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Search Results: 1 - 10 of 497604 matches for " H. M. Osman "
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Assessment of Using Cosmetics Containing Hydroquinone among Sudanese Women  [PDF]
H. M. Osman, M. E. Shayoub, Munzir M. E. Ahmed, E. M. Babiker
Journal of Cosmetics, Dermatological Sciences and Applications (JCDSA) , 2015, DOI: 10.4236/jcdsa.2015.52009
Abstract: Many countries in the world wide banned hydroquinone in cosmetics skin lightening but it is still used in most of Africa countries, including Sudan. Few studies were carried out on the side effect of hydroquinone on Sudanese women. Therefore, the present study was carried out in Khartoum state in April to May/2014 to assess the awareness of Sudanese women about using hydroquinone and its probable risks. The results revealed that, highly using cosmetics containing hydroquinone by women aged between 20 - 29 years (78.3%) as well as by those classified as single (69.6%). The results also showed that the highest percentage of women was using it during evening (81.2%) and a high percentage of them was using it for skin lightening (65.2%), followed by elimination acne (20.3%) and about 10.1% for both skin lightening and elimination of acne and very little (4.3%) for freckle elimination. Moreover, the results showed a very high percentage of women (94.2%) used the chemical without being prescribed by doctors and about (85.5%) of them didn’t know its nature and risks on human health. Consequently, (50.7%) of women have had sides effects, (44.9 %) used more than one and (44.1%) used it regularly. In addition, the results revealed that a wide range of products of this chemical was available in local market with amalico (34.8%) being highly used. The study can conclude that the awareness of Sudanese women about this compound was poor and needs to be raised by health authorities.
Effect of Tubular Chiralities and Diameters of Single Carbon Nanotubes on Gas Sensing Behavior: A DFT Analysis  [PDF]
A. A. EL-Barbary, Kh. M. Eid, M. A. Kamel, H. M. Osman, G. H. G. H. Ismail
Journal of Surface Engineered Materials and Advanced Technology (JSEMAT) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jsemat.2014.42010
Abstract:

Using density functional theory, the adsorption of CO, CO2, NO and CO2 gas molecules on different chiralities and diameters of single carbon nanotubes is investigated in terms of energetic, electronic properties and surface reactivity. We found that the adsorption of CO and CO2 gas molecules is dependent on the chiralities and diameters of CNTs and it is vice versa for NO and NO2 gas molecules. Also, the electronic character of CNTs is not affected by the adsorption of CO and CO2 gas molecules while it is strongly affected by NO and NO2 gas molecules. In addition, it is found that the dipole moments of zig-zag CNTs are always higher than the arm-chair CNTs. Therefore, we conclude that the zig-zag carbon nanotubes are more preferred as gas sensors than the arm-chair carbon nanotubes, especially for detecting NO and NO2 gas molecules.

The Sensitivity of Computerized Tomography in Diagnosis of Brain Astrocytomas  [PDF]
E. Abd Elrahim, A. Elzaki, Ali Hassan, A. M. Abd Elgyoum, H. Osman
Open Journal of Radiology (OJRad) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/ojrad.2014.44040
Abstract: Astrocytomas are tumors that arise from astrocytes—star-shaped cells that make up the “glue-like” or supportive tissue of the brain. Astrocytomas can appear in various parts of the brain and nervous system, including the cerebellum, the cerebrum, the central areas of the brain, the brainstem and the spinal cord. The main objective of this study was to detect the sensitivity of the CT scan in diagnosis of the brain astrocytoma, in patients who were confirmed as brain gliomas using computerized tomography of the brain versus brain tissue biopsy after surgery. One hundred and one patients were included in this study. Bio-data collected for these patients (age, gender), radiographic appearance, contrast enhancement and the site of the tumor, were statistically analyzed. Out of the 101 patients with brain gliomas, 52 (51.5%) were male whose ages ranged between 1 and 80 years, and 64 (63.4%) cases were diagnosed as astrocytoma by CT. This study concluded that the CT brain was sensitive in the diagnosis of brain astrocytomas.
