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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 90728 matches for " Hamid I Akbarali "
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Morphine Decreases Enteric Neuron Excitability via Inhibition of Sodium Channels
Tricia H. Smith, John R. Grider, William L. Dewey, Hamid I. Akbarali
PLOS ONE , 2012, DOI: 10.1371/journal.pone.0045251
Abstract: Gastrointestinal peristalsis is significantly dependent on the enteric nervous system. Constipation due to reduced peristalsis is a major side-effect of morphine, which limits the chronic usefulness of this excellent pain reliever in man. The ionic basis for the inhibition of enteric neuron excitability by morphine is not well characterized as previous studies have mainly utilized microelectrode recordings from whole mount myenteric plexus preparations in guinea pigs. Here we have developed a Swiss-Webster mouse myenteric neuron culture and examined their electrophysiological properties by patch-clamp techniques and determined the mechanism for morphine-induced decrease in neuronal excitability. Isolated neurons in culture were confirmed by immunostaining with pan-neuronal marker, β-III tubulin and two populations were identified by calbindin and calretinin staining. Distinct neuronal populations were further identified based on the presence and absence of an afterhyperpolarization (AHP). Cells with AHP expressed greater density of sodium currents. Morphine (3 μM) significantly reduced the amplitude of the action potential, increased the threshold for spike generation but did not alter the resting membrane potential. The decrease in excitability resulted from inhibition of sodium currents. In the presence of morphine, the steady-state voltage dependence of Na channels was shifted to the left with almost 50% of channels unavailable for activation from hyperpolarized potentials. During prolonged exposure to morphine (two hours), action potentials recovered, indicative of the development of tolerance in single enteric neurons. These results demonstrate the feasibility of isolating mouse myenteric neurons and establish sodium channel inhibition as a mechanism for morphine-induced decrease in neuronal excitability.
Up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor in primary afferent pathway regulates colon-to-bladder cross-sensitization in rat
Chun-Mei Xia, Melisa A Gulick, Sharon J Yu, John R Grider, Karnam S Murthy, John F Kuemmerle, Hamid I Akbarali, Li-Ya Qiao
Journal of Neuroinflammation , 2012, DOI: 10.1186/1742-2094-9-30
Abstract: Colonic inflammation was induced by a single dose of tri-nitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) instilled intracolonically. The histology of the colon and the urinary bladder was examined by hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) stain. The protein expression of transient receptor potential (TRP) ion channel of the vanilloid type 1 (TRPV1) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were examined by immunohistochemistry and/or western blot. The inter-micturition intervals and the quantity of urine voided were obtained from analysis of cystometrograms.At 3 days post TNBS treatment, the protein level of TRPV1 was increased by 2-fold (p < 0.05) in the inflamed distal colon when examined with western blot. TRPV1 was mainly expressed in the axonal terminals in submucosal area of the distal colon, and was co-localized with the neural marker PGP9.5. In sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG), BDNF expression was augmented by colonic inflammation examined in the L1 DRG, and was expressed in TRPV1 positive neurons. The elevated level of BDNF in L1 DRG by colonic inflammation was blunted by prolonged pre-treatment of the animals with the neurotoxin resiniferatoxin (RTX). Colonic inflammation did not alter either the morphology of the urinary bladder or the expression level of TRPV1 in this viscus. However, colonic inflammation decreased the inter-micturition intervals and decreased the quantities of urine voided. The increased bladder activity by colonic inflammation was attenuated by prolonged intraluminal treatment with RTX or treatment with intrathecal BDNF neutralizing antibody.Acute colonic inflammation increases bladder activity without affecting bladder morphology. Primary afferent-mediated BDNF up-regulation in the sensory neurons regulates, at least in part, the bladder activity during colonic inflammation.Clinical evidence has shown sensory cross-sensitization between the urinary bladder and the distal colon [1-5]. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are more l
Utilizing Stability Index Tracing for Precise Load Buses Identification in Load Shedding Problem  [PDF]
Z. Hamid, I. Musirin, M. M. Othman
Engineering (ENG) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/eng.2013.51B031
Abstract: This paper proposes a new approach for suitable load buses identification via stability index tracing in performing corrective load shedding. The proposed identification technique is called the Fast Voltage Stability Index Load Tracing (FVSI-LT). By implementing a power tracing algorithm, a group of major contributors on the stress experienced by a power system is able to be precisely identified by a system operator (SO) based on the traced values of FVSI. To be precise, the traced FVSI via FVSI-LT can be used to form a ranking list indicating the priority of buses committed for shedding purpose. After designing a Fuzzy Inference System (FIS) for deciding the allowable load powers to be shed and performing experiment on IEEE 57-Bus reliability test system (RTS), it is revealed that the ranking list provided by FVSI-LT results to the most consistent improvement in terms of voltage stability and losses minimization.
