Abstract:
Botulism is caused by a neurotoxin produced by Clostridium botulinum, a gram-positive, spore-forming anaerobe. Botulinum toxin is an exotoxin produced during the growth and autolysis phase of the organism under anaerobic conditions [12,14]. Eight known botulinum toxins, A, B, Ca, Cb, D, E, F and G, have been identified. Disease in cattle is produced primarily by types C and D. Clostridium botulinum types C and D produce potent toxins in carrion, feed contaminated with dead rodents, birds or reptiles, or any rotting material [12,14,1]. This study is the first confirmation, by direct toxin isolation, of Clostridium botulinum type C and Clostridium botulinum type D in cattle, in Turkey.The study was conducted on a Holstein Friesian breeding farm near the town of Bandirma in Balikesir. The herd consisted of 105 cattle. Clinically, 26 cattle including milking cows were found to be suffering from different degrees of suspected botulism. They ranged in age from four to eight years and had been ill for between two and eight days. A routine clinical examination of the animals, including body temperature, pulse, respiratory rates and ruminal movements, was performed. The neurological examination included an assessment of each affected animal's mental status, gait, pupillary light reflexes, anal reflexes, tongue reflexes, swallowing reflexes, tail tone and sensitivity to pricking with a needle. In the detailed history, the owner reported that the milking cows' feed, in addition to grain, haylage and silage, included ensiled poultry litter. It was reported that dry cows, heifers and calves were unaffected. These animals were fed different rations, without poultry litter. Routine haematological values, including haematocrit, haemoglobin, erythrocyte, total white cell and platelet counts, were determined by a haemocell counter (Cell Dyn 3500; Abbott Inc., USA). The concentrations of serum urea, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase (AST), creatinine kinase (CK) and, potassium (K

Abstract:
Mefenamic acid (MA) is a high-dose, anti-inflammatory, analgesic agent that is widely prescribed for pain related to menstrual disorders. It has some negative properties, such as a high hydrophobicity with a propensity to stick to surfaces, and possess great problems during granulation and tableting. Crystallization kinetics was investigated for mefenamic acid. Availability of data on the kinetics of crystal growth is very important for the development and operation of industrial crystallisation processes. The experiments for the measurement of crystal growth kinetics were carried out using the desupersaturation curve technique based on the measurement of the solution concentration versus time in a seeded isothermal batch experiment. To predict the optimum parameters (b, k_{b}, g, k_{g}) for the nucleation and growth kinetics from the desupersaturation curve obtained, the Population Balance Modelling was used and solved by the method of moments. The initial values for the optimisation problem were estimated by using the approach developed by Garside et al. (1982) [1].

Abstract:
Objectives: Tuboovarian abscess (TOA) is a serious andpotentially life-threatening condition. Treatment modalitiesvary as broad spectrum of antibiotherapy, minimallyinvasivedrainage procedures, invasive surgery or combinationsof these interventions. The objective of this studywas to evaluate surgically treated patients for TOA.Materials and methods: The medical records of 57 caseswho had surgically treated for TOA at Bakirkoy Dr. SadiKonuk Education and Research Hospital, Department ofObstetrics and Gynecology from January 2007 to September2012 were evaluated retrospectively.Results: The average age was 37.2 years and the meangravidity and parity were 2.9 and 2.1, respectively. Themost common presenting symptom was abdominal pain47.4% (n=27). Twenty eight (49.1%) of the patients hadlaparotomy and twenty nine (50.9%) of the patients hadlaparoscopic surgery. 6 patients had a ruptured TOA and17.9% of the patients had complications.Conclusions: The choice of an open or laparoscopic surgicalapproach should be largely based on operator skill,experience, and ability to perform the necessary surgicalmaneuvers. J Clin Exp Invest 2012; 3(4): 463-466Key words: Complication, laparoscopy, surgery, tuboovarianabscess

Abstract:
Delta hepatitis or hepatitis D leads to acute and chronic liver disease in humans. The causative agent, the hepatitis delta virus (HDV), is a defective virus which leads to hepatitis in humans in the presence of the hepatitis B virus. This helper function of HBV is required for transmission and propagation of HDV infection but not for replication. HDV RNA replication occurs through the double-rolling circle model and does not possess a reverse transcription step. Hepatitis D-induced liver disease is immune-mediated and occurs either as co-infection of both viruses or as superinfection of a hepatitis B carrier with hepatitis D. Based on a sequence variation of 19-38%, to date seven genotypes of HDV have been described. HDV infection has declined significantly in many endemic areas in the last decades, however, due to migration to industrialized countries, this decline appears to have reached a plateau in western countries. The clinical course of delta hepatitis in general is associated with rapid progression. Delta hepatitis may be an additional risk factor for the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. The only established management for delta hepatitis consists of treatment with interferon for a period of at least one year. For those unresponsive to interferon treatment and patients with advanced disease new therapies are an urgent need. Such therapies may be on the horizon but translation of bench work to clinical practice is required.

