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Enhancing Tourism Industry through Community Participation: A Strategy for Poverty Reduction in Zanzibar, Tanzania  [PDF]
Wakuru Magigi, Haji Ramadhani
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2013, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2013.410127

This study centred on understanding how local communities participate in tourism industry in Bwejuu Village in Zanzibar and the benefit they are getting towards poverty reduction. Specifically, the study identifies tourism industry activities and how local communities participate in improving their livelihoods, find out factors influencing local community participation in tourism sector and lastly, and identify contribution of tourism sector in enhancing local communities’ livelihoods. Interviews, observations, documentary reviews and photograph taking are methods employed to the case. The study result shows that tourist hotels, beach, seaweed, historical building archives, diving and snorkeling, sailing boats, coral reefs and lagoons as well as mangrove swamps are some tourist activities in the settlement. Both men and women involves in the tourist activities. The tourist activities noted contributing to local communities’ livelihoods in terms of employment creation, leisure, income generation, increased government revenues, schooling, health, house construction and household consumption. However, language barriers, inadequate experience of operators, poor education and training, culture, commitment of actors and poverty level are some constraints highlighted. Following these challenges, the study recommends that the government in collaboration with other development partners interested in tourism industry development may opt to ensure capacity building to local communities and tourist operators in Zanzibar, to review the policy and legislations in place as well as to encourage stakeholder involvement in Tourism sectors as prospects for its development. In conclusion, it can be asserted that if tourism developers believe that local communities will be satisfied if they are used as labourers instead of being ownership of tourism activities. Thus, there is an urgent need to enhance participation and involvement of local communities in tourism sector. These communities must be actively

Community Participation in the Decentralized Health and Water Services Delivery in Tanzania  [PDF]
Ramadhani Marijani
Journal of Water Resource and Protection (JWARP) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jwarp.2017.96043
Abstract: This article examined community participation in the delivery of water and primary health care services in the Local Government Authorities (LGAs) in Tanzania. This was the descriptive research study which employed both qualitative and quantitative research designs involving a total of 208 respondents. Where 127 respondents filled in the questionnaires, 51 respondents participated in the in-depth interviews and 30 respondents participated in the Focus Group Discussions (FGDs). The results indicate that decentralization reforms have facilitated the formation of health and water services governance structures that facilitate community participation in the service delivery. The findings further revealed the means through which community participated in the delivery of services, i.e., from participating in the meetings, project initiation and management, to membership in various statutory services boards and committees.
Public Service Leadership Competency Framework [PSLCF]: Is It a Holy Grail of Service Delivery?  [PDF]
Ramadhani Marijani
Open Journal of Social Sciences (JSS) , 2017, DOI: 10.4236/jss.2017.510015
This paper evaluates Tanzania Public Service Leadership Competency Framework [TPSLCF] so as to establish the extent to which it addresses the core knowledge needs of the government. Based on public administration viewpoint, semantic and linguistic analyses are used to compare the knowledge needs of the government as proposed by the President’s inaugural speech, the national research priorities and the TPSLCF. The findings indicate that to a large extent, the TPSLCF addresses the core knowledge needs of the government and therefore has the potential to improve public service delivery. However, the findings further signify that currently the TPSLCF does not stand as a holy grail of service delivery as there are some critical facets in it which need improvement. It is recommended in this paper that there is a need to review and customize TPSLCF as the way to align it with the current and future needs of the leaders and the governments. The article concludes with implications for future research and practices.
Heat Transfer Optimization in Air Flat Plate Solar Collectors Integrated with Baffles  [PDF]
Ramadhani Bakari
Journal of Power and Energy Engineering (JPEE) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/jpee.2018.61006
Abstract: This paper presents an experimental analysis for comparisons of conventional flat plate solar collectors and collectors integrated with different numbers of baffles. Heat transfer between absorber plate and drying fluid (air) has been one of the major challenges in the design and operations of the indirect solar dryer systems. In this experiment, efficiency of air flat plate solar collector integrated with 2, 3, 4 and 8 baffles was studied and compared with the ordinary collector. The results showed that integrating solar collector with baffles significantly increased the efficiency of the system. It was noted that collector with 2, 3, 4 and 8 baffles had a mean efficiency of 29.2%, 31.3%, 33.1% and 33.7% respectively while with no baffles was 28.9%. The analysis showed that when there were less than four baffles in the collector, heat transfer was dominant over pressure drop and hence high efficiency. However, when the number of baffles exceeded four, the effect associated with an increase in pressure drop highly observed compared to heat transfer coefficient, thus resulted to insignificant increase in efficiency. Therefore, the optimum number of four baffles was commended for the designed model for optimum efficiency.
Analisis Efisiensi, Skala dan Elastisitas Produksi dengan Pendekatan Cobb-Douglas dan Multiple Regression
Yuliastuti Ramadhani
Jurnal Teknologi Informasi , 2011,
Abstract: Generally, productivity is interpreted as relation between input and output, that is the comparison between input and the result or output. The measurement of productivity is one of the major indicator in assessing compete ability in a company. PT Taman Batu Alam is a natural stone company, that in its growth always cope to increases the productivity by doing repairmen in production.The measurement and performance analyze of transform process are done by using multiple regression analysis. This model selection is based on the form that simple and easy to comprehended. Directly it can depict the size measurement of performance that is the index of efficiency and production function in which can show elasticity of input usage that be used to produces the output.From the calculation result, its gotten that proportion input in which having effects to production process is efficiency index for the year of 2007 is 5.57 and for the year of 2008 is 1094,44. Result of return to scale in 2007 increasing and in 2008 decreasing. The usage of input elasticity: for the year of 2007 the usage of raw material is 0.39, the usage of labour is 0.22 and the expense of overhead is 0,42. While for the year of 2008 the usage of raw material is 0.39, the usage of labour is 0.165 and the expense of overhead is 0,237.
Asymptotic Stability of Gaver’s Parallel System Attended by a Cold Standby Unit and a Repairman with Multiple Vacations  [PDF]
Abdukerim Haji
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2015.33C041

We investigate Gaver’s parallel system attended by a cold standby unit and a repairman with multiple vacations. By analysing the spectral distribution of the system operator and taking into account the irreducibility of the semigroup generated by the system operator we prove that the dynamic solution converges strongly to the steady state solution. Thus we obtain asymptotic stability of the dynamic solution of the system.

