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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 401550 matches for " Hamzah M. Salleh "
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Production of Natural Coagulant from Moringa Oleifera Seed for Application in Treatment of Low Turbidity Water  [PDF]
Eman N. Ali, Suleyman A. Muyibi, Hamzah M. Salleh, Md Zahangir Alam, Mohd Ramlan M. Salleh
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2010.23030
Abstract: This study focused on developing an efficient and cost effective processing technique for Moringa oleifera seeds to produce natural coagulant for use in drinking water treatment. The produced natural coagulant can be used as an alternative to aluminum sulphate and other coagulants and used worldwide for water treatment. This study investigates processing Moringa oleifera seeds to concentrate the bio-active constituents which have coagulation activity. Moringa oleifera seeds were processed for oil extraction using electro thermal soxhlet. Isolation and purification of bio-active constituents using chromatography technique were used to determine the molecular weight of the bio-active constituents. The molecular weight of bio-active constitu-ents found to be in a low molecular weight range of between 1000 – 6500 Dalton. The proposed method to isolate and purify the bio-active constituents was the cross flow filtration method, which produced the natu-ral coagulant with very simple technique (oil extraction; salt extraction; and microfiltration through 0.45 µm). The turbidity removal was up to 96.23 % using 0.4 mg/L of processed Moringa oleifera seeds to treat low initial turbidity river water between 34-36 Nephelometric Turbidity Units (NTU) without any additives. The microfiltration method is considered to be a practical method which needs no chemicals to be added com-pared to other researchers proposed methods. The natural coagulant produced was used with low dosages to get high turbidity removal which considered to be a breakthrough in this study and recommended to be scaled up for industry level. The product is commercially valuable at the same time it is minimizing the cost of water treatment.
Recombinant bromelain production in Escherichia coli: process optimization in shake flask culture by response surface methodology
Bala Muntari, Azura Amid, Maizirwan Mel, Mohammed S Jami, Hamzah M Salleh
AMB Express , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/2191-0855-2-12
Abstract: The use of highly purified proteins for therapeutic purposes has been in existence for many decades (Paul, 2004). Enzymes, mostly proteases, constitute the largest portion of these purified proteins for industrial and therapeutic applications. Proteases are enzymes that catalyze the hydrolysis of peptide linkages in proteins. They have wide applications in food, pharmaceutical and detergent industries. In fact, these enzymes constitute about 60% of all commercial enzymes in the world (Lucia and Tomas, 2010). Recently, microbial enzymes have been substituting those from other sources and might now account for almost 90% of the total market (Illanes, 2008). This is due to the fact that microbial cells are excellent systems for enzyme production. Thus, there is a great stimulation for extensive research works on recombinant proteins (Illanes, 2008).Bromelain is a general name given to the family of sulfhydryl proteolytic enzymes (cysteine proteases) obtained from the pineapple plant, Ananas comosus. Depending on the source, it is usually classified as either fruit bromelain or stem bromelain (Kelly 1996). The sulfhydryl proteolytic fraction is the primary component of bromelain. The pineapple enzyme also contains several protease inhibitors, a peroxidase, acid phosphatase, and organically bound calcium (Kelly, 1996).A member of papain family, stem bromelain (E.C. contains 212 amino acid residues including seven cysteines, one of which is involved in catalysis (Bitange et al., 2008). Pure stem bromelain is stable when stored at -20°C and has an optimum pH range of 6-8.5 for most of its substrates (casein, gelatin, synthetic peptides, etc.). The optimum temperature range for the enzyme is 50-60°C. It is mostly activated by cysteine while hydrogen sulfide and sodium cyanide are less effective (Bencucci et al. 2011). However, heavy metals such as mercury and silver, and L-trans-epoxysuccinyl-leucylamido (4-guanidino) butane [also known as E-64] deactivate the enz
The Growth Study of Vero Cells in Different Type of Microcarrier  [PDF]
Yusilawati Ahmad Nor, Nurul Hafizah Sulong, Maizirwan Mel, Hamzah Mohd Salleh, Iis Sopyan
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2010, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2010.15038
Abstract: The fact of microcarrier (MC) culture introduces new possibilities and makes possible the practical high-yield culture of anchorage-dependent cells has generated a considerable focus in this study. The objective of this research was to study the comparison of Vero cell growth on different types of commercial microcarriers; Cytodex-1, Cytodex-3, Hil-lex® II and Plastic Plus in spinner vessel and two liters bioreactor cultured for 96 hours. Biological performance of the microcarrier in RPMI media showed the preference of Vero cell grew on Cytodex 3 microcarriers with highest maximum viable cell number (2.4 × 105 cells/ml) followed by Cytodex 1, Hillex and Plustic Plus. Vero cell on Cyto-dex-3 data in spinner flask was compared in bioreactor and result showed higher viable cell number in biorector. Thus, this dextran-crosslink gelatin microcarrier (Cytodex 3) provided the best surface for cell attachment and fast proliferation. At the end of this cell growth improvement will be used for virus transfection producing a vaccine in bioreactor.