Abstract:
The Weierstrassian $\wp, \zeta$ and $\sigma $ functions are generalized to ${\bf R}^{n}$. The $n=3$ and $n=4$ cases have already been used in gravitational and Yang-Mills instanton solutions which may be interpreted as explicit realizations of spacetime foam and the monopole condensate, respectively. The new functions satisfy higher dimensional versions of the periodicity properties and Legendre's relations obeyed by their familiar complex counterparts. For $n=4$, the construction reproduces functions found earlier by Fueter using quaternionic methods. Integrating over lattice points along all directions but two, one recovers the original Weierstrassian elliptic functions.

Abstract:
Many of the most familiar features of our everyday environment, and some of our basic notions about it, stem from Relativistic Quantum Field Theory (RQFT). We argue in particular that the origin of common names, verbs, adjectives such as full and empty, the concepts of identity, similarity, Plato's Universals, natural numbers, and existence versus non-existence can be traced to the space-time and gauge symmetries and quantum properties embodied in RQFT. These basic tools of human thought cannot arise in a universe strictly described by classical Physics based on Planck's constant being exactly equal to zero.

Abstract:
We discuss the possible relevance of some recent mathematical results and techniques on four-manifolds to physics. We first suggest that the existence of uncountably many R^4's with non-equivalent smooth structures, a mathematical phenomenon unique to four dimensions, may be responsible for the observed four-dimensionality of spacetime. We then point out the remarkable fact that self-dual gauge fields and Weyl spinors can live on a manifold of Euclidean signature without affecting the metric. As a specific example, we consider solutions of the Seiberg-Witten Monopole Equations in which the U(1) fields are covariantly constant, the monopole Weyl spinor has only a single constant component, and the 4-manifold M_4 is a product of two Riemann surfaces Sigma_{p_1} and Sigma_{p_2}. There are p_{1}-1(p_{2}-1) magnetic(electric) vortices on \Sigma_{p_1}(\Sigma_{p_2}), with p_1 + p_2 \geq 2 (p_1=p_2= 1 being excluded). When the two genuses are equal, the electromagnetic fields are self-dual and one obtains the Einstein space \Sigma_p x \Sigma_p, the monopole condensate serving as the cosmological constant.

Abstract:
We present unique solutions of the Seiberg-Witten Monopole Equations in which the U(1) curvature is covariantly constant, the monopole Weyl spinor consists of a single constant component, and the 4-manifold is a product of two Riemann surfaces of genuses p_1 and p_2. There are p_1 -1 magnetic vortices on one surface and p_2 - 1 electric ones on the other, with p_1 + p_2 \geq 2 p_1 = p_2= 1 being excluded). When p_1 = p_2, the electromagnetic fields are self-dual and one also has a solution of the coupled euclidean Einstein-Maxwell-Dirac equations, with the monopole condensate serving as cosmological constant. The metric is decomposable and the electromagnetic fields are covariantly constant as in the Bertotti-Robinson solution. The Einstein metric can also be derived from a K\"{a}hler potential satisfying the Monge-Amp\`{e}re equations.

Abstract:
In this study we discuss the shapes and statistics of the rogue (freak) waves emerging due to wave-current interactions. With this purpose, we use a simple governing equation which is a nonlinear Schrodinger equation (NLSE) extended by R. Smith (1976). This extended NLSE accounts for the effects of current gradient on the nonlinear dynamics of the ocean surface near blocking point. Using a split-step scheme we show that the extended NLSE of Smith is unstable against random chaotic perturbation in the current profile. Therefore the monochromatic wave field with unit amplitude turns into a chaotic sea state with many peaks. By comparing the numerical and analytical results, we show that rogue waves due to perturbations in the current profile are in the form of rational rogue wave solutions of the NLSE. We also discuss the effects of magnitude of the chaotic current profile perturbations on the statistics of the rogue wave generation at the ocean surface. The extension term in Smith's extended NLSE causes phase shifts and it does not change the total energy level of the wave field. Using the methodology adopted in this work, the dynamics of rogue wave occurrence on the ocean surface due to blocking effect of currents can be studied. This enhances the safety of the offshore operations and ocean travel.