries [1,2]. The evidence that these diseases are caused by exogenous factors other than tobacco smoke, and that occupational exposures are amongst these causes, is growing [3]. As the working population smokes less, the relative importance of occupational exposures causing respiratory diseases is likely to increase. The contribution of occupational exposure to respiratory diseases has been estimated at 11–19% for males and 4–5% for females [1,2,4,5].The relationships between occupation and occupational exposures and respiratory symptoms in community-based studies have been studied since the late 1970s. In many of these general population studies, an association with exposure to dust, gases and fumes has b
Interaction of atopy and smoking on respiratory effects of occupational dust exposure: a general population-based study
Gea de Meer, Marjan Kerkhof, Hans Kromhout, Jan P Schouten, Dick Heederik
Environmental Health , 2004, DOI: 10.1186/1476-069x-3-6
Abstract: Data from 1,906 subjects were analyzed, all participants of the European Community Respiratory Health Survey. Job titles were categorized by an a priori constructed job exposure matrix into three classes of exposure to respectively organic dust, mineral dust, and gases/ fumes. Relationships were assessed for 'current wheeze', bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), 'current asthma' (wheeze+BHR), and 'chronic bronchitis' (morning phlegm or morning cough), and lung function.Subjects with organic dust exposure in their work environment more frequently had 'current asthma' (OR 1.48, 95% C.I. 0.95;2.30), and a lower FEV1 (-59 mL, 95% C.I. -114;-4). The relationship was only present in asthmatic workers, and their risk was four-fold greater than in subjects with either atopy or exposure alone. Mineral dust exposure was associated with 'chronic bronchitis' (OR 2.22, 95% C.I. 1.16;4.23) and a lower FEV1/FVC ratio (-1.1%, 95% C.I. -1.8;-0.3). We observed an excess risk in smokers, greater than the separate effects of smoking or mineral dust exposure together.Occupational exposure to organic dust is associated with an increased risk of asthma, particularly in atopics. Chronic bronchitis occurs more frequently among individuals exposed to mineral dust, and smoking doubles this risk.Exposure to agents in the work environment may be involved in the aetiology or aggravation of asthma in adults [1-5]. The relation with chronic airway obstruction has also been recognized, but has been studied in less detail [6-8]. The mechanism of occupational asthma depends on the causal agent [9]. An allergic immune response generally involved if the exposure constitutes of a high-molecular weight agent (e.g. latex, enzymes, animal dander) [10]. In asthma due to low-molecular weight agents (e.g. isocyanates, anhydrides), an IgE or IgG-mediated response may be involved [11]. Alternatively, non-specific mechanisms may occur in asthma due to exposure to irritants that mostly comprise exposure to gases
Preface: A Career in Nutrition and Cardiovascular Disease: From Research to Results to Public Health Policy
Daan Kromhout
Public Health Reviews , 2011,
Hierarchical Regression for Multiple Comparisons in a Case-Control Study of Occupational Risks for Lung Cancer
Marine Corbin, Lorenzo Richiardi, Roel Vermeulen, Hans Kromhout, Franco Merletti, Susan Peters, Lorenzo Simonato, Kyle Steenland, Neil Pearce, Milena Maule
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0038944
Abstract: Background Occupational studies often involve multiple comparisons and therefore suffer from false positive findings. Semi-Bayes adjustment methods have sometimes been used to address this issue. Hierarchical regression is a more general approach, including Semi-Bayes adjustment as a special case, that aims at improving the validity of standard maximum-likelihood estimates in the presence of multiple comparisons by incorporating similarities between the exposures of interest in a second-stage model. Methodology/Principal Findings We re-analysed data from an occupational case-control study of lung cancer, applying hierarchical regression. In the second-stage model, we included the exposure to three known lung carcinogens (asbestos, chromium and silica) for each occupation, under the assumption that occupations entailing similar carcinogenic exposures are associated with similar risks of lung cancer. Hierarchical regression estimates had smaller confidence intervals than maximum-likelihood estimates. The shrinkage toward the null was stronger for extreme, less stable estimates (e.g., “specialised farmers”: maximum-likelihood OR: 3.44, 95%CI 0.90–13.17; hierarchical regression OR: 1.53, 95%CI 0.63–3.68). Unlike Semi-Bayes adjustment toward the global mean, hierarchical regression did not shrink all the ORs towards the null (e.g., “Metal smelting, converting and refining furnacemen”: maximum-likelihood OR: 1.07, Semi-Bayes OR: 1.06, hierarchical regression OR: 1.26). Conclusions/Significance Hierarchical regression could be a valuable tool in occupational studies in which disease risk is estimated for a large amount of occupations when we have information available on the key carcinogenic exposures involved in each occupation. With the constant progress in exposure assessment methods in occupational settings and the availability of Job Exposure Matrices, it should become easier to apply this approach.
