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The Effects of European Austerity Programmes on Social Security Systems  [PDF]
Arne Heise, Hanna Lierse
Modern Economy (ME) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/me.2011.24055
Abstract: The recent financial and economic crisis is intensifying the pressure for budget consolidation,increasing the likelihood of cuts in social services throughout Europe. One government after another is bringing forward a budget consolidation programme. Cuts are envisaged above all in social services and so the question arises of what effects this will have on welfare states in EU member countries and on Social Europe in general. In this study cuts in social systems are analysed and compared, both planned and already undertaken. Regardless of the different magnitudes of the austerity efforts and the policy fields concerned there can be no doubt that all austerity programmes are regressive in nature and that the option of raising incomes is being exercised far less frequently than spending cuts and this applies especially in the social realm.
Cultural Repercussions: Extending Our Knowledge about How Values of Trust and Confidence Influence Tax Structures within Europe
Rune Ellemose Gulev,Hanna Lierse
International Journal of Management, Knowledge and Learning , 2012,
Abstract: Within a unified Europe that is heading towards ever more harmonization,it is interesting to examine why there exists such diversity in tax regimesamong its countries. Is it possible that some of the decisions pertaining totaxation are based on latent cultural aspects? This study, set in a purelyEuropean context, seeks to analyze tax variations within Europe through thelens of cultural variations. Specifically, how trust, confidence and equalitymatter with regard to tax revenues and tax progressivity. Within this regard,we achieved strong results linking trust and confidence to higher tax revenuesand higher tax progressivity. That is, where trust among societal membersis low and confidence in public institutions is low, regimes opt for low taxrevenues and lenient tax rates. It is argued that where mistrust is high, theissue of income distribution between societal members is likely to stay withinthe private or individual sphere. Conversely, countries with high trust amongsocietal members exhibit higher levels of income distribution by delegatingmore responsibility to public institutions, reflected in higher tax revenues andmore progressive tax structures.
Pharmacogenomics: The Significance of Genetics in the Metabolism of Natural Medicines  [PDF]
Nancy W. Hanna
Journal of Biomaterials and Nanobiotechnology (JBNB) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jbnb.2012.34046
Abstract: Natural products have been implemented in medicine through use as herbal medications, chemical compound extraction for prescription medication, or a natural source of food to fight various infections and diseases. Genetics has played a role in identifying various interactions between existing drugs and side effects. In addition, various food allergies have been identified with children in recent years, suggesting genetic associations between certain populations carrying specific genetic alleles. The recent availability of genomic data and our increased understanding of the effects of genetic variations permit a quantitative examination of the contribution of genetic variation to efficacy or toxicity of compounds derived from natural sources. The identification of target molecules relevant for diseases allows screening for natural products capable of inhibiting targets which can lead to the development of rational treatment of various diseases including neurobiological disorders, cancer, osteoporosis, and cardiovascular diseases. This allows for more opportunities to predict the response of individual patients. Identification of genetic variations that arose as a consequence of naturally occurring compounds will help identify gene alleles, or protein ligands that can affect the pharmacodynamic and pharmacokinetics of the natural products in question. In addition, diet modification and precautions to food products can be identified to help consumers limit or increase certain food intake. Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying these interactions and their modification by genetic variation is expected to result in the development of new drugs that optimize individual health. We expect that strategies for individualized therapies will lead to improved results for patients.
On Approximate Solutions of Second-Order Linear Partial Differential Equations  [PDF]
Yousry S. Hanna
Applied Mathematics (AM) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/am.2012.39148
Abstract: In this paper, a Chebyshev polynomial approximation for the solution of second-order partial differential equations with two variables and variable coefficients is given. Also, Chebyshev matrix is introduced. This method is based on taking the truncated Chebyshev expansions of the functions in the partial differential equations. Hence, the result matrix equation can be solved and approximate value of the unknown Chebyshev coefficients can be found.
Design of Foundations Built on a Shallow Depth (Less than 4 m) of Egyptian Macro-Porous Collapsible Soils  [PDF]
Tahar Ayadat, Adel Hanna
Open Journal of Geology (OJG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojg.2013.33024