Kinetic studies on recombinant stem bromelain  [PDF]
Muntari Bala, Maizirwan Mel, Mohamed Saedi Jami, Azura Amid, Hamzah Mohd Salleh
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2013.13006
Abstract: Stem bromelain is a plant thiol protease with several industrial and therapeutic applications. This current work presents kinetic studies of recombinant bromelain (recBM) expressed in Escherichia coli BL21-AI on foursynthetic substrates, N-α-carbobenzoxy-L-alanyl-p-nitrophenylester (ZANPE), N-α-carbobenzoxy-L-arginyl-L-ar-ginine-p-nitroanilide (ZAANA), N-α-carbobenzo-xy-L-phenylalanyl-L-valyl-L-arginine-p-nitroanili-de (ZPVANA) and L-pyroglutamyl-L-phenylalanyl-L-leucine-p-nitroanilide (PFLNA). Hydrolytic activities of recBM at various pH and temperature conditions were compared to that of commercial bromelain (cBM). Both enzymes demonstrated high activities at 45o C and pH 5 - 8 for recBM and pH 6 - 8 for cBM. recBM showed marginally lower Kmand slightly higher kcat/Kmfor ZAANA, ZANPE and ZPVANA in comparison to cBM.trans Epoxysuccinyl-L-leucylamido {4- guanidino}butane (E-64) severely affected recBM and cBM hydrolysis of the synthetic substrates by competitive inhibition with Kivalues of 3.6 - 5.1 μM and 5.5 - 6.9 μM for recBM and cBM, respectively. The evaluated properties of recBM including temperature and pH optima, substrate specificity and sensitivity to inhibitors or activators, satisfy the requisites required for food industries.

Cloning and Expression of a Novel Phytase Gene (phyMS) from Mycobacterium smegmatis  [PDF]
Tamrin Nuge, Yumi Zuhanis Has-Yun Hashim, Abd-El Aziem Farouk, Hamzah Mohd Salleh
Advances in Enzyme Research (AER) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aer.2014.21003
Abstract: Phytase, also known as phytate-degrading enzyme, catalyzes the hydrolysis of phytate (inositol hexakisphosphate) with sequential release of phosphate and lower inositol phosphate. We report here a new plasmid construct designated as pMSuia from pBAD-TOPO that harbors a 1.1 kb phytase gene (phyMS) from Mycobacterium smegmatis, and expression as well as characterization of the purified recombinant M. smegmatis phytase. DNA sequencing analysis and multiple alignment exercise indicated that the M. smegmatis phytase is different from both known acid and alkaline phytases. The active ~45 kDa recombinant enzyme was expressed and confirmed by enzyme assay and Western blot analyses. Ni-NTA affinity purified recombinant M. smegmatis phytase exhibited specific activity of 233.51 U/mg, optimal pH of 3 and 7 and optimal temperature of 60°C. The purified enzyme retains almost 30% of the initial activity after incubation at 90°C for 60 min. The enzyme showed broad substrate specificity with Km and Vmax of the recombinant enzyme for sodium phytate substrate of 0.105 ± 0.016 mM and 26.93 ± 1.21 mM min-1, respectively.
Evaluation of Topical Preparations Containing Curcuma, Acacia and Lupinus Extracts as an Anti-inflammatory Drugs
M M Hamzah
International Journal of Applied Research in Natural Products , 2011,
Abstract: Summary: This work was suggested on the basis of presence of curcuminoids in curcuma and the presence of flavonoidal constituent in acacia and lupinus. The aim of this study was to study their possible anti-inflammatory effect by separately formulation of the three extracts in a suitable gel formula for topical administration and comparison of the prepared gels with a standard gel in the market (diclosal Emulgel) by using the carrageenan induced paw edema model in albino rats. The extracts were subjected to phytochemical screening tests using reported methods to determine the presence of various phytoconstituents. Gel formulation was prepared containing 8% of each extract separately in gel base, namely sodium carboxy methyl cellulose (NaCMC). The pharmacological screening revealed that percent reduction of edema produced by curcuma extract was 30.0%, by acacia extract was 4%, by ethanol fraction lupinus was 18% and by chloroform fraction lupinus was 11.3%, while diclofenac sodium topical gel produced 48% reduction of edema. Industrial relevance: Medicinal plants provide a host of chemical compounds, which have been optimized on the basis of their biological activities. Chemical compounds present in medicinal plants have shown great promise in the management of various inflammatory disorders and have continued to serve as alternative and complementary therapies. The present study will help the industry to produce herbal drug effective in the treatment of inflammation with less side effect and less costly when compared to the synthetic drugs.