Effect of Pesticide Residues (Sevin) on Carrot (Daucus carota L.) and Free Nitrogen Fixers (Azotobacter spp)  [PDF]
Mohammed M. A. Elbashier, Xiaohou Shao, Alnail Mohmmed, Albashir A. S. Ali, Bashir H. Osman
Agricultural Sciences (AS) , 2016, DOI: 10.4236/as.2016.72009
Abstract: Since the pesticides are considered as an essential component for crops production through controlling pests, they have shown a negative effect on crops and soil environment when used intensively. This experiment was conducted at Wadi Soba farm (Sharq Elneel) Khartoum, Sudan. It aimed to study the effect of Sevin residuals on carrot growth and Azotobacter spp. colonies growth. Carrot planted in late February 2013, Sevin pesticide (2.5 L/ha and 5 L/ha) was added to estimate plant height, dry weight, the number of plant leaves and the number of Azotobacter spp. colonies isolated from the carrot rhizosphere (0 - 15 cm). The obtained results showed that the Sevin recommended dose (2.5 L/ha) relatively had a positive effect on the plant height, dry weight, and the number of plant leaves. The average of plant height for recommended dose was 59.67 cm compared to control (53.67 cm) and high dose (27.33 cm). The average of plant dry weight obtained by the recommended dose was 503.33 g and for control was 476.67 g and for high dose was 166.7 g, it decreased 67% from control and recommended dose. The average of plant leaves number were 25.34, 13.66 and 21.33 for recommended dose, high dose and control respectively, the number of leaves increased about 16% by recommended dose and decreased 35% by high dose. The average of Azotobacter spp. colonies obtained by high dose of Sevin demonstrated a lower numbers which were 20 × 104, 5.67 × 106 and 0.33 × 108 compared with control (78.33 × 104, 44 × 106 and 15.33 × 108) and the recommended dose (64 × 104, 33 × 106 and 7 × 108). The high dose of Sevin had a negative effect on both carrot growth and Azotobacter spp. colonies growth.
A State of the Art Review on the Behavior of Reinforced Concrete (RC) Beams under Cyclic Loading  [PDF]
Bashir H. Osman
World Journal of Engineering and Technology (WJET) , 2018, DOI: 10.4236/wjet.2018.64049
Abstract: In the last two decades, the study of reinforced concrete (RC) structures elements such as bridge deck slabs, bridge girders, or offshore installations, which?are?subjected to cyclic action typically induced by seismic motions has received the attention of many researchers.Furthermore, the past two decades have witnessed rapid growth in the use of fiber-reinforced polymer (FRP) confining jackets for the strengthening/retrofit of reinforced concrete (RC) columns and beams. Moreover, several theoretical and empirical modelshave been proposed for evaluating theshear strength of beams, columns and beam-to-column joints. In thispaper, an overview of the models currently available in the scientific literature forevaluating theshear capacity ofbeams, columns andexterior beam-to-column jointsis reported.?Further, important practical issues which contribute inshear strengthening of structures with different element types especially RC beams with different strengthening techniques, such as steel plate and FRP laminate are discussed.Finally,?directions for future research based on the existing gaps of the existing works are presented.
Coccidian Infection of Sheep in Khartoum- Sudan
Abakar. A. D,E. A. Elamin,A. Y. Osman,H. M. Osman
Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances , 2012,
Abstract: Faecal samples from adult sheep and lambs were collected per rectum over one year survey. The number of oocysts per gram (OPG) faeces were determined by the McMaster technique and the identification of oocysts was made on sporulation. Infection was recorded throughtout the year,infecting on avarage 42.9% adult sheep and 74.6.% of lambs. OPG of less than 1000 were found in 45% of adults and 48% of lambs.The over all prevalence of Eimeria oocysts in faecal specimens was 58.8%. The infection pattern varied with system of husbandry, under zero grazing the infection was significantly (P<0.05) higher in both lambs (76%) and adult animals (49%), whereas under free range system the infection rate was significantly (P <0.05) more prevalent in lambs (70%) than in adults (33%). The prevalence of infection did vary with the season of the year and high numbers of both lambs and adults were found infected with the parasites. Eleven species of Eimeria were Identified . Eimeria ovina was the most common species with an over all prevalence of (60%), followed by E. ovinoidalis (47%), E. ahsata (42%), E. crandallis (33%), E. faurei (28.9%), E. parva (27%), E. marsica (12.7%), E. pallida (11%). Other species less prevalent species are E. intricata (9.7%), E. granulosa (7.7%) and E. punctata (0.9%).
