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The Synthesis of Arylsulfonylphthalimides and Their Reactions with Several Amines in Acetonitrile  [PDF]
Seyhan Ozturk, Halil Kutuk
International Journal of Organic Chemistry (IJOC) , 2011, DOI: 10.4236/ijoc.2011.14029
Abstract: In this study, several N-(p-substituted-arylsulfonyl)phthalimides (1a-e) were synthesized. The synthesized compounds were then examined with respect to their substitution reactions with t-butylamine, diethylamine, cyclohexylamine, and trans-1,2-diaminocyclohexane in acetonitrile. In order to determine the mechanism, substituent effect, activation entropy, and nucleophile effect were used as criteria.
Multivariate Stochastic Volatility Estimation with Sparse Grid Integration  [PDF]
Halil Erturk Esen
Journal of Mathematical Finance (JMF) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/jmf.2016.61009

Multivariate stochastic volatility (MSV) models are nonlinear state space models that require either linear approximations or computationally demanding methods for handling the high dimensional integrals arising in the estimation problems of the latent volatilities and model parameters. Markov Chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) methods, which are based on Monte Carlo simulations using special sampling schemes, are by far the most studied method with several extensions and versions in previous stochastic volatility estimation studies. Exact nonlinear filters and particularly numerical integration based methods, such as the method proposed in this paper, were neglected and not studied as extensively as MCMC methods especially in the multivariate settings of stochastic volatility models. Filtering, smoothing, prediction and parameter estimation algorithms based on the sparse grid integration method are developed and proposed for a general MSV model. The proposed algorithms for estimation are compared with an implementation of MCMC based algorithms in a simulation study followed by an illustration of the proposed algorithms on empirical data of foreign exchange rate returns of US dollars and Euro. Results showed that the proposed algorithms based on the sparse grid integration method can be promising alternatives to the MCMC based algorithms especially in practical applications with their appealing characteristics.

Tüketim Toplumu, evre Performans ndeksi Ve Türkiye’nin evre Performans n n ndekse G re De erlendirilmesi
Halil Sava?
Tarih Kültür ve Sanat Ara?t?rmalar? Dergisi , 2012,
Abstract: zet evre Performans ndeksi (Environmental Performance Index-EPI), Yale üniversitesi taraf ndan 2006 y l ndan beri iki er y l arayla ülkelerin evre sa l ve ekosistem canl l n 2006 y l nda 16, 2008 ve 2010 y llar nda 25 ve son olarak 2012 y l nda 22 performans g stergesine g re de erlendiren evreyle ilgili nemli bir al mad r. Bu g stergeler, evreye dair politika ama lar na ülkelerin ne kadar yakla t klar n n bir g stergesi durumundad r. 2012 y l evre Performans ndeksi’ne g re Türkiye, evre sa l ve ekosistem canl l n korumada dünya ülkeleri aras nda en son s ralarda ve bir ok en az geli mi ülkenin aras nda yer almaktad r. Türkiye’nin indeks kapsam nda 2012 y l nda de erlendirilen 132 ülke aras nda 109 s rada yer almas , evre performans konusunda Türkiye’nin sadece 23 ülkeyi, yani de erlendirilen ülkelerin sadece %17'sini ge ebildi i ve %83’ünün gerisinde kald anlam na gelmektedir.Bu al mada; evre performans indeksi, indeksin ama lar , yap sal olarak politika ve kategorileri, g stergeleri ve puanlar a kland ktan sonra, tüketim toplumu ve evre ili kisi üzerinde durulmu tur. Türkiye’nin evresel performans 2010 ve 2012 y l evresel performans indeksi de erlerine g re analiz edildikten sonra, 2012 y l performans de erlemesine g re be kategoriye ayr lan ve her kategorinin ba nda yer alan ülkelerle Türkiye’nin kar la t rmal durumu grafiksel olarak ele al nm t r. Son olarak; tüketim toplumu, evre, evre performans indeksi ve Türkiye er evesinde baz de erlendirmeler yap lm t r. AbstractEnvironmental Performance Index (EPI-Environmental Performance Index) is a major study which evaluates environmental health and ecosystem vitality of countries, two years apart. This study, prepared by Yale University and based on 16 performance indicators in 2006, 25 in 2008 and 2010, and finally 22 in 2012, evaluating the environmental performance. These indicators are as an indicator of how much countries achieve the environmental policy goals. According to the year 2012 Environmental Performance Index, Turkey is in the most recent ranking of countries in the world, and many are among the least developed countries for protecting environmental health and ecosystem vitality. Turkey, within the scope of the index of 132 countries assessed in 2012 to take place in 109, only 23 countries of Turkey in environmental performance, i.e., able to pass 17% and 83% of countries assessed only means to remain behind.In this study, environmental performance index, the objectives of index, policies and structural categories, indicators, and the sco
International Journal of Instruction , 2008,
Abstract: Project-based learning (PBL) consisting projects that integrate science, technology, society, history, mathematics, politics and even arts serves a productive discussion opportunity for students, fosters a student-directed inquiry of real world problems, gives them the excitement of learning and seen to be an effective teaching strategy. Therefore, examination of PBL from the practitioners’ point of view, interpretation of the conceptualizations and experiences of them would yield valuable indicators for future PBL processes in classes both for instructors and students. This study focused on the prospective science teachers’ conceptualizations about project-based learning as practitioners in this research but also as instructors of future. A group of 75 prospective science teachers took place in research for a period of ten weeks and conduct projects in groups of four to five based on science-technology-society issues. Multiple data sources were used consisted a questionnaire with open ended questions, project portfolios and presentation notes. Data collected analyzed qualitatively and some assertions generated with the help of conceptual constructs derived. Assertions generated indicated that prospective science teachers developed some varying understandings based on their experiences about conducting projects in the context of PBL.
