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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 4518 matches for " Hajime Sato "
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Newspaper Reports on BSE around the Time of the Japan-US Trade Conflicts: Content Analysis of Japanese and US Dailies from 2002 to 2006  [PDF]
Hajime Sato, Rose G. Rose G. Campbell
Advances in Journalism and Communication (AJC) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ajc.2014.21003
Abstract: Mass media can affect how people understand and react to particular health risks. Reporting of health risks during the international trade disputes, resulting from the difference in safety regulations, therefore can play a pivotal role in resolving them. This study compared the newspaper reports on BSE-related events in major national dailies between Japan and the US around the period when BSE-infected cattle were discovered in the US and the import of US beef products was banned (between December 2002 and November 2006). During the study period, the number of BSE-related newspaper articles increased in both the US and Japan, but the visibility of the issue was more prominent and persistent in Japan than in the US. Geographically, most of the articles had a domestic focus, but they also reported the news of each trade partner. After the discovery of BSE cattle in the US, articles of commerce and trade issues were dominant in Japan, while the incidence of BSE, agriculture, and trade dominated in the US. Overall, the US-based newspapers carried more advocacy articles than the Japanese ones. In Japan, calls for stronger domestic policy decreased, but those for stronger foreign policy increased slightly. Meanwhile, in the US, calls for a stronger domestic policy increased slightly whereas those for weaker foreign policy dropped-both only temporarily. The major rationale for policy advocacy was the economy and health in both Japan and the US. However, the balance of competing policy objectives and the rational acceptance of BSE risks were argued more in the US papers than in the Japanese ones. In conclusion, during the BSE-related dispute on health and trade, the visibility and faces of the issues in newspapers differed between Japan and the US. Acceptance of BSE-related risks was argued differently, and those differences reflected and affected the public's perception of BSE issues, the related safety policies by the governments, and the configuration of social interests in each country. The differences evident in the media could serve as a vehicle for reappraising the existing policies as well as the possible international harmonization of risk management policies.
Does Galactic Magnetic Field Disturb the Correlation of the Highest Energy Cosmic Rays with their Sources?
Hajime Takami,Katsuhiko Sato
Physics , 2009, DOI: 10.1088/0004-637X/724/2/1456
Abstract: The propagation trajectories of the highest energy cosmic rays (HECRs) are deflected by not only intergalactic magnetic field but also Galactic magnetic field (GMF). These magnetic fields can weaken the positive correlation between the arrival directions of HECRs and the positions of their sources. In order to explore the effect of GMF on the expected correlation, we simulate the arrival distribution of protons with the energy above $6 \times 10^{19}$ eV taking several GMF models into account, and then test the correlation between the protons and their sources assumed in the simulation. The dependence of the correlation signals on GMF models are also investigated. The correlation can be observed by accumulating $\sim 200$ protons in a half hemisphere. Typical angular scale at which the positive signal of the correlation is maximized depends on the spiral component of GMF models. That angular scale is $\sim 5^o$ for bisymmetric spiral (BS) GMF models and $\sim 7^o$ for axisymmetric spiral (AS) GMF models if the number density of HECR sources, $n_s$, is $\sim 10^{-4}$ Mpc$^{-3}$. An additional vertical (dipole) component of GMF affects these angular scale by $0.5^o$ - $1^o$. The difference between the correlation signal for the BS models and that for the AS models is prominent in the northern sky. Significance of the positive correlation depends on source distribution. The probability that the number of simulated HECR events correlating with sources is smaller than the number of random events correlating with the same sources by chance is much less than $10^{-3}$ ($\sim 3\sigma$) in almost all the source distributions with $n_s = 10^{-4}$ Mpc$^{-3}$ under 200 protons detection, but $\sim 10\%$ of source distributions predicts the chance probability more than $10^{-3}$ in the AS GMF model. In addition, we also briefly discuss the effect of GMF for heavy-nuclei dominated composition.
Household and Community Disaster Preparedness in Japanese Provincial City: A Population-Based Household Survey  [PDF]
Jun Tomio, Hajime Sato, Yuji Matsuda, Toshie Koga, Hiroko Mizumura
Advances in Anthropology (AA) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/aa.2014.42010

Household- and community-level preparedness have been re-emphasized after recent major earthquakes and tsunamis in Japan. The paper examines the prevalence and the determinants of disaster preparedness among the residents of a provincial city in Japan at both levels. Furthermore, it seeks to uncover the associations between household- and community-level preparedness activities to test the hypothesis that a complementary relationship exists between them. We used a subset of a population-based household questionnaire survey of 4000 randomly sampled households in Komoro City in the Nagano Prefecture of Japan in February and March of 2011. The questionnaire included specific questions to measure disaster the preparedness status at both the household and community levels. The characteristics and associations of household- and community-level preparedness were analyzed with multivariable logistic regression models. We found insufficient disaster preparedness at both household and community levels. Older, female, and better educated household heads were associated with better household preparedness, while length at residence, non-single status, presence of an elderly household member, and farming occupations were associated with better community preparedness. Households with one or more household-level preparedness measures were more likely to receive community assistance than those lacking them. The relationship between household and community preparedness was not complementary. Hence, a large proportion of the households were unprepared at both the community and household levels.