A SAD MIGRATION STORY FROM EAST TURKISTAN TO TURKIYE / DO U TüRK STAN’DAN TüRK YE’YE HAZ N B R G H K YES
Osman Kubilay GüL (M.A.H.)
Turkish Studies , 2007,
Abstract: Some of the Uygurs living in East Turkistan had to abandon their homelands in 1961 because of the compulsion of China.This convoy came to Afghanistan first.They were taken under protection by United Nations in there.As a result of compulsions done by China to Afghanistan, they migrated to Turkey.In this essay, giving information about details of migration and the current situation of immigrators was aimed.
Community Eye Health MSc dissertations
Osman L,Cockburn N,Fawad M,Razavi H
Community Eye Health Journal , 2008,
Abstract: The seven Exchange articles that follow are based on the dissertations of students at the International Centre for Eye Health, London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, who graduated in 2008.
Biomarkers in Nile Tilapia Oreochromis niloticus niloticus (Linnaeus, 1758) to Assess the Impacts of River Nile Pollution: Bioaccumulation, Biochemical and Tissues Biomarkers  [PDF]
Alaa G. M. Osman
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2012, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2012.328112
Abstract: The use of biomarkers has become an important tool for modern environmental assessment as they can help to predict pollutants involved in the monitoring program. Here I present data on bioaccumulation, biochemical and tissues biomarkers in Nile tilapia as early warning indicators of river Nile pollution. Nile tilapia sampled from downstream sites accumulated higher levels of all the detected heavy metals than those collected from upstream sites. Heavy metal residues in the tissues of Nile tilapia exhibited different patterns of accumulation and distribution among the selected tissues. Remarkable alterations in the activities of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) in the tissues of Nile tilapia were detected. These alterations were followed, in the present study, by the occurrence of histological lesions in liver and gill tissues of fish collected from the same sites. Alterations in bioaccumulation patterns, in enzyme activities and in histology go in parallel with the elevation in the levels of water chemical parameters detected in the downstream sites as a result of pollution stress in these areas. These results provide evidence that bioaccumulation, biochemical and tissues biomarkers can be sensitive indicators of exposure to mixed pollutants in surface waters.
Genotoxicity Tests and Their Contributions in Aquatic Environmental Research  [PDF]
Alaa G. M. Osman
Journal of Environmental Protection (JEP) , 2014, DOI: 10.4236/jep.2014.514132
Abstract:

As many chemicals with genotoxic potential are emitted to surface water, genotoxicity tests are gaining importance which led to the development of several techniques to detect directly DNA damage. The relevance of detecting the genotoxic risks associated with water pollution was firstly perceived in the late 1970s. Since that time several tests have been developed for evaluating DNA alterations in aquatic animals. These tests rely on the premise that any changes to DNA may have long-lasting and profound consequences. Sister chromatid test, chromosome aberrations, comet assay, and micronucleus test are currently the most widely employed methods to detect DNA lesions in ecotoxicology. Chromosomal aberration and sister chromatid exchanges are time consuming, resource intensive and require proliferating cell population. Hence, Comet assay and Micronucleus test as cost effective and more sensitive test systems have now been introduced for assessing the genotoxicity of chemicals. This review presents a synthesis of the state of the art in the methodologies of comet assay and micronucleus test and their contributions in aquatic environmental research. The text explores the latest knowledge and thinking on these very important approaches for the assessment of environmental health, management, and conservation. The primary concern of the present review is the measurement of genotoxic potential in aquatic organisms under field and laboratory conditions, where effects of chemicals at different levels of biological organization can be examined.

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