Tri Ramadhani,Bambang Yunianto
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: Leptospirosis is an acute febrile illness infecting human and animal (zoonotic) and caused by the bacteria leptospira. Semarang city is one endemic leptospirosis with incidence rate in 2009 of 13,27/100.000 and case fatality rate 3,5%. The research objective was to find out the impact of settlement environment conditional with leptospirosis cases. The study was observational with cross sectional design. Population are the people who visit the health center in Semarang city and sample is a part patient in health center with clinical sympthoms leptosirosis from May up to November 2009. Leptospirosis case maintained with laboratory test uses leptotek lateral flow. Data collection with interview and obsen'ation, analyzing by univariat, bivariat (chi square) and multivariate with regresi logistic metode. Out of 105 responden, 67 (63,8%) leptospirosis positive and 38 (36,2%) negative. Poor housing had a 3,4-fold increase for leptospirosis (OR=3.4; 95% CI=1.050-10.779). Sanitary-conditional to indoor and outdoor is not significant with leptospirosis (p=0,051). Rat eksistensi in house had a 6.4-ford increase for leptospirosis (OR=6.4; 95% CI=2.081-19.983) and there is dominant factor that affect leptospirosis. Poor environmental of settlement increases risk for leptospirosis Key words, environmental, settlement, leptospirosis
Tri Ramadhani,M. Sudomo
Media of Health Research and Development , 2012,
Abstract: The aims of the study were to examine the characteristics of the respondents, knowledge, attitude and practices (KAP) of the community on the transmission, control and prevention of lymphatic filariasis. The study was designed as quasi experimental study with control. Data collections were conducted through interviews by using questionnaires, focus group discussion and observation. A total of 200 respondents were interviewed. One hundred respondents were use as the target of intervention while the other 100 respondents were control. The intervention model was face to face health education with oral communication every month, in three months and distribution of pocket books on filariasis. The results of the study showed that knowledge, attitude and practice of the respondents on the lympahtic filariasis were relatively high. The health education activities which were conducted by face to face oral communication was shown could improve the knowledge, attitude and practice among the respondents. The improvements of the KAP among the respondents in the intervention area was higher (1,0% - 16%) as compared to that in the control area (0,6% - 4,0%) after intervention, especially on the knowledge on lymphatic filariasis life cycle. The coverage of filariasis treatment in intervention area was higher (9,9 %) as compared to the control area (4 %). Keyword: The role of the community,lymphatic filariasis
Le ex-colonie italiane nei racconti orali di Ribka Sibhatu e Kaha Mohamed Aden: I documentari La Quarta via. Mogadiscio, Italia e Aulò. Roma post-coloniale
Kombola Ramadhani Mussa
Enthymema , 2012, DOI: 10.6092/2037-2426/2650
Abstract: La recensione dei due documentari La quarta via: Mogadiscio, Pavia e Aulò: Roma Postcoloniale è finalizzata a metterne in luce il valore testimoniale. Il racconto orale di Kaha Mohamed Aden, originaria della Somalia, e Ribka Sibhatu, originaria dell’Eritrea, due scrittrici da tempo risiedenti in Italia, attraverso la memoria e la condivisione delle loro esperienze personali, permette di recuperare il passato coloniale italiano, mettere in discussione il presente e, in particolare, le questioni relative alla migrazione italiana. I due documentari, inoltre, forniscono interessanti chiavi di lettura per comprendere e prepararci con una nuova consapevolezza critica a quello che verrà.
Processing Malaysian Indigenous Languages: A Focus on Phonology and Grammar  [PDF]
Asmah Haji Omar
Open Journal of Modern Linguistics (OJML) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojml.2014.45063
Abstract: Malaysian indigenous languages are of two entirely different families: Austronesian and Austroasiatic. The former consists of Malay and all the languages of Sabah and Sarawak, while the latter the aboriginal languages found only in Peninsular Malaysia. Except for Malay and a few more in Sabah and Sarawak, most of these languages have not been put into writing. This means that no writing system has been ascribed to them, despite the fact that quite a number have been described in terms of phonology, morphology and syntax. From the descriptions available, one gets a picture of their typologies and systems for processing purposes. Concerning typology, there is not much difference between the two families as far as phonemic inventories go, but there are differences in the phonological structures of the syllable and the word. As for morphology, the Austronesian languages are agglutinative, while the Austroasiatic ones are isolative. There is also a difference in the syntactical status of the word, where the former has the two categories of the full word and the particle, and the latter only the full word. This last mentioned difference leads to a divergence between them in the types of phrase, the clause, and the complex sentence. Natural language processing (NLP) is a methodology which is now being applied in the analysis of various aspects of languages. This paper discusses the constraints faced by most of the Malaysian indigenous languages in the application of this methodology.
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