A Case-Control Study of the Protective Effect of Alcohol, Coffee, and Cigarette Consumption on Parkinson Disease Risk: Time-Since-Cessation Modifies the Effect of Tobacco Smoking
Marianne van der Mark, Peter C. G. Nijssen, Jelle Vlaanderen, Anke Huss, Wim M. Mulleners, Antonetta M. G. Sas, Teus van Laar, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0095297
Abstract: The aim of this study was to investigate the possible reduced risk of Parkinson Disease (PD) due to coffee, alcohol, and/or cigarette consumption. In addition, we explored the potential effect modification by intensity, duration and time-since-cessation of smoking on the association between cumulative pack-years of cigarette smoking (total smoking) and PD risk. Data of a hospital based case-control study was used including 444 PD patients, diagnosed between 2006 and 2011, and 876 matched controls from 5 hospitals in the Netherlands. A novel modeling method was applied to derive unbiased estimates of the potential modifying effects of smoking intensity, duration, and time-since-cessation by conditioning on total exposure. We observed no reduced risk of PD by alcohol consumption and only a weak inverse association between coffee consumption and PD risk. However, a strong inverse association of total smoking with PD risk was observed (OR = 0.27 (95%CI: 0.18–0.42) for never smokers versus highest quartile of tobacco use). The observed protective effect of total smoking was significantly modified by time-since-cessation with a diminishing protective effect after cessation of smoking. No effect modification by intensity or duration of smoking was observed indicating that both intensity and duration have an equal contribution to the reduced PD risk. Understanding the dynamics of the protective effect of smoking on PD risk aids in understanding PD etiology and may contribute to strategies for prevention and treatment.
Transient receptor potential genes, smoking, occupational exposures and cough in adults
Lidwien AM Smit, Manolis Kogevinas, Josep M Antó, Emmanuelle Bouzigon, Juan González, Nicole Le Moual, Hans Kromhout, Anne-Elie Carsin, Isabelle Pin, Deborah Jarvis, Roel Vermeulen, Christer Janson, Joachim Heinrich, Ivo Gut, Mark Lathrop, Miguel A Valverde, Florence Demenais, Francine Kauffmann
Respiratory Research , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1465-9921-13-26
Abstract: Nocturnal, usual, and chronic cough, smoking, and job history were obtained by questionnaire in 844 asthmatic and 2046 non-asthmatic adults from the Epidemiological study on the Genetics and Environment of Asthma (EGEA) and the European Community Respiratory Health Survey (ECRHS). Occupational exposures to vapors, gases, dusts, and/or fumes were assessed by a job-exposure matrix. Fifty-eight tagging SNPs in TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1 were tested under an additive model.Statistically significant associations of 6 TRPV1 SNPs with cough symptoms were found in non-asthmatics after correction for multiple comparisons. Results were consistent across the eight countries examined. Haplotype-based association analysis confirmed the single SNP analyses for nocturnal cough (7-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.8 × 10-6) and usual cough (9-SNP haplotype: p-global = 4.5 × 10-6). Cough symptoms were associated with exposure to irritants such as cigarette smoke and occupational exposures (p < 0.05). Four polymorphisms in TRPV1 further increased the risk of cough symptoms from irritant exposures in asthmatics and non-asthmatics (interaction p < 0.05).TRPV1 SNPs were associated with cough among subjects without asthma from two independent studies in eight European countries. TRPV1 SNPs may enhance susceptibility to cough in current smokers and in subjects with a history of workplace exposures.TRPV1, TRPV4, and TRPA1 cation channels are members of the vanilloid (TRPV) and ankyrin (TRPA) subfamily of transient receptor potential channels. These channels are expressed in different cells of the lung, including sensory neurons participating in airway reflex responses, bronchial smooth muscle, and epithelial and endothelial cells [1,2]. TRPV1 channels are activated by capsaicin, heat, particulate matter, and various noxious chemicals, and are upregulated in airway nerves and airways smooth muscle of individuals with cough [1-4]. It has recently been shown that the TRPV1 Ile585Val single nucleotide
Lifetime Occupational Exposure to Dusts, Gases and Fumes Is Associated with Bronchitis Symptoms and Higher Diffusion Capacity in COPD Patients
Esther Rodríguez, Jaume Ferrer, Jan-Paul Zock, Ignasi Serra, Josep M. Antó, Jordi de Batlle, Hans Kromhout, Roel Vermeulen, David Donaire-González, Marta Benet, Eva Balcells, Eduard Monsó, Angel Gayete, Judith Garcia-Aymerich, the PAC-COPD Study Group
PLOS ONE , 2014, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0088426