Treatment of Diabetic Foot Ulcer with Propolis and Olive Oil: A Case Report
Hossein Khadem Haghighian,Yaghob Koushan,AkbarAli Asgharzadeh
Knowledge & Health Journal , 2012,
Abstract: Introduction: Diabetic foot ulcers are one of the main health problems in diabetic patients. Nowadays, there are several ways for the treatment of diabetic foot ulcers, but some patients are still forced to amputation. A 45-year-old woman who had been suffering from type 2 diabetes mellitus referred to Diabetes and Glands Clinic with a wound of the big toe, which was caused 3 months ago due to lack of healthy conditions. Her foot ulcer was under treatment with betadine and penicillin, but remained without healing, and therefore, she was referred to a surgeon for amputation. The aim of this study is to report this diabetic foot ulcer treatment with propolis and olive oil. Methods: When the patient referred to the clinic, she had a foot ulcer with 2 cm2 wound size. After her presenting, the use of betadine and penicillin was halted, and treatment with propolis and olive oil began. The patient was advised to wash her ulcer with serum and put topical admixture on the wound and change it every 12 hours. Results: A week after treatment, ulcer healed completely. Conclusion: Propolis with olive oil can remedy diabetic foot ulcer
Isolate domination in Unicyclic graphs
I. Sahul Hamid,S. Balamurugan
International Journal of Mathematics and Soft Computing , 2013,
Abstract: A subset $D$ of the vertex set $V(G)$ of a graph $G$ is called a dominating set of $G$ if every vertex in $V-D$ is adjacent to a vertex in $D$. A dominating set $D$ such that $$ has an isolated vertex is called an isolate dominating set and the minimum cardinality of an isolate dominating set is called the isolate domination number of $G$ and is denoted by $gamma_0(G)$. In this paper we characterize the unicyclic graphs in which the order equals the sum of the isolate domination number and its maximum degree.
Induced Graphoidal Decompositions in Product Graphs
Mayamma Joseph,I. Sahul Hamid
Journal of Discrete Mathematics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/892839
Abstract: Let be a nontrivial, simple, finite, connected, and undirected graph. A graphoidal decomposition (GD) of is a collection of nontrivial paths and cycles in that are internally disjoint such that every edge of lies in exactly one member of . By restricting the members of a GD to be induced, the concept of induced graphoidal decomposition (IGD) of a graph has been defined. The minimum cardinality of an IGD of a graph is called the induced graphoidal decomposition number and is denoted by ( ). An IGD of without any cycles is called an induced acyclic graphoidal decomposition (IAGD) of , and the minimum cardinality of an IAGD of is called the induced acyclic graphoidal decomposition number of , denoted by ( ). In this paper we determine the value of ( ) and ( ) when is a product graph, the factors being paths/cycles. 1. Introduction By a graph we mean a nontrivial, finite, connected, and undirected graph having no loops and multiple edges. The order and size of graph are denoted by and respectively. For terms not defined here we refer the reader to [1]. A decomposition of is a collection of edge-disjoint subgraphs of such that every edge of belongs to exactly one . Graph decomposition problems constitute a major area of research because of their theoretical and practical implications. Designing interconnection networks and drug designing are examples for the application of graph decomposition problems. Among the variants of decompositions of graphs that abound in the literature, path decomposition problems assume a prominent position. Harary [2] introduced the concept of path decomposition of graphs in 1970 which was further studied by Harary and Schwenk [3], Péroche [4], and Stanton et al. [5]. As a special case of path decomposition, Acharya and Sampathkumar [6] introduced the notion of graphoidal decomposition which is a decomposition of a graph into internally disjoint paths/cycles. By imposing the condition that the members of a graphoidal decomposition are induced paths/cycles, Arumugam [7] introduced the concept of induced graphoidal decomposition as well as that of induced acyclic graphoidal decomposition. Studies on these decompositions were initiated by Ratan Singh and Das [8, 9] and were further extended by Sahul Hamid and Joseph [10, 11] by obtaining certain bounds of the related parameters and and solving some characterization problems. In this paper we determine the value of and for a class of product graphs, namely, products of paths and cycles. 2. Induced Graphoidal Decomposition The concept of graphoidal cover (we say graphoidal
Extended Chain of Domination Parameters in Graphs
I. Sahul Hamid,S. Balamurugan
ISRN Combinatorics , 2013, DOI: 10.1155/2013/792743