Termination of the leprosy isolation policy in the US and Japan : Science, policy changes, and the garbage can model
Hajime Sato, Janet E Frantz
BMC International Health and Human Rights , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-698x-5-3
Abstract: Examination of historical materials, supplemented by personal interviews. The role that science played in the process of policy making was scrutinized with particular reference to the Garbage Can model.From the vantage of history, science remained instrumental in all period in the sense that it was not the primary objective for which policy change was discussed or intended, nor was it the principal driving force for policy change. When the argument arose, scientific arguments were employed to justify the patient isolation policy. However, in the early post-WWII period, issues were foregrounded and agendas were set as the inadvertent result of administrative reforms. Subsequently, scientific developments were more or less ignored due to concern about adverse policy outcomes. Finally, in the 1980s and 1990s, scientific arguments were used instrumentally to argue against isolation and for the termination of residential care.Contrary to public expectations, health policy is not always rational and scientifically justified. In the process of policy making, the role of science can be limited and instrumental. Policy change may require the opening of policy windows, as a result of convergence of the problem, policy, and political streams, by effective exercise of leadership. Scientists and policymakers should be attentive enough to the political context of policies.Leprosy, or Hansen's disease (HD), is a chronic infectious disease caused by Mycobacterium leprae[1]. The disease has been known since ancient times: The origin of the word leprosy dates back to Greek and Latin[2]. Over a long time period, the disease can be disfiguring, and societies have stigmatized victims of the disease. This attribute is deeply discrediting since the stigmatized individual is disqualified from full social acceptance. Leprosy was thus dreaded, not because it killed, but because it left one alive with no hope[3,4]. After Armauer Hansen's discovery of the bacteria in 1873, the disease became f
Public appraisal of government efforts and participation intent in medico-ethical policymaking in Japan: a large scale national survey concerning brain death and organ transplant
Hajime Sato, Akira Akabayashi, Ichiro Kai
BMC Medical Ethics , 2005, DOI: 10.1186/1472-6939-6-1
Abstract: Using the data from a large-scale national opinion survey, this study evaluates public appraisal of past government efforts to legalize organ transplant from brain-dead bodies in Japan, and examines the public's intent to participate in future policy.A relatively large percentage of people became aware of the issue when government actions were initiated, and many increasingly formed their own opinions on the policy in question. However, a significant number (43.3%) remained unaware of any legislative efforts, and only 26.3% of those who were aware provided positive appraisals of the policymaking process. Furthermore, a majority of respondents (61.8%) indicated unwillingness to participate in future policy discussions of bioethical issues. Multivariate analysis revealed the following factors are associated with positive appraisals of policy development: greater age; earlier opinion formation; and familiarity with donor cards. Factors associated with likelihood of future participation in policy discussion include younger age, earlier attention to the issue, and knowledge of past government efforts. Those unwilling to participate cited as their reasons that experts are more knowledgeable and that the issues are too complex.Results of an opinion survey in Japan were presented, and a set of factors statistically associated with them were discussed. Further efforts to improve policy making process on bioethical issues are desirable.In Japan, it was not until 1997 that a law was finally enacted to legalize organ transplant from a brain-dead body. Since 1968, when the first heart transplantation from a person declared brain dead was performed, there have been long-standing struggles in Japan for and against this procedure. In addition to many non-governmental institutions and individuals, the Japanese government – both the legislature and administrative bodies – engaged in a variety of efforts for this enactment. A number of factors have been suggested for the prolonged lac
Systematic Survey of the Correlation between Northern HECR Events and SDSS Galaxies
Hajime Takami,Takahiro Nishimichi,Katsuhiko Sato
Physics , 2009,
Abstract: We investigated the spatial correlation between the arrival directions of the highest energy cosmic rays (HECRs) detected by the Akeno Giant Air Shower Array (AGASA) with energies above $4 \times 10^{19}$ eV and the positions of galaxies observed by the Sloan Digital Sky Survey (SDSS) within $z = 0.024$. We systematically tested the dependence of the correlation on the redshift ranges and properties of the galaxies, i.e., absolute luminosity, color, and morphology, to understand where HECR sources are and what objects are HECR sources. In the systematic survey, we found potential signals of the positive correlation at small angular scale ($<10^{\circ}$) with the (non-penalized) chance probability less than 5% in intermediate redshift ranges. Then, we estimated penalized probabilities to compensate the trial effects of angular scan, and found that the strongest correlation is produced by early-type galaxies in $0.012 \leq z < 0.018$ at 90% C.L. The possible origin of HECRs which correlating galaxies imply is also discussed.