Abstract: Background Occupational exposure to dusts, gases and fumes has been associated with reduced FEV1 and sputum production in COPD patients. The effect of occupational exposure on other characteristics of COPD, especially those reflecting emphysema, has not been studied in these patients. Methods We studied 338 patients hospitalized for a first exacerbation of COPD in 9 Spanish hospitals, obtaining full occupational history in a face-to-face interview; job codes were linked to a job exposure matrix for semi-quantitative estimation of exposure to mineral/biological dust, and gases/fumes for each job held. Patients underwent spirometry, diffusing capacity testing and analysis of gases in stable conditions. Quality of life, dyspnea and chronic bronchitis symptoms were determined with a questionnaire interview. A high- resolution CT scan was available in 133 patients. Results 94% of the patients included were men, with a mean age of 68(8.5) years and a mean FEV1% predicted 52 (16). High exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and exposure to mineral dust and gases/fumes was associated with higher scores for symptom perception in the St. George’s questionnaire. No occupational agent was associated with a lower FEV1. High exposure to all occupational agents was associated with better lung diffusion capacity, in long-term quitters. In the subgroup with CT data, patients with emphysema had 18% lower DLCO compared to those without emphysema. Conclusions In our cohort of COPD patients, high exposure to gases or fumes was associated with chronic bronchitis, and high exposure to all occupational agents was consistently associated with better diffusion capacity in long-term quitters.
AGRICOH: A Consortium of Agricultural Cohorts
Maria E. Leon,Laura E. Beane Freeman,Jeroen Douwes,Jane A. Hoppin,Hans Kromhout,Pierre Lebailly,Karl-Christian Nordby,Marc Schenker,Joachim Schüz,Stephen C. Waring,Michael C.R. Alavanja,Isabella Annesi-Maesano,Isabelle Baldi,Mohamed Aqiel Dalvie,Giles Ferro,Béatrice Fervers,Hilde Langseth,Leslie London,Charles F. Lynch,John McLaughlin,James A. Merchant,Punam Pahwa,Torben Sigsgaard,Leslie Thomas Stayner,Catharina Wesseling,Keun-Young Yoo,Shelia H. Zahm,Kurt Straif,Aaron Blair
International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/ijerph8051341
Abstract: AGRICOH is a recently formed consortium of agricultural cohort studies involving 22 cohorts from nine countries in five continents: South Africa (1), Canada (3), Costa Rica (2), USA (6), Republic of Korea (1), New Zealand (2), Denmark (1), France (3) and Norway (3). The aim of AGRICOH, initiated by the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) and coordinated by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC), is to promote and sustain collaboration and pooling of data to investigate the association between a wide range of agricultural exposures and a wide range of health outcomes, with a particular focus on associations that cannot easily be addressed in individual studies because of rare exposures (e.g., use of infrequently applied chemicals) or relatively rare outcomes (e.g., certain types of cancer, neurologic and auto-immune diseases). To facilitate future projects the need for data harmonization of selected variables is required and is underway. Altogether, AGRICOH provides excellent opportunities for studying cancer, respiratory, neurologic, and auto-immune diseases as well as reproductive and allergic disorders, injuries and overall mortality in association with a wide array of exposures, prominent among these the application of pesticides.
Network Economies for the Internet-Application Models  [PDF]
Hans Gottinger
iBusiness (IB) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ib.2011.34042
Abstract: We propose a decentralized model of network and server economies, where we show efficient QoS (Quality of Service) provisioning and Pareto allocation of resources (network and server resources) among agents and suppliers, which are either network routers or servers (content providers). Specifically, it is shown 1) how prices for resources are set at the suppliers based on the QoS demands from the agents and 2) how dynamic routing algorithms and admission control mechanisms based on QoS preferences emerge from the user classes for the network economy.
Fatal Complications and Early Death after Surgical Treatment of Lung Cancer in 2000 and 2010. A Population Based Study  [PDF]
Hans Rostad
Surgical Science (SS) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2013.41019

In the year 2000 lung cancer was operated in 349 patients in Norway, in 2010 the number was 461. In the first period fatal surgical hemorrhage occurred in eight patients, in four of them peroperatively. Postoperative hemorrhage occurred in four patients in the year 2000 and in two in 2010. Ten patients died intra- or postoperatively in the two periods which is a mortality rate within 30 days after surgery of 4.3% in the first and 1.1% in the second period. Pneumonectomy was performed in 34 patients in 2000 and eight in 2010, respectively. Altogether 19 patients died within six months after surgery without having experienced surgical complications. Pneumonectomy should not be performed in elderly and debilitated persons.

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