Synthesis, characterisation and antimicrobial activities of vic-dioxime derivatives containing heteroaromatic hydrazone groups and their metal complexes
Halil Biyik
Maejo International Journal of Science and Technology , 2013,
Abstract: Three novel heteroaromatic hydrazone derivatives bearing vic-dioxime groups (L1H2: 5-methyl-2-furfural hydrazone glyoxime, L2H2: 3-acetylpyridine hydrazone glyoxime and L3H2: 4-acetylpyridine hydrazone glyoxime) and their Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes were prepared. They were characterised by elemental analysis, gel permeation chromatography (GPC), FT-IR, UV, 1H NMR and 13C NMR. The antimicrobial activities of compounds L1H2, L2H2, L3H2 and their Ni(II), Cu(II) and Co(II) complexes were evaluated using the disc diffusion method against 13 bacteria and 5 yeasts. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) against 3 bacteria and 3 yeasts were also determined. Among the test compounds attempted, L1H2, [Co(L1H)2(H2O)2], [Ni(L2H)2], [Cu(L2H)2], L3H2, [Ni(L3H)2 and [Co(L3H)2(H2O)2] showed some activities against certain Gram-positive bacteria and some of the yeasts tested.
Realizm in the International Relations in the Example of French Invasion of Egypt //// M s r' n Frans zlar Taraf ndan gali rne inde Uluslarras li kilerde Realizm
Halil Erdemir
History Studies : International Journal of History , 2009,
Abstract: The Osmanl (Ottoman) State struggled for its very existenceagainst the imperialist powers’ partition plans, particularly, in thenineteenth century. The imperialist competition of the Europeanpowers on Egypt influenced on the Osmanl rulers’ internationalpolicies. Egypt was an important place in the region andinternational relations from the ancient to the modern periods. Theopening of the Suez Canal increased this geo-political significancefurther, which fuelled the confrontation among the Europeanpowers. The Osmanl rulers’ policies regarding on Egypt wereadapted to the internal and external developments.Egypt’s proximity to the French colonies in the north andcentral African countries were important for France as well as forGreat Britain. Egypt shortened the way to India and South EastAsian colonies, which made Egypt a focal point for France, Russiaand Britain. European power struggles in Europe and other partsof the world were reflected in their Egyptian policies and itsimmediate region. The Osmanl authorities were well aware of thefact that the Armed forces could not be able to deal with all theseimperialist powers at a time. Therefore, policies were finely tuned‘balanced policies’ one to another between the imperialist powers’expectations and confrontations. Egypt with its all specialities wasperfectly used for the policies of the Osmanl State and others.This study discusses the confrontation and power strugglesof the imperialist powers for Egypt, and how the Osmanl Stateresponded to such policies. What kinds of roles Egypt played in thecreation of the Osmanl policies towards the European powers?What would be beneficial outcome of such policies for the Osmanl State and Egypt? The study highlighted that how an internalmatter can be an international issue to determine the influential powers’ policies. How international interests creates internationalconflicts and alliances as in the examples at the beginning of thenineteenth century in Egypt. //// Osmanl Devleti zellikle 19ncu yüzy lda emperyalistgü lerin b lme planlar na kars hayatta kalma mücadelesivermistir. Avrupal Emperyalist gü lerin M s r üzerindeki yar slar Osmanl y netiminin uluslararas politikalar n etkilemistir. M s r,Eski a ’dan günümüze b lgede ve uluslararas iliskilerde nemlibir yere sahiptir. Süveys kanal n n a lmas M s r’ n jeopolitik nemini art r rken Avrupal gü lerin aralar ndaki mücadeleleri deateslemistir. Osmanl ’n n M s r ile ilgili politikalar da i te ved sar da meydana gelen yeni gelismelere g re sürekli uyarlanm st r.M s r’ n Kuzey ve Orta Afrika’daki Frans z
htilaf zümleme Y ntemi Olarak Mübahele (Mubāhalah as a Method of Dispute Resolution)
Halil Aldemir
?nsan & Toplum Dergisi , 2011, DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.12658/human.society.1.2.m0021
