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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 37539 matches for " HIV infections/prevention and control "
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Avalia??o da resposta humoral à vacina pneumocócica 7-valente em crian?as com Aids
Costa,Isabel de Camargo; Guilardi,Fabiana; Kmiliauskis,Mariana Acenjo; Arslanian,Christina; Baldacci,Evandro Roberto;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2008, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102008005000048
Abstract: objective: invasive pneumococcal disease is a major cause of death in hiv-infected children. the objective of the study was to assess the quantitative antibody response to the seven pneumococcal serotypes of heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine in a group of hiv-infected children. methods: study comprising 40 hiv-infected children aged between 2 and 9 years followed up in a specialized outpatient clinic in s?o paulo, brazil, between 2002 and 2003. enzyme immunoassay (elisa) was used to measure igg antibody titers against pneumococcus capsule. antibodies were measured immediately before and 1 month after the second dose of the vaccine. two response criteria were used: igg titers >1.3 μg/ml in the post-immunization serology and an increase of at least 4-fold in post- compared to pre-immunization serology. results: for the first criterion (>1.3 μg/ml), 26 (65%) children had serological response to the vaccine, 12 (30%) showed post-immunization igg titers of at least 1.3 μg/ml for all seven serotypes studied. for the second criterion studied (>4-fold increase in post- compared to pre-immunization titers for four serotypes or more), serological response was seen in 15 (37.5%) children. conclusions: overall response to the heptavalent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine was adequate, showing a statistically significant increase in the post-immunization geometric mean titers for the seven serotypes studied.
Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in Botswana and India: impact of interventions to prevent transmission
Nagelkerke,Nico J.D.; Jha,Prabhat; Vlas,Sake J. de; Korenromp,Eline L.; Moses,Stephen; Blanchard,James F.; Plummer,Frank A.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862002000200003
Abstract: objective: to describe a dynamic compartmental simulation model for botswana and india, developed to identify the best strategies for preventing spread of hiv/aids. methods: the following interventions were considered: a behavioural intervention focused on female sex workers; a conventional programme for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections; a programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission; an antiretroviral treatment programme for the entire population, based on a single regimen; and an antiretroviral treatment programme for sex workers only, also based on a single regimen. findings: the interventions directed at sex workers as well as those dealing with sexually transmitted infections showed promise for long-term prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) infection, although their relative ranking was uncertain. in india, a sex worker intervention would drive the epidemic to extinction. in botswana none of the interventions alone would achieve this, although the prevalence of hiv would be reduced by almost 50%. mother-to-child transmission programmes could reduce hiv transmission to infants, but would have no impact on the epidemic itself. in the long run, interventions targeting sexual transmission would be even more effective in reducing the number of hiv-infected children than mother-to-child transmission programmes. antiretroviral therapy would prevent transmission in the short term, but eventually its effects would wane because of the development of drug resistance. conclusion: depending on the country and how the antiretroviral therapy was targeted, 25-100% of hiv cases would be drug- resistant after 30 years of use.
Modelling HIV/AIDS epidemics in Botswana and India: impact of interventions to prevent transmission
Nagelkerke Nico J.D.,Jha Prabhat,Vlas Sake J. de,Korenromp Eline L.
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2002,
Abstract: OBJECTIVE: To describe a dynamic compartmental simulation model for Botswana and India, developed to identify the best strategies for preventing spread of HIV/AIDS. METHODS: The following interventions were considered: a behavioural intervention focused on female sex workers; a conventional programme for the treatment of sexually transmitted infections; a programme for the prevention of mother-to-child transmission; an antiretroviral treatment programme for the entire population, based on a single regimen; and an antiretroviral treatment programme for sex workers only, also based on a single regimen. FINDINGS: The interventions directed at sex workers as well as those dealing with sexually transmitted infections showed promise for long-term prevention of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection, although their relative ranking was uncertain. In India, a sex worker intervention would drive the epidemic to extinction. In Botswana none of the interventions alone would achieve this, although the prevalence of HIV would be reduced by almost 50%. Mother-to-child transmission programmes could reduce HIV transmission to infants, but would have no impact on the epidemic itself. In the long run, interventions targeting sexual transmission would be even more effective in reducing the number of HIV-infected children than mother-to-child transmission programmes. Antiretroviral therapy would prevent transmission in the short term, but eventually its effects would wane because of the development of drug resistance. CONCLUSION: Depending on the country and how the antiretroviral therapy was targeted, 25-100% of HIV cases would be drug- resistant after 30 years of use.
