Abstract:
A faunistical study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of ectoparasites of chickens in four areas of Sokoto metropolis, Nigeria, on 160 chickens raised under free-range system. Both the skin and plucked feathers were thoroughly searched for the presence of ectoparasites between July and December 2009. The results indicate that all the chickens (100%) harboured ectoparasites. Five lice, two mites, two tick and one flea species were identified with the following prevalences: the shaft louse, Menopon gallinae (8.1%), the chicken body louse, Menacanthus stramineus (6.9%), then the wing louse, Lipeurus caponis (5.0%), the body and feather louse, Gonoides gigas (4.4%) and finally the fluff louse Gonoicotes gallinae (3.1%). The two tick species were Argas persicus (8.8%) and Ixodid larvae (5.6%). The two mite species were Cnemidocoptes mutans (9.4%) and Cnemidocoptes gallinae (8.1%). The sticktight flea Echidnophaga gallinacea was the only flea species found (10.6%). No association was found between ectoparasitism and sex, breed and fur colour (P > 0.05), however a strong positive association was observed with fur texture (P < 0.05). This study has shown that ectoparasites are highly prevalent on traditionally managed chickens in the study areas. Further detailed study with particular reference to ectoparasitism and assessment of their impact is recommended.

Abstract:
A study was conducted in Kaduna State Nigeria to ascertain the impact of Drug Supply and laboratory services towards effective functioning of DOTS system. Six DOTS providing centres were identified for the study and in each centre, three respondents were selected based on their profession, the Medical Officer, the Pharmacist and the Laboratory Technician totaling 18. The officers were interviewed for the purpose of the research. Semi structured Interviews were conducted in this research as a means of obtaining Health workers perspective. The Interview which was conducted in their respective work station was open ended and all questions are same for all respondents. During the course of the study, all respondents agreed that the sources of drugs supply to their respective centres was the Kaduna State Tuberculosis and leprosy control Program office from the state capital and that drugs are been supplied quarterly and are adequate with slight interruption due to Logistic while for Laboratory services the respondents were of the view that there is the need to improve on it as there are cases of shortage of reagents and erratic supply of Electricity for effective Laboratory functioning.

Mental disorders are generally characterized by abnormal thoughts, perceptions and emotions. These abnormalities may make an informed consent more difficult to obtain from psychiatric patients. The implementation of drug trials is being threatened by the decline in its overall frequency generally, especially in Psychiatry. This foretells a dearth of major breakthroughs in pharmacotherapy for psychiatric patients if they are unwilling to present themselves for drug trials. Insight into patient’s awareness and perception of drug trials will enhance the planning, design and implementation of drug trials among this vulnerable subpopulation. This was a cross-sectional study of one hundred patients attending the follow-up clinic of a tertiary psychiatric hospital. A proforma questionnaire to assess awareness and perception of drug trials was administered to participants. About half (51%) were aware of drug trials and 50% of the participants were not willing to participate in a drug trial. Sixty-five percent considered it highly risky to participate. Females were more likely to be unsure whether informed consent will be needed for drug trials. The married were more likely to be unaware of drug trials in clinical research. The unmarried were more likely to be informed about drug trials through the media. Findings are likely to have been influenced by the socio-cultural environment of this study setting. Drug trials among this population require an approach that will create an initial drug trial disorder—sensitive awareness and a design that will ensure that the consent process will take into cognizance the vulnerability of these patients; especially among females.

Abstract:
We construct a new iterative scheme by hybrid methods and prove strong convergence theorem for approximation of a common fixed point of two countable families of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings which is also a solution to a system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in a uniformly convex real Banach space which is also uniformly smooth using the properties of generalized -projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general -monotone mappings and system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature. 1. Introduction Let be a real Banach space with dual , and let be nonempty, closed and convex subset of . A mapping is called nonexpansive if A point is called a fixed point of if . The set of fixed points of is denoted by . We denote by the normalized duality mapping from to defined by The following properties of are well known (the reader can consult [1–3] for more details). (1)If is uniformly smooth, then is norm-to-norm uniformly continuous on each bounded subset of . (2) , ？ . (3)If is reflexive, then is a mapping from onto .(4)If is smooth, then is single valued. Throughout this paper, we denote by , the functional on defined by From [4], in uniformly convex and uniformly smooth Banach spaces, we have Definition 1.1. Let be a nonempty subset of and let be a countable family of mappings from into . A point is said to be an asymptotic fixed point of if contains a sequence which converges weakly to and . The set of asymptotic fixed points of is denoted by . One says that is countable family of relatively nonexpansive mappings (see, e.g., [5]) if the following conditions are satisfied:(R1) ;(R2) , for all , ？ , ？ ;(R3) . Definition 1.2. A point is said to be a strong asymptotic fixed point of if contains a sequence which converges strongly to and . The set of strong asymptotic fixed points of is denoted by . One says that a mapping is countable family of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings (see, e.g., [5]) if the following conditions are satisfied:(R1) ;(R2) , for all , ？ , ？ ;(R3) . Definition 1.3. Let be a nonempty subset of and let be a mapping from into . A point is said to be an asymptotic fixed point of if contains a sequence which converges weakly to and . The set of asymptotic fixed points of is denoted by . We say that a mapping is relatively nonexpansive (see, e.g., [6–11]) if the following conditions are satisfied:(R1) ;(R2) , for all , ？ ;(R3) . Definition 1.4. A point is said to be an strong asymptotic fixed