It is nowadays well reported that collapsible soils spread in many countries, including United States, Russia, China, South America (e.g. Brazil), South and North Africa (e.g. Egypt, Algeria), Middle East (e.g. Saudi Arabia) and many countries in Eastern Europe. In general, collapsible soils are located in arid and semi-arid regions around the world. This special type of soil is characterized by abrupt reduction in strength, excessive and sudden settlement when it becomes wet leading to failure of the structure. Construction on such a kind of soil is one of the prominent problems in geotechnical engineering. The main objectives of this study are reporting geological and geotechnical zonation maps for potentially collapsible soils in inhabited areas in Egypt. Furthermore, a design technique for foundations built on a shallow depth of Egyptian macro-porous collapsible soils (less than 4 m) is developed. The design method includes a design chart for soil collapse field classification in terms of the most governing parameters, a method for foundation settlement estimation based on a correlation between the wetting-induced collapse strain and the applied pressure, and a design practice to guide practicing engineers to select the appropriate foundation system to construct on such soil with a great degree of confidence and safety.

A Cognitive Emotional Methodology for Critical Thinking  [PDF]
Edward P. Hanna
Advances in Applied Sociology (AASoci) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aasoci.2013.31003
Abstract: This essay provides a theoretical foundation for a cognitive emotional methodology for critical thinking that is currently being utilized by the author in undergraduate and graduate social work advanced seminar classes. Through a review of the literature, the paper suggests that most approaches to teaching critical thinking do not integrate cognitive emotional criteria in the teaching method, and this is problematic for social work education. Citing recent literature about teaching empathy and values, and merging that work with clinical theory and practice, a theoretical foundation is established for a methodology that is in its formative stages. The methodology and its constructs are described. Although the methodology is presented though the vehicle of social work education, it is asserted that the methodology has broader utility.

Persisting Patterns—Graduate Degrees and Gender Ratio in Sweden 1960-1990  [PDF]
Hanna Markusson Winkvist
Creative Education (CE) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/ce.2016.711163
Abstract: This article addresses the ratio of women in Swedish academia on the graduate level, in particular the distribution of Ph.D. degrees among disciplines during the era of expansion in higher education. In the decades succeeding World War II, the Swedish educational system underwent pervasive changes, which among other things, were aimed at channeling a larger part of the population into higher education. This was a matter of national interest, as increased success in undergraduate studies would enhance the general level of competence and help promote Sweden as part of the cutting edge in research. In order to assess findings in previous research, this study examines the distribution in fields, field size, and periods of substantial growth in Ph.D. degrees, and their correlationswith changed gender ratios. Trends regarding women with Ph.D.s on an aggregated level show a gradual increase beginning in conjunction with the massive growth from 1969 to 1974. This expansion does not entail a boom in the ratio of women, albeit women increased exponentially over these years; during the 1960s women were still scarce. The gradual and steady increase is evident throughout the whole period, but the gender gap remains wide on an aggregated level; in 1990, one in four Ph.D. graduates was a woman. Examining this picture by field provides a more elaborate view. The crucial question is: If size matters, do crowded fields reveal greater gender imbalance than less crowded ones? After the upturn in the early 1970s, the relative gender gap in these disciplinary domains cannot exclusively be described as a successively, yet slowly, diminishing gap. The narrative of a linear process over time resulting in enhanced gender balance on the graduate level should be modified to reflect that trends indicate a fluctuating pattern where the low ratio of women is persistent rather than progressive.
Oral Health of Young Adolescents in Addis Ababa—A Community-Based Study  [PDF]
Hanna Yemane Berhane, Alemayehu Worku
Open Journal of Preventive Medicine (OJPM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojpm.2014.48073