Psychiatric Discharge Process
Hamzah M. Alghzawi
ISRN Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/638943
Psychiatric Discharge Process
Hamzah M. Alghzawi
ISRN Psychiatry , 2012, DOI: 10.5402/2012/638943
Abstract: Background. Integration of research evidence into clinical nursing practice is essential for the delivery of high-quality nursing care. Discharge planning is an essential process in psychiatric nursing field, in order to prevent recurrent readmission to psychiatric units. Objective. The purpose of this paper is to perform literature overview on psychiatric discharge planning, in order to develop evidence-based practice guideline of psychiatric discharge plan. Methods. A search of electronic databases was conducted. The search process aimed to locate different levels of evidence. Inclusion criteria were studies including outcomes related to prevention of readmission as stability in the community, studies investigating the discharge planning process in acute psychiatric wards, and studies that included factors that impede discharge planning and factors that aid timely discharge. On the other hand, exclusion criteria were studies in which discharge planning was discussed as part of a multi faceted intervention and was not the main focus of the review. Result. Studies met inclusion criteria were mainly literature reviews, consensus statements, and descriptive studies. All of these studies are considered at the lower levels of evidence. Conclusion. This review demonstrated that discharge planning based on general principles (evidence based principles) should be applied during psychiatric discharge planning to make this discharge more effective. Depending on this review, it could be concluded that effective discharge planning includes main three stages; initial discharge meeting, regular discharge meeting(s), and leaving from hospital and discharge day. Each stage of them has requirements should be accomplished be go to the next stage. 1. Introduction Discharge planning is a vital process in nursing field. Discharge planning could be defined as a dynamic, comprehensive, and collaborative process that should be started at the time of admission and its purpose is to identify the client’s plans and the support which the client and caregiver would require after existing from psychiatric unit [1]. In the health care field “discharge planning” is one of the most important issues in our time, it is at once a methodology, a discipline, a function, a movement, and a solution [2]. 2. Significance and Purpose of the Paper By increased pressures for rapid discharge of psychiatric patients as a result of various government cost containment strategies, it is essential that a comprehensive discharge planning process be established in psychiatric facilities [2]. Discharge
An Optical Test Strip for the Detection of Benzoic Acid in Food
Hairul Hisham Hamzah,Nor Azah Yusof,Abu Bakar Salleh,Fatimah Abu Bakar
Sensors , 2011, DOI: 10.3390/s110807302
Abstract: Fabrication of a test strip for detection of benzoic acid was successfully implemented by immobilizing tyrosinase, phenol and 3-methyl-2-benzothiazolinone hydrazone (MBTH) onto filter paper using polystyrene as polymeric support. The sensing scheme was based on the decreasing intensity of the maroon colour of the test strip when introduced into benzoic acid solution. The test strip was characterized using optical fiber reflectance and has maximum reflectance at 375 nm. It has shown a highly reproducible measurement of benzoic acid with a calculated RSD of 0.47% (n = 10). The detection was optimized at pH 7. A linear response of the biosensor was obtained in 100 to 700 ppm of benzoic acid with a detection limit (LOD) of 73.6 ppm. At 1:1 ratio of benzoic acid to interfering substances, the main interfering substance is boric acid. The kinetic analyses show that, the inhibition of benzoic is competitive inhibitor and the inhibition constant (Ki) is 52.9 ppm. The activity of immobilized tyrosinase, phenol, and MBTH in the test strip was fairly sustained during 20 days when stored at 3 °C. The developed test strip was used for detection of benzoic acid in food samples and was observed to have comparable results to the HPLC method, hence the developed test strip can be used as an alternative to HPLC in detecting benzoic acid in food products.
Minimization of Stock Weight during Close-Die Forging of a Spindle  [PDF]
Hamzah Ssemakula
Materials Sciences and Applications (MSA) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/msa.2013.44026

In this paper, Finite Element method and full-scale experiments have been used to study a hot forging method for fabrication of a spindle using reduced initial stock size. The forging sequence is carried out in two stages. In the first stage, the hot rolled cylindrical billet is pre-formed and pierced in a closed die using a spherical nosed punch to within 20 mm of its base. This process of piercing or impact extrusion leads to high strains within the work piece but requires high press loads. In the second stage, the resulting cylinder is placed in a die with a flange chamber and upset forged to form a flange. The stock mass is optimized for complete die filling. Process parameters such as effective strain distribution, material flow and forging load in different stages of the process are analyzed. It is concluded from the simulations that minor modifications of piercing punch geometry to reduce contact between the punch and emerging vertical walls of the cylinder appreciably reduces the piercing load. In the flange chamber, a die surfaces angle of 52° instead of 45° is proposed to ensure effective material flow and exert sufficient tool pressure to achieve complete cavity filling. In order to achieve better compression, it is also proposed to shorten both the length of the inserted punch and the die “tongues” by a few mm.

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