A circuncis?o masculina e a transmiss?o heterossexual do HIV
Eyer-Silva,Walter A;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2003, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102003000500022
Abstract: since the early years of the aids epidemic significant geographic differences in hiv prevalence were reported within neighboring countries and neighboring regions within the same country in sub-saharan africa. these differences could not be fully explained by factors such as sexual behavior and condom use. mounting epidemiological data have demonstrated that male circumcision is a major protective factor against male heterosexual hiv infection in sub-saharan africa and probably contributes to these significant differences in hiv prevalence. this is a review of african studies on the association between male circumcision and hiv infection, the origin of circumcision practices in human societies, potential prepuce mechanisms for increasing male vulnerability to heterosexual hiv infection, its association with other infectious and neoplastic diseases, controversies on the convenience of male circumcision as an hiv control strategy in africa, the scarce brazilian literature on male circumcision and perspectives of future research.
An HIV vaccine: how and when?
Esparza,José;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001001200009
Abstract: the best long-term hope for controlling the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (hiv/aids) pandemic is a safe, effective and affordable preventive vaccine, but its development has encountered unprecedented scientific challenges. the first phase i trial of an hiv vaccine was conducted in 1987. subsequently, more than 30 candidate vaccines have been tested in over 60 phase i/ii trials, involving approximately 10 000 healthy volunteers. most of these trials have been conducted in the usa and europe, but several have also been conducted in developing countries. the first phase iii trials began in the usa in 1998 and in thailand in 1999 to assess the efficacy of the first generation of hiv vaccines (based on the hiv envelope protein, gp120); the results will be available within the next 1-2 years. to accelerate the development of an hiv vaccine, additional candidate vaccines must be evaluated in parallel in both industrialized and developing countries. this will require international collaboration and coordination and critical ethical issues will need to be addressed. to ensure that future hiv vaccines contribute to the overall hiv/aids prevention effort, we should begin planning now on how best to use them.
An HIV vaccine: how and when?
Esparza José
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: The best long-term hope for controlling the human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS) pandemic is a safe, effective and affordable preventive vaccine, but its development has encountered unprecedented scientific challenges. The first phase I trial of an HIV vaccine was conducted in 1987. Subsequently, more than 30 candidate vaccines have been tested in over 60 phase I/II trials, involving approximately 10 000 healthy volunteers. Most of these trials have been conducted in the USA and Europe, but several have also been conducted in developing countries. The first phase III trials began in the USA in 1998 and in Thailand in 1999 to assess the efficacy of the first generation of HIV vaccines (based on the HIV envelope protein, gp120); the results will be available within the next 1-2 years. To accelerate the development of an HIV vaccine, additional candidate vaccines must be evaluated in parallel in both industrialized and developing countries. This will require international collaboration and coordination and critical ethical issues will need to be addressed. To ensure that future HIV vaccines contribute to the overall HIV/AIDS prevention effort, we should begin planning now on how best to use them.
Tuberculose e infec??o pelo HIV no Brasil: magnitude do problema e estratégias para o controle
Jamal,Leda Fátima; Moherdaui,Fábio;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2007, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102007000800014
Abstract: the aim of the article was to propose, based on an analysis of the current scenario and of the interaction between tuberculosis and aids, strategies to minimize the epidemiological impact of one disease over the other in brazil. the manner by which health policies aimed at controlling the hiv/aids epidemic is analyzed - such as access to antiretroviral drugs and campaigns for the early detection of hiv infection and for encouraging adherence to treatment - and their impact on the achievement of goals related to controlling tuberculosis. the implementation of measures for preventing the onset of tuberculosis in hiv-infected individuals, early detection of tuberculosis disease, and ensuring treatment adherence, is discussed. it is commented upon the role that brazil may assume in the global effort to develop a therapeutic arsenal and the need for integrated work between the fields of tuberculosis and hiv/aids.