Abstract: In various occasions, the phenomenon of dispute is mentioned in the Holy Qur’an with its reasons, areas, dimensions, and solutions. In the context of the settlement of disputes that arise among individuals, communities, people with different religions, and states, basic principles as well as certain methods were presented. As a way of divine solution, the verse of mubahala (Invoking Mutual Curses) has been revealed in order to resolve the conflict that existed between early Muslims and Najran Christians about the nature of Jesus and a number of theological issues that could not be resolved by negotiations. This article describes the basic concepts concerning the subject of dispute and mubahala and their dictionary meanings and usage in the Holy Quran. Then their historical context will be addressed. The occasion of calling for mubahala, the parties, its results, and mubahala as a method of conflict resolution will be explained in the light of the verses and narrations. Moreover, Muslim approaches to this method and the extent to which the exegetical commentaries of ahkamu’l-Quran and books of fiqh (Islamic law) have discussed this subject will be determined.
Evaluation of the Ottoman Royal Dream with Tree Motif in Terms of Science of Dream Interpretation
Halil ?etin
Journal of Gazi Academic View , 2012,
Abstract: The main goal of royal dreams is to indicate the legitimacy of a dynasty/ruler. Asa “manifest of foundation” of the state various royal dreams which were narrated about thefoundation of the Ottoman State have also such aims. The meaning of dream depends onthe symbols of dream closely. However the meanings of symbols in the dreams have been notevaluated yet. As the most widely narrated royal dream by the early cronicles The Dream WithMotif of Tree Emerging from the Navel is analysed by the article. The elements of the dreamare brought under the scope to understand the massage correctly. These are dream-seer, place,time, preparations and symbols of the dream, dream-teller and his interpretation and themessage of the dream. The dream bearing the peculiarity of right dream (rüya-y sad ka) givesthe good news of fertility and abundance that will come with the Ottoman hegemony. Expressingthe message by means of right dream aims to explaine that God’s Will is in this direction.
srail Devleti’nin lan ndan nce David Ben-Gurion’un Filistin’i Yahudile tirme Politikas
Halil Erdemir
Journal of Gazi Academic View , 2011,
Abstract: Ben Gurion argued that legal and official status can be paved the way to the Jewishautonomy in Palestine and its area. This can be achieved by the increase of Jewish populationwhich would improve to defend the rights and legal status of Jewish desires within the OttomanState. He believed that the Jewish interests only be saved and protected within the Turkishinstitutions by skilled and knowledgeable Jews who are competent of Turkish language, culture,law and politics. Ben Gurion studied law in Istanbul University in order to materialize whathe was arguing and defending for the Jewish nation.Ben Gurion encouraged and regardedabsolutely necessary to optain Osmanl passports for those foreign Jewish nationals whomigrated to Palestine. He changed his support of Osmanl s’ war effort depending on changingcircumstances during the WWI. At the beginning of the War he was supporting Germany andthe Ottoman State whereas Great Britain and its allies towards the end.The paper concentratedon David Ben-Gurion’s ideas and arguments on how to Jewishization of Palestine before theproclamation of the Israeli State.
The cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea on cultured human lymphocytes
Ero?lu, Halil Erhan;
Brazilian Archives of Biology and Technology , 2011, DOI: 10.1590/S1516-89132011000600011
Abstract: in this study, the cytogenetic effects of black tea and green tea were determined in cultured peripheral blood lymphocytes. results showed that black tea and green tea induced the mitotic and replication indexes and decreased micronuclei. but these data were not statistically significant for green tea. the effects of black tea on the micronucleus formation and mitotic index were statistically significant. the decrease in micronucleus counts indicated that black tea and green tea had considerable anticlastogenic and antigenotoxic effects as observed in vitro in human lymphocytes. thus, it could be concluded that tea polyphenols protected the normal cells from genotoxic or carcinogenic agents, which indicated the therapeutic and antioxidative role of catechins, flavonoids or other tea compounds.
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