International Comparison of Data from International Clinical Trials Registry Platform-Registered Clinical Trials  [PDF]
Hitoshi Fujii, Keiko Yukawa, Hajime Sato
Health (Health) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/health.2016.815169
Abstract: Objectives: Our aim was to clarify the study characteristics of countries that have registered clinical trials studies and to calculate the percentage of clinical trials that were registered in each country’s registry, and try to find and evaluate the factors determining that percentage. Design and Methods: The present study is a cross-sectional study using data from clinical trials registered from January 1, 2011, to December 31, 2015. Only countries with more than 2000 registered trials were included for further study. Ten countries met that criterion: United States, Japan, Iran, Australia, New Zealand, China, India, Germany, United Kingdom, and Netherland. The percentage of clinical trials that were registered in each country’s registry was calculated, and the factors determining that percentage were sought and analyzed through an exploratory approach. Results: The chi-squared test of independence indicated that the rate of clinical trial registration significantly differed between countries. From the adjusted standardized residuals, the percentage of clinical trials that were registered in the country of origin was higher in the United States, India, Japan, and Australia/New Zealand than in the European Union and China. Conclusion: The United States requires that informed consent documents for clinical trials contain clinical trial registration numbers from ClinicalTrials.gov, which could be the reason for the extremely high percentage of registered clinical trials (94%). Since the European Union does not have this requirement, clinical trials conducted in the European Union do not have to be registered in the countries in which they are conducted.
Pathophysiological analysis and strategy for stercoral perforation of the colon  [PDF]
Koichi Sato, Hiroshi Maekawa, Mutsumi Sakurada, Hajime Orita, Tomoaki Ito, Yoshihiro Komatsu, Fumiko Hirata, Ryo Wada
Open Journal of Gastroenterology (OJGas) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/ojgas.2012.22010
Abstract: Perpose: In order to establish the pathophysiological features and strategy for stercoral perforation of the colon, we herein analyze a series of stercoral perforation of the colon. Method: Ten patients were diagnosed with stercoral perforation. Clinical features, primary diseases, triggers, causative bacteria in ascites, postoperative complications, pathological features, severity of the disease, and effect of direct hemoperfusion with polymyxin B immobilized fiber (PMX-DHP) were investigated. Results: Nine patients had a long history of serious and chronic constipation and 7 patients had hypertension. Causative bacteria in ascites during the operation were most commonly Escherichia coli. There were a lot of severe postoperative complications such as sepsis, disseminated intravascular coagulation, and acute lung injury. With regard to the microscopic findings of the perforation site, the intestinal wall showed severe nonspecific inflammatory changes, including an increase of mono-nuclear cells in the lamina propria. There were 4 hospital deaths, so the mortality rate was 40%. APACHE- II and SOFA score were high postoperation and 24 hours after the operation. PMX-DHP was performed in 8 cases of severe conditions of stercoral perforation of the colon. Because the catecholamine index improved within 24 hours, four of 8 cases were rescued. Conclusion: Most of the patients with stercoral perforation of the colon had severe postoperative complications. The severity of the disease was extremely high, therefore, early diagnosis based on pathophy-siological features and comprehensive therapies including PMX-DHP were necessary for strategy of treating stercoral perforation of the colon.
Analysis of Predictive Factors for Lymph Node Metastasis in Submucosal Invasive Colorectal Carcinoma  [PDF]
Kiichi Sugimoto, Koichi Sato, Hiroshi Maekawa, Mutsumi Sakurada, Hajime Orita, Tomoaki Ito, Ryo Wada
Surgical Science (SS) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ss.2014.53016
Abstract: Purpose: Submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma (SICC) exhibits lymph node metastasis in about 10% of patients. Therefore, endoscopic resection is insufficient for cases of SICC at risk of lymph node metastasis, and surgical resection accompanied with lymph node dissection is necessary. However, because additional intestinal resection is unnecessary for cases without lymph node metastasis, more rigid criteria are required in order to decrease the incidence of unnecessary further intestinal resection. We retrospectively identified predictive factors for lymph node metastasis in submucosal invasive colorectal carcinoma. Methods: One hundred and two patients who underwent intestinal resection as the first treatment or additional intestinal resection after endoscopic resection at our department between 1999 and 2012 were enrolled in the present study. Clinicopathological factors were analyzed to determine predictive factors related to lymph node metastasis. Results: The multivariate analysis revealing only depth of submucosal invasion (≤2700 μm) was found to be a significant, independent predictive factor of lymph node metastasis (P = 0.04, Odds ratio: 4.18, 95% CI: 1.06 - 16.40). Conclusion: It is considered that the refinement of the criteria in the present study will be very useful, especially in the patients for whom careful judgment is required when considering additional intestinal resection.
Congenital median raphe cysts: Coexistence of cystic lesions and canal-like lesions  [PDF]
Masataka Takahashi, Toshihiko Watanabe, Kaori Sato, Michinobu Ohno, Koji Yamada, Toshiko Takezoe, Yasushi Fuchimoto, Hajime Ohkita, Kentaro Matsuoka, Yutaka Kanamori
Open Journal of Pediatrics (OJPed) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/ojped.2013.33048

Median raphe cyst of the perineum is a rare congenital anomaly and was first reported in 1895. We report a 9-year-old male with median raphe cysts in the perineum which had become swollen and then spontaneously ruptured several times since he was 3 years old. There were two separate lesions; one was a cystic lesion and the other was a canal-like lesion. They were completely excised and the inner layer of the cysts was composed of transitional epithelium.

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