Introduction: Deteriorating oral health is an emerging public health concern in developing countries, yet little attention has been given to oral health in most sub-Saharan countries. The extents of caries, periodontal diseases and the associated risk factors have not been widely studied at the community level. Purpose: To assess the type and magnitude of oral health diseases as well as associated risk factors among young adolescents in Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. Methods: A community-based cross-sectional study was conducted on a sample of 658 children aged 10 - 14 years in Addis Ababa. Households for the study were selected through a multistage cluster sampling procedure. Data collection was carried out in December 2011 through interview and oral examination which was carried out by dental health professionals. Prevalence and 95% confidence interval was calculated. Factors associated with oral health conditions were identified using logistic regression. Results: The prevalence of dental caries was 47.4% (95% CI: 43.6% - 51.2%). Age, sweets intake, tooth cleaning, poor oral hygiene and being from a poor household were significantly associated with having dental caries. The prevalence of periodontal disease was 35.4% (95% CI: 31.7% - 39.0%) and it was associated with: having a mother with low education level, and poor oral hygiene. The prevalence of bad mouth odor was 4.4% (95% CI: 2.8% - 5.9%), and oral trauma 2.1% (95% CI: 1% - 3.2%). Conclusion: The prevalence of both periodontal disease and dental caries is alarmingly high. The findings indicate the need for large scale public education program to motivate regular dental check up, and proper oral hygiene practices. The study also indicates the need to strengthen oral health services using affordable and accessible outlets.

Serum Biochemistry and Hematology in Blue Fox (Vulpes lagopus)  [PDF]
Hannu T. Korhonen, Hanna Huuki
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2014.411030

The blue fox (Vulpes lagopus) is a colour mutation of wild arctic fox. It is commonly farmed for its fur. The aim of the present study was to analyse a baseline biochemical profile of serum from adult farmed blue foxes during pelting season. Serum biochemical profile can be used later on as a reference in chemical analysis of blood serum. Biochemical profile here consists of liver enzymes alanine aminotransferase (ALAT), aspartatate aminotranasferase (ASAT), alkaline phospahatase (ALP), and total bilirubin (T-BIL); kidney function substances creatinine, urea and inorganic phosphate (Pi); muscle enzyme creatinine kinase (CK); glucose (GLUK) from pancreas; serum total proteins (PROT) and albumin (ALB); electrolytes potassium (K), natrium (Na), chloride (CL), calcium (S-Ca); and lipids such as total cholesterol (T-Cho). For some of the measured parameters reference values were also available from previous studies. Certain values were close to those previously published but some differed markedly. These differences can be explained by differences e.g. in techniques, conditions, unit reports, and breed and age of the animals. The present study additionally reviewed previously published haematological data concerning small blood count, i.e. hemoglobin, hematocrit, white blood cells and red blood cells. Summarized material revealed that these variables are very similar despite of study and animal material. Thus, small blood count can be reliably used to screen general welfare status of farmed blue foxes. The reference values presented in this paper will be valuable as a guide for clinical diagnosis and research.

Effect of Carotenoid Supplement on Production Performance in Mink (Neovison vison)  [PDF]
Hannu T. Korhonen, Hanna Huuki
Open Journal of Veterinary Medicine (OJVM) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/ojvm.2015.54010
Abstract: The present study sought to find out how carotenoid supplement influences on body weights, feed consumption and reproductive success in standard farm mink (Neovison vison). Carotenoids were from microalgae Haematococcus pluvialis. A dose of carotenoid supplement of 0.20, 0.25, 0.20, 0.20, and 0.10 g/animal was added daily in feed in February, March, April, May and June, respectively. Experimental groups were: 1) control group, and 2) carotenoid group. Each group comprised 100 females and 25 males. The results showed that appetite of animals in all groups was good. Significant differences were not found in body weights before breeding. However, weights of control females were significantly (P < 0.05) lower compared with those of carotenoid fed animals when kits aged 21 days. At the age of 21 and 42 days, body weights of kits were similar in both groups. However, kits from carotenoid group tended to grow better (P < 0.1) than those from control group. Number of whelped females was lower in control group (81 vs 85 females). Number of barren females was higher in control than in carotenoid group (16 vs 13 females). Significant differences were not found in number of kits per mated and whelped female. Number of lost kits was higher in the control group at the age of 21 days (24 vs 20 kits) and the age of 42 days (40 vs 26 kits). The present study showed that carotenoid supplement could be used in mink diet. The results are promising, but require further studies before final implementation.
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