Prostitui??o juvenil feminina e a preven??o da Aids em Ribeir?o Preto, SP
Simon,Cristiane Paulin; Silva,Rosalina Carvalho da; Paiva,Vera;
Revista de Saúde Pública , 2002, DOI: 10.1590/S0034-89102002000500012
Abstract: objective: to investigate perception of aids and to obtain information for developing aids prevention programs targeting female juvenile prostitution. methods: thirteen young women aged 18 to 21 years working as prostitutes in the city of ribeir?o preto, brazil, were interviewed using semi-structured interviews. the questionnaire focused on sociodemographic aspects, hiv-related knowledge, sexual behavior, relations with clients and other sexual partners, and suggestions for sexually transmitted diseases (std) and aids prevention programs. results: though all subjects demonstrated knowledge of safe sex and hiv transmission, this contrasted with their belief that destiny determines who gets infected and their search for affection in their relationships with partners and clients. these contradictions act as possible factors preventing safe sex behavior. conclusions: the strategies of hiv/aids prevention should incorporate the need of allowing room for discussion in order to clarify this group's social imaginary beliefs and concepts about aids. in addition, discussions about the belief in the safety of affective relationships should take place since this encourages unsafe sexual practices. another key issue is how to approach this group and strategies sensitive to their individualities should be applied.
The effectiveness of HIV prevention and the epidemiological context
Grassly,Nicholas C.; Garnett,Geoff P.; Schwartl?nder,Bernhard; Gregson,Simon; Anderson,Roy M.;
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001, DOI: 10.1590/S0042-96862001001200008
Abstract: planning an intervention to prevent infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (hiv) should be guided by local epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions. the socioeconomic setting and existing public service capacity determine whether an intervention can have a significant outcome in terms of a reduction in a defined risk. the epidemiological context determines whether such risk reduction translates into a measurable impact on hiv incidence. measurement of variables describing the epidemiological context can be used to determine the local suitability of interventions, thereby guiding planners and policy-makers in their choice of intervention. such measurements also permit the retrospective analysis of the impact of interventions where hiv incidence was not recorded. the epidemiological context is defined for four different categories of intervention, shown to be effective in lower-income countries by randomized controlled trials. appropriate indicators for the epidemiological context and methodological guidelines for their measurement are proposed. their use in the transfer of a successful intervention from one context to another and in scaling up the effort to control hiv infection is explored. these indicators should provide a useful resource for those involved in planning hiv prevention interventions.
The effectiveness of HIV prevention and the epidemiological context
Grassly Nicholas C.,Garnett Geoff P.,Schwartl?nder Bernhard,Gregson Simon
Bulletin of the World Health Organization , 2001,
Abstract: Planning an intervention to prevent infections with the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) should be guided by local epidemiological and socioeconomic conditions. The socioeconomic setting and existing public service capacity determine whether an intervention can have a significant outcome in terms of a reduction in a defined risk. The epidemiological context determines whether such risk reduction translates into a measurable impact on HIV incidence. Measurement of variables describing the epidemiological context can be used to determine the local suitability of interventions, thereby guiding planners and policy-makers in their choice of intervention. Such measurements also permit the retrospective analysis of the impact of interventions where HIV incidence was not recorded. The epidemiological context is defined for four different categories of intervention, shown to be effective in lower-income countries by randomized controlled trials. Appropriate indicators for the epidemiological context and methodological guidelines for their measurement are proposed. Their use in the transfer of a successful intervention from one context to another and in scaling up the effort to control HIV infection is explored. These indicators should provide a useful resource for those involved in planning HIV prevention interventions.
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