Abstract: A subset of the vertex set of a graph is called an isolate set if the subgraph induced by has an isolated vertex. The subset is called an isolate dominating set if it is both isolate and dominating. Also, is called an isolate irredundant set if it is both isolate and irredundant. In this paper, we establish a chain connecting various isolate parameters with the existing domination parameters and discuss equality among the parameters in the extended chain. 1. Introduction One of the fastest growing areas within graph theory is the study of domination and related subset problems such as independence, covering, and matching. In fact, there are scores of graph theoretic concepts involving domination, covering, and independence. The bibliography in domination maintained by Haynes et al. [1] has over 1200 entries in which one can find an appendix listing 75 different types of domination and domination related parameters which have been studied in the literature. Hedetneimi and Laskar [2] edited the recent issue of discrete mathematics devoted entirely to domination, and a survey of advanced topics in domination is given in the book by Haynes et al. [3]. In 1978, Cockayne et al. [4] first defined what has now become a well-known inequality chain of domination related parameters of a graph as follows: where and denote the lower and upper irredundance numbers, and denote the lower and upper domination numbers, and and denote the independent domination number and independence number of a graph , respectively. Since then, more than 100 research papers have been published in which this inequality chain is the focus of study. More specifically, extending this chain in either side by some fundamental domination parameters is one such direction of research. By fundamental domination parameter, we mean that they can be defined for all nontrivial connected graphs. Following this we introduced such a new variation of domination in the name of isolate domination of graphs. By isolate dominating set of , we mean a dominating set of such that , that is , has an isolated vertex, and the corresponding parameters and are, respectively, the minimum and maximum cardinalities of a minimal isolate dominating set of . The study of this new variation of parameter was initiated in [5], where the existing domination chain (1) was extended as follows: This paper extends the above chain with the addition of some new variates related to isolate domination and discusses the relationship among some of the parameters involved in this new chain. 2. Definitions, Notations, and Preliminary
Comparative analysis of case screening with varying cough duration and sputum samples for diagnosis of tuberculosis in patients attending the OPD at a tertiary care hospital at Srinagar, India
S Hamid, SA Hussain, I Ali
Nigerian Journal of Clinical Practice , 2012,
Abstract: Research Question: Can we minimize cough duration and number of sputum samples in chest symptomatic patients for screening of TB? Objective: To evaluate cough of 3 weeks versus 2 weeks duration using two sputum samples versus three samples in chest symptomatic patients attending the OPD. Study Design: Hospital-based cross-sectional study. Materials and Methods: Outpatients (2810) with H/O cough of 3 weeks and 2 weeks duration were screened by subjecting them to sputum microscopy for tuberculosis using two sputum samples as well as three samples following standard procedure for sputum collection, staining and acid-fast bacillus (AFB) identification. Those on drugs were not included. Results: Using .2 weeks cough, sputum positivity rate was 12%, nearly as high as the sputum positivity among patients with .3 weeks cough, i.e. 14%. First sputum smear alone on an average could detect 91.8% cases, while the first two sputum smears could detect on an average 96% cases. The study showed that maximum number of cases was diagnosed by only two sputum smears and added diagnostic value of third specimen was small, i.e. 4%.High sputum positivity rate using .2 weeks cough with two sputum samples was seen. Conclusion: The sensitivity analysis of the study showed that using .2 weeks cough with two sputum samples gives almost similar values as .3 weeks cough with three sputum samples, but this needs further confirmatory results of culture sensitivity. Hence, using .2 weeks cough with two sputum samples as the diagnostic criteria for screening of cough patients for TB should be recommended as one way of improving efficient use of scarce resources.
Selma Novalija,Hamid Mutap?i,Elmira Kova?
Economic Review : Journal of Economics and Business , 2011,
Abstract: Companies are not always able to purchase fixed assets required to start, expand or modernize their own operations, and also do not have adequate resources that could offer as security for bank loans. Leasing is the answer to such problems, as it provides the possibility of leasing recipient to obtain the necessary equipment. Company pays lease fees from the profits generated from leasing subject use. Leasing, as a contemporary form of funding from year to year, plays a more prominent place in the international business world, making it necessary to devote special attention to the legislation and accounting coverage of business changes, which occur while taking and giving funds to leasing. The importance of these issues in accounting, or financial reporting is confirmed by the fact that International Accounting Standard (IAS) 17 Leases is dedicated to this aspect.
Investigation on Numerical Modeling of Water Vapour Condensation from a Flue Gas with High COR2R Content  [PDF]
Hamid Nabati
Energy and Power Engineering (EPE) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/epe.2011.32023
Abstract: In this paper, condensation of water vapor from a mixture of COR2R/HR2RO is studied numerically. To simplify the study and focus on the physical model, a simple vertical plate was chosen. Two condensation models are developed and numerical approach is considered to implement these models. The main objective in the cur-rent paper was to study the capability of numerical modeling in prediction of complex process. Results showed that developed condensation models in combination with numerical approach can predict the trends in condensation behavior of binary mixture very well. Results from this study can be developed further to be used in design of condensers which are suitable for oxy-fuel power plants.
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