Abstract:
We construct a new Halpern type iterative scheme by hybrid methods and prove strong convergence theorem for approximation of a common fixed point of two countable families of weak relatively nonexpansive mappings in a uniformly convex and uniformly smooth real Banach space using the properties of generalized -projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning general -monotone mappings. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature.

Abstract:
We construct a new iterative scheme by hybrid methods and prove strong convergence theorem for approximation of a common fixed point of two countable families of closed relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings which is also a solution to a system of equilibrium problems in a uniformly smooth and strictly convex real Banach space with Kadec-Klee property using the properties of generalized -projection operator. Using this result, we discuss strong convergence theorem concerning variational inequality and convex minimization problems in Banach spaces. Our results extend many known recent results in the literature. 1. Introduction Let be a real Banach space with dual and a nonempty, closed, and convex subset of . A mapping is called nonexpansive if A point is called a fixed point of if . The set of fixed points of is denoted by . We denote by the normalized duality mapping from to defined by The following properties of are well known (the reader can consult [1–3] for more details). (1)If is uniformly smooth, then is norm-to-norm uniformly continuous on each bounded subset of . (2) .(3)If is reflexive, then is a mapping from onto .(4)If is smooth, then is single valued. Throughout this paper, we denote by the functional on defined by It is obvious from (1.3) that Definition 1.1. Let be a nonempty subset of , and let be a mapping from into . A point is said to be an asymptotic fixed point of if contains a sequence which converges weakly to and . The set of asymptotic fixed points of is denoted by . We say that a mapping is relatively nonexpansive (see, e.g., [4–9]) if the following conditions are satisfied:(R1) ,(R2) ,(R3) . If satisfies (R1) and (R2), then is said to be relatively quasi-nonexpansive. It is easy to see that the class of relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings contains the class of relatively nonexpansive mappings. Many authors have studied the methods of approximating the fixed points of relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings (see, e.g., [10–12] and the references cited therein). Clearly, in Hilbert space , relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings and quasi-nonexpansive mappings are the same, for , and this implies that The examples of relatively quasi-nonexpansive mappings are given in [11]. Let be a bifunction of into . The equilibrium problem (see, e.g., [13–25]) is to find such that for all . We will denote the solutions set of (1.6) by . Numerous problems in physics, optimization, and economics reduce to find a solution of problem (1.6). The equilibrium problems include fixed point problems, optimization problems, and variational inequality

Abstract:
We introduce a new iterative scheme by hybrid method for finding a common element of the set of common fixed points of infinite family of nonexpansive mappings, the set of common solutions to a system of generalized mixed equilibrium problems, and the set of solutions to a variational inequality problem in a real Hilbert space. We then prove strong convergence of the scheme to a common element of the three sets. We give some applications of our results. Our results extend important recent results.

Abstract:
For an effective practical management of head injury, a clear knowledge of the various causes and mechanism of head injury is essential. The concept of the brain in a rigid cranial cavity makes the pathophysiological mechanism of head trauma unique. Most problems occur due to poor handling of patients at the site of trauma or lack of adequate resuscitation before radiological investigation at the emergency department. With adequate management of intracranial pressure and nursing of unconscious patient, most patients can be managed without neurosurgical consultation. Timely referral and surgical intervention can prevent the catastrophic effects of rapidly expanding intracranial haematoma. This paper discusses practical management head injury management and highlighted some pit falls in management.

Abstract:
Some of the most promising post-Cold War developments in Marxian thought have been stimulated by problems facing Marxists in Western Europe, to that extent they all seem to lay bare, intentionally or otherwise, the lacking of qualities, of Marx’s prediction. The most significant example of the failure of Marxist theory to be realised in practice is the persistent survival of the capitalist mode of production. The inevitable crisis foreseen by Marx, which would lead to revolution, failed to materialise and that claim is now itself historical, since capitalism has become the norm for social organisation in most of the world’s nations. By asking the question how capitalism can persist amid crisis, Gramsci, provided the most promising way of revision to the stunted Marxian orthodoxy. Today for us is important to ask whether Marxist analysis of neoliberal global strategy or globalisation and fragmentation invite reconsideration of the tendency on the part of many international relations scholarships to ignore and simply dismiss Marxism. It is also important to consider whether the significance of Marxist project of developing a critical approach to international politics, is but one way in which Marxism progressed beyond the traditional Anglo-